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Full text of "The works of Horace, with English notes, critical and explanatory"

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IfLf 2iA C! £ . 



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HARPBR fc BROTHERS, 8S CL1 FF-6T RB BT 



184 6. 



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THE 



WORKS OF HORACE, 



ENGLISH NOTES, 

CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY, 

BY 

CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., 
m-norcMo* or the auii abb latin labouadbi in Columbia collsob* 

BEW-TOU, ABB BBCTOB OF TBB O RAM HAK* SCHOOL. 



A NEW EDITION, 

WITH 

CORRECTIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS. 



NEW-YORK: 

HARPER k. BROTHERS, 8S CL1FF8TREET 
184 6. 



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8 IS 
1346 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by 
Harper Ac Bsothbis, 

to the Clerk's Office of th*» Southern District of New-York 



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TO 



.XT OLD AND VALUED FRIEND, 

JAMES CAMPBELL, ESQ. 

WHO, AMID THE GRAVER DUTIES Of A JUDICIAL STATION, 
CAN STILL FIND LEISURE TO OB ATI FY A PUBE AND 
CULTIVATED TASTE, BT BEY1Y1NO THE 
STUDIES OF EABL1EE TEAE8. 



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PREFACE. 



The very favourable reception which the present work 
has enjoyed, both in Europe and our own country, has in- 
duced the editor to put it forth again in a neater and still more 
convenient form. The design, therefore, originally enter- 
tained, of republishing the larger Horace, is now abandoned, 
and the present volume is to supply its place for the time to 
come. The object of this abridgment is, as was stated on its 
first appearance, to supply the student with a text-book of 
convenient size, and one that may contain, at the same time, 
a commentary sufficiently ample for all his wants. The ed- 
itor hopes, from the rapid sale of the previous editions, that 
this desirable result has been successfully accomplished; 
and he returns his thanks to those instructers, who have not 
allowed themselves to be trammelled by sectional feelings 
and prejudices, but have adopted his work in their respect- 
ive institutions, although it does not emanate from what 
some are pleased to consider as the hearth of American 
scholarship. 

It may seem strange to talk of sectional prejudices in mat- 
ters of education and classical learning; yet the fact cannot 
be disguised, that they not only exist, but exercise also a very 
baneful influence among us ; and we may well despair of 
seeing the scholarship of our common country attain to any 
degree of eminence, while these miserable prejudices are al- 
lowed to continue. The editor speaks thus plainly on this 
subject, as he himself has experienced, more, perhaps, than 
any other individual, the effects which such feelings are but 
too well calculated to produce. He has been charged with 
overloading the authors, whom he has from time to time ed- 
ited, with cumbersome commentaries ; he has been accused 
of making the path of classical learning too easy for the stu- 



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n PREFACE. 

dent, and of imparting light -where the individual should have 
been allowed to kindle his own torch and to find his own way. 
What made these charges the more amusing was, that while 
they were gravely uttered on this side of the Atlantic, the ' 
editor's labours were deemed worthy of being republished in 
three different quarters on the other side of the ocean. No 
complaint was made in Europe of heavy commentaries, of 
too much aid having been imparted to the young student, or 
of too much light having been thrown upon the meaning of 
the ancient authors ; on the contrary, the editor's labours were 
praised for possessing the very qualities that were deemed 
objectionable by some of his own countrymen. It was 
thought that the classical student required a great deal of 
assistance in his earlier progress, a great deal of light in the 
first steps of his career; and to crown all, the first London 
edition of the Horace was exhausted in less than three 
months, while an edition of Terence, now republishing in 
Boston, was got up by Dr. Hickie, " as nearly as possible," to 
use the language of his own preface, " on the plan of An- 
thonys Horace." 

Now, one of two things : either the youth of Britain, the 
classical students in the land of Bentley and Porson, are very 
badly taught, and, therefore, want all the aid which copious 
commentaries can afford, while our own youth in this respect 
are so highly favoured as to need little, if any, assistance at 
all ; or else they, who are intrusted abroad with the educa- 
tion of the young, are so liberal minded, and so far removed 
from all paltry prejudices, as even to receive a work from a 
foreign land, no matter where that land be situated, provided 
the work in question be found of any utility in the education 
of the young. The editor will not undertake to decide this 
very interesting point, but leaves it for the grave considera- 
tion of his countrymen, merely remarking, that the Sallust, 
Cicero, and Caesar, which are edited on precisely the same 
plan with the Horace, have all been republished in England, 
and that too without any effort on his own part to bring about 
such a result. 

Columbia College, March 15, 18301 

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IilFE OF HORACE* 



ttuiNTUS Horatius Flaccus was born at Venusia, or 
Femisium, a city of Apulia, A. U. C. 689, B. C. 65. His 
lather, a freedman and client of the Gens Horatia, was the 
proprietor of a small farm in the vicinity of that place, from 
which he afterwards removed to Rome, when his son had 
attained the age of nine or ten years, in order to afford him 
the benefit of a liberal education. While the parent was 
discharging, in this great city, the humble duties of an at- 
tendant on public sales, the son was receiving the instruc- 
tions of the ablest preceptors, and enjoying in this respect 
the same advantages as if he had been descended from one 
of the oldest families of the capital. It is to this circum- 
stance that the poet, in one of his productions, beautifully 
alludes ; and it would be difficult to say, which of the two 
was entitled to higher praise, the father who could appropri- 
ate his scanty savings to so noble an end, or the son who 
could make mention of that father's care of his earlier years 
with such manly gratitude and candour. Orbilius Pupillus, 
an eminent grammarian of the day, was the first instructor of 
the young Horace, who read with him (though it would seem 
with no great relish) the most ancient poets of Rome. The 

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VU1 LIVE OF HORACE. 

literature of Greece next claimed his attention ; and it may 
well be imagined that the productions of the bard of Ionia, 
while they would be perused with a higher zest than the 
feebler efforts of a Livius or an Ennius, would also kindle in 
the bosom of the young scholar the first spark of that poetic 
talent, which was destined to prove the ornament and the 
admiration of his country. About the age of twenty-one, 
Horace was sent to Athens to complete his education. Th«j 
Academy here numbered him among its pupils, and he had 
for his fellow-disciples the son of Cicero, Varus, and the 
young Messala. It would appear, however, from the con- 
fessions of his maturer years, that he entertained no very e?- 
rious attachment to any system of philosophical speculation ; 
and though all his writings breathe an Epicurean spirit, and 
he himself sometimes betrays a partiality to that school, still 
he rather seems disposed to ridicule the folly of all sects, than 
to become the strenuous advocate for any one of th em. 
During the time that Horace was residing at Athens many 
and important changes had taken place at home. Caesar 
had been assassinated ; Antony was seeking to erect on the 
ruins of the Dictator's power a still more formidable despo- 
tism ; while Brutus and Cassius, the last hopes of the de- 
clining republic, were come to Athens in order to call to their 
standard the young Romans who were pursuing their stu- 
dies in that celebrated city. Among the number of those, 
whom an attachment to the principles of freedom induced to 
join the republican party, was the future bard of Venusia. 
He continued nearly two years under the command of Bru- 
tus, accompanied him into Macedonia, and, after attaining 
there the rank of military tribune, served in that capacity in 
the fatal conflict of Philippi. Of his disgraceful flight on 
this memorable occasion the poet himself has left us an ac- 
count. He acknowledges, in an ode imitated from Archilo- 
chus, that he threw away his buckler and saved himself by 
a precipitate retreat, a confession which some have regarded 
as the mere effusion of a sportive rruse, while others have 

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un ov hobaob. is 

dignified it with the appellation of history. The truth un- 
questiond^fies between either extreme. There is no ground 
far the supposition that Horace abandoned the conflict before 
the rest of his party ; nor would he as a Roman have ac- 
knowledged his rapid flight, had it not been inevitable and 
shared by his companions. An amnesty having been pro- 
claimed to those who should surrender themselves, we find 
Horace embracing this opportunity of quitting the republi- 
can ranks and returning to his country. At home, however, 
fresh misfortunes awaited him. During the interval of his 
absence, his lather had paid the debt of nature, his scanty 
inheritance was ruined or confiscated, and the political hori- 
zon seemed unpropttious to any hope which the young Ve- 
nusian might have entertained of future advancement. Na- 
turally indolent, and of a character strongly marked by a 
diffidence in his own abilities, it may well be imagined that 
Horace needed some excitement as powerful as this to call 
his latent energies into action. " Poverty," exclaims the bard, 
"drove me to write verses j" and poverty, we may add, prov- 
ed the harbinger of his fame. Among the generous friends 
who fostered his rising talents, and whose approbation en- 
couraged him to persevere in the cultivation of his poetic 
powers, were Virgil and Varus ; by the former of whom he 
was recommended, at the age of twenty-seven, to the notice 
of Maecenas, and at a subsequent period by the latter. The 
account which the poet has left us of his first interview is 
extremely interesting. He appears before his future patron 
abashed and diffident. His previous history is told in a few 
words. The reply of Maecenas is equally brief, and nine 
months are suffered to elapse before any farther notice is ta- 
ken by him of the candidate for his favour. When this pe- 
riod of probation is at an end, during which the poet has de- 
graded his muse by no offering of servile adulation, he is un- 
expectedly summoned into the presence of Maecenas, and 
soon finds himself in the number of his domestic and most inti- 
mate friends. Indeed friendship, in the ordinary acceptation 

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% XJJTB OF HORACE. 

of the term, seems too cold and formal a word to denote that 
warm tone of almost fraternal feeling which subsisted be- 
tween the bard and his generous patron. That the poetical 
abilities of Horace contributed largely towards cementing an 
union so honourable to both cannot be denied. And jet it 
is equally apparent, that even if those abilities had not been 
what they were, still his pleasing manners, his sterling sense, 
his refined and elegant wit, but, above all, his deep and accu- 
rate knowledge of human nature, would of themselves have 
secured to Horace the confidence and affection of his friend. 
After this auspicious change in his fortunes, the horizon of the 
poet, like the glassy surface of his own Bandusian fountain, 
was all serenity and peace. A romantic villa at Tibur, on 
the banks of the Anio, and a secluded farm in the eastern 
extremity of the country of the Sabines, were among the 
favours received at the hands of Maecenas : but the most 
important benefit of all was the friendship and patronage of 
his imperial master. Amid all this prosperity, however, the 
mind of the poet appears never to have deviated from its ac- 
customed equanimity. With the means of possessing an 
ample fortune fully within his reach, with Augustus himself 
for his protector and Maecenas for his friend, too much can- 
not be said in praise of the man who could prefer his hum- 
ble abode on the Esquiline, the summer air of Praeneste, his 
villa at Tibur, or his Sabme farm to all the splendours of af- 
fluence ; and who, in writing to his friend Licinius, could so 
beautifully allude to his own unerring rules of action, which 
had proved to him the surest guides to a happy and content- 
ed life. Perhaps too, the situation of his country may have 
operated in repressing any ambitious feelings in the poet's 
breast. Horace had seen too much of the instability of for 
tune ever to cherish the desire of again appearing among 
her votaries ; and whatever we may think of the courtly 
flattery which he so freely lavished on his powerful master, 
Btill his writings but too plainly show that better feelings 
were not wholly extinguished, that at times he could recall 

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LIM OF HORACE. Xi 

lo remembrance the lost freedom of his country, and think 
and speak like a Roman. That he could decline offers made 
him by the monarch, which, if accepted, would have placed 
him in situations of power and emolument, is evident even 
from a single instance recorded by his biographer. The em- 
peror wished him for his private amanuensis, and wrote to 
Maecenas in relation to him. The offer was declined, on 
the plea of enfeebled health, yet without producing any 
diminution of his accustomed friendship on the part of Au- 
gustus. 

In person Horace was below the ordinary size, and in- 
clining to corpulence. From his own account, however, he 
would seem to have been abstemious in his diet, and to have 
divided the greater part of the day between reading and 
writing, the bath and the tennis-court. He was subject to a 
defhurion of the eyes, as was Virgil to a complaint of asth- 
ma ; and Augustus used to rally the two poets by saying, 
that he sat " between sighs and tears." 

His friend Maecenas died in the beginning of November, 
A. U. C. 746, B. C. 8, and in his last will recommended the 
poet to the protection of Augustus ; but Horace survived 
him only a few weeks ; and so short indeed was the interval 
which elasped between the death of Maecenas and that of 
the bard, and so strongly expressed had been the determina- 
tion of the latter not to be left behind by his best of patrons 
and friends, that many have not hesitated to regard the death 
of Horace as having been hastened by his own voluntary 
act. He died at the age of fifty-seven, and his remains 
were deposited on the Esquiline Hill, near the tomb of Mae- 
cenas. 

The works of Horace consist of four Books of Odes, a 
Book of Epodes, two Books of Satires, and two of Epistles. 
One of the Epistles, that addressed to the Pisos, is common- 
ly known by the title " JDe Arte Poetica," " On the Art of 
Poetry." The character of the poet and his productions is 
thus given by a modern writer, himself a votary of the Mu- 

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zn live or HORACE. 

see. " The writings of Horace have an air of frankness 
and openness about them j a manly simplicity, and a con- 
tempt of affectation or the little pride of a vain and mean 
concealment, which at once take hold on our confidence. 
We can believe the account which he gives of his own cha- 
racter, without scruple or suspicion. That he was fond ot 
pleasure is confessed ; but, generally speaking, he was mo- 
derate and temperate in his pleasures; and his convivial 
hours seem to have been far more mental, and more enlighten- 
ed by social wit and wisdom, than are those of the common 
herd of Epicurean poets. Of his amorous propensities, with 
the contamination of his times clinging about them, we may, 
out of respect to his good qualities, be silent. For let it 
never be forgotten, that Horace forms an honourable excep- 
tion to the class of voluptuaries, and that he has left us 
much that is praise-worthy and valuable to redeem his er 
rors." 

" Horace, of all the writers of antiquity, most abounds 
with that practical good sense, and familiar observation of 
life and manners which render an author, in a more empha- 
tic sense, the reader's companion. Good sense, in fact, seems 
the most distinguished feature of his Satires ; for his wit 
seems to me rather forced ; and it is their tone of sound un- 
derstanding, added to their easy, conversational air, and a cer- 
tain turn for fine raillery, that forms the secret by which 
they please. His metre is even studiously careless : he ex- 
pressly disclaims the fabrication of polished verse, and speaks 
of his * Pedestrian Muse.' Swift is a far better copyist of 
his manner than Pope, who should have imitated Juvenal. 
But the lyric poetry of Horace displays an entire command 
of all the graces and powers of metre. Elegance and just- 
ness of thought, and felicity of expression, rather than sub- 
limity, seem to be its general character, though the poet 
sometimes rises to considerable grandeur of sentiment and 
imagery In variety and versatility his lyric genius is un- 
rivalled by that of any poet with whom we are acquainted ; 

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Lira or HORAGB. xfil 

and there are no marks of inequality, or of inferiority to 
himself. Whether his Odes be of the moral and philosophi- 
cal kind ; the heroic, the descriptive, or the amatory, the 
fight and the joyous : each separate species would seem to 
be his peculiar province. His epistles evince a knowledge of 
the weaknesses of the human heart, which would do honour 
to a professed philosopher. What ftuintilian, and the mo- 
dems after him, call the " Art of Poetry/' seems to have 
been only the third epistle of the second book, , addressed to 
the Pisoe. The style and manner differ in no respect from 
the former epistles. The observations are equally desultory, 
and we meet with the same strokes of satirical humour j 
which appear unsuitable to a didactic piece. Dr. Hurd, in- 
deed, has discovered the utmost order and connexion in this 
epistle, which he supposes to contain a complete system of 
rules for dramatic composition. But Hurd was a pupil of 
Warburton ; and, together with much of his ingenuity, had 
imbibed also much of the paradox of his master. His com- 
mentary, however, is extremely interesting."* 



• ElWs Specimen* qf the Oamk PoeU, VoL 2. p. 175. 



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METRES OF HORACE. 



1. DACTYLIC HEXAMETER. 

Laudd\bunt tli\l cld\rdm Rhddon \ aut Mity\lentn. 

The structure of this species of verse is sufficiently well 
known ; it consists of six feet, the fifth of which is a dactyl, 
and the sixth a spondee, while each of the other four feet 
may be either a dactyl or spondee. Sometimes, however, in 
a solemn, majestic, or mournful description, or in express- 
ing astonishment, consternation, vastness of size, &c. a spon- 
dee is admitted in the fifth foot, and the line is then denomi- 
nated Spondaic. 

The hexameters of Horace, in his Satires and Epistles, 
are written in so negligent a manner as to lead to the opi- 
nion, that this style of composition was purposely adopted 
by him to suit the nature of his subject. Whether this opi- 
nion be correct or not must be considered elsewhere. It will 
only be requisite here to state, that the peculiar character of 
his hexameter versification will render it unnecessary for us 
to say any thing respecting the doctrine of the caesura! 
pause in this species of verse, which is better explained with 
reference to the rhythm and cadence of Virgil. 

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METEM OW HOBACK. 



2. Dactylic Tetrameter a posterior*.* 

The Tetrameter a posterior*, or Spondaic tetrameter, con- 
nsts of the Jo** four feet of an hexameter ; as, 

C&rtus i\nim pro\mUH A\poHo. 

Sometimes, as in the hexameter, a spondee occupies the 
last place hut one, in which case the preceding foot ought to 
be a dactyl, or the line will be too heavy ; as, 

M6nso\rem coM[oint Ar\ch$UL 

3. Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic 

The Trimeter catalectic is a line consisting of the first 
five halPfeet of an hexameter, or two feet and a half ; as, 

Arb6rf\busquB ctf\tnae. 

Horace uniformly observes this construction, viz. two dactyls 
and a semi-foot Ausonius, however, sometimes makes the 
first foot a spondee, and twice uses a spondee in the second 
place ; but the spondee injures the harmony of the verse. 

4. Adonic. 8 

The Adonic, or Dactylic Dimeter, consists of two feet, a 
dactyl and spondee ; as, 



(1) The expression a patteriore refers to the verse being considered as 
taken from the loiter part of an hexameter line (a poeteriore parte ver- 
nts hexametrf), and is consequently opposed to the dactylic tetrameter a 
prion. This last is taken from the Jlrat part (a priore parte) of an hex- 
ameter, and must always have the last foot a dactyl 

(2) This verse derives its name from the circumstance of its being 
need by the Greeks in the music which accompanied the celebration of 
the festival of Adonis : that part probably which repre s en ted the restora- 
tion of Adonis to life. 



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XVI MRTBKS Or HORAOB. 

Risit A\p6Uo. 

Sappho is said to have written entire poems in this measure, 
now lost. Boethius has a piece of thirty-one Adonic lines 
{lib. 1. metr, 7.), of which the following are a specimen. 

Nubibus atris 
Condita nullum 
Funderc possunt 
Sidera lumen. 
Si mare volvens 
Turbidus ouster 
Misceat aeslwn, $c. 

The measure, however, is too short to he pleasing, unless ac- 
companied by ono of a different kind. Hence an Adonic is 
used in concluding the Sapphic stanza. (No. 10.) In tra- 
gic choruses, it is arbitrarily added to any number of Sap- 
phics, without regard to uniformity. (Vid. Senec. Oedip., 
act I. Troadts, act 4. Here. Fur., act 3. Thyest 9 act 3.) 

5. Iambic Trimeter. 

Iambic verses take their name from the Iambus. 1 which 

' t 

in pure Iambics, was the only foot admitted. They are 
scanned by measures of two feet ; and it was usual, in re- 
citing them, to make a short pause at the end of every se- 
cond foot, with an emphasis (arsis) on its final syllable. 

The Iambic Trimeter (called likewise Senarius, from its 
containing six feet,) consists of three measures (metra). 
The feet which compose it, sir in number, arc properly all 
iambi ; in which case, as above stated, the line is called a 



(1) The term Iambus (JlapAos) is derived, according to some etymolo- 
gist*, from Wm», " to injure," or "attack," on account of its having been 
originally used in satirical composition. Lennep makes it the same with 
Utotf and deduces this last from Uw; the same as ?«, ' to throw at" 



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METRES OF HORACE. . XVII 

pare iambic. The caesural pause most commonly occurs at 
the penthemimeris ; that is, after two feet and a half; as, 

9 

Phdse\lus U\\le quem \ vtde\\tU h5s\pites. (| 

The metres here end respectively where the double lines 
are marked, and the caesural pause takes place at the mid- 
dle of the third foot, after the word iUe. 

The pure Iambic, however, was rarely used. This seems 
tt> have been owing partly to the very great difficulty of pro- 
ducing any considerable number of good verses, and partly 
to the wish of giving to the verse a greater degree of weight 
and dignity. In consequence of this, the spondee was al- 
lowed to take the place of the iambus in the first, third, and 
fifth feet. 1 The admission of the spondee paved the way for 
other innovations. Thus, the double time of one long sylla- 
ble was divided into two single times, or two short syllables. 
Hence, for the iambus, of three times, was substituted a tri- 
brach, in every station except the sixth, because there the 
final syllable being lengthened by the longer pause at the 
termination of the line, a tribrach would, in feet, be equal to 
an anapaest, containing four times instead of three. For the 
spondee, of four times, was substituted a dactyl or an ana- 
paest, and sometimes, in the first station, a proceleusmati- 
cus. 

The scale of the mixed Iambic Trimeter is therefore as 
follows* 

(1) The reason why the Iambus was retained in the even places, tha 
k, the second, fourth, and sixth, appears to have been this : that by pla- 
cing the spondee first, and making the iambus to follow, greater emphasis 
was given to the concluding syllable of each measure, on which the ietue 
and pause took place, than would have been the case had two long sylla- 
bles stood together. Vid. Carey'* Latin Prosody, p. S59, ed. 1819,— 
where other particulars will be found relative to the Trimeter Iambs? 
measure as used by the Latin writers of Tragedy, Comedy, and Fable. 

(9) The scale of the Greek Trimeter Iambic must not be confounded 
2* 

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xyiii 



MBTRB8 OF HORACE. 



1 ,_ 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


— s-/ s-/ 

w s-^ — 

s—» w v-y s*/ 




— v—/ >w 

*-• v_/ — 









As an exemplification of this scale, we shall subjoin some 
of the principal mixed-trimeters of Horace. 



Epod. Line. 
1. 

2. 



27. Pecu*[t>e Cdla\\bris an\U si\\dus fer\vidum. 

23. Lt&e* | jdce\\re } modo \ sub an\\tiqua %\Uce. 

33. Jlut dmi\te le\\vi ra\ra ten\\dit re\tia. * 

Aut a\mite le\\vi ra\ra ten\\dit re\tia. ) ' 

35. Pavidum\ve &pd||rem, it dd\vendm \\ laqueo I gruem 

39. Quod « | pudi || co fr»ufi|e> in || partem \ juvet. 

57. .#«< Ker\ba ldpd\\thi pra\ta amdn\tis, et \ grdvt 

61. Has tn\ter epu\\lds, ut | juvat \\ pastas \ dves. 

65. P6sitoa\que ver\nos, di\tis ex\\dmen | domus. 

67. Hate vh% | Jocu||*twybe|nera||Jor .#J|p/uu*. 

17. JVcc m«|nu> fetime||ro c/]/«co||cw Htr\cuto. 



with this. Poraon (JPraef. ad Hee. 6.) has denied the admissibility of 
the anapaest into the third at fifth place of the Greek Tragic trimeter, 
except in the case of Proper Name* with the anapaest contained in the 
same word. In Latin tragedy, however, it obtained admission into both 
stations, though more rarely into the third. In the fifth station, the Ro- 
man tragedians not only admitted, but seemed to have a strong inclination 
for, this foot Vid. Carey 1 * Latin Protody, p. 256, ed. 1819. 

(1) The quantity of the a in amite depends on that of tne a in levi. 
If we read levi, it is amite, but if levi, amite. This results from the prin- 
ciples of the Trimeter Iambic scale. We cannot say amite fori; with- 
out admitting an anapaest into the second place, which would violate the 
measure ; neither can we read amite levi, without admitting a pyrrhkh 
Into the second place! which is unheard o£ 



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METRES OF HORACE. XIX 

5. 15. Canidi\abrici\\biuhn\pUca\\1af^p&u. 

25. At cx\ptdi\\td Sdgd\nd lP er || totam \ domum. 

49. Quidd*x\it? aiU || quid tacu\it I || rebus \ mtu 

79. Pruw|</idf coe||/uro st\det tn\[feriu8 | mart. 

85. Scd dubi\u$ } un\\de rutn\peret \\ silen\tium. 

91. Q»i», ubi | peri\\rijua\9ui cx\\*ptrd\verd. 

7. 1. Quo, quo | *ceJe»||/?rtif|ft* ? out || cur d&r|tifr»9. 

9. 17. Ad hoc | ( /reme»||<e9 ver\teruni || to miijZe *?uo*. 

10. 7. A»uV||£af J^ttt |io, otia»|/tt« ol\\Gs mon\tibus. 
19. /on? |«« «||ao quum | rw»a||gt«fw | rimU. 1 

11. 23. JNunc, glo\ridn\\(is qudm\libU || mulier\culam. 
27. 562 aft|u* dr\\dor out \ puel\\lae can\didae. 

17. 6. CanidM\a, pdr||c« ro|ct&i« |) tandem | *acrt». 

12. j9/ftt|6tif ai||<ftie cdf»i|6ti« Aomt||cio!am £Zec|/aretn. 
42. Ai/a|mw .H3ej|fUK C«|tor o/||/eiwt4* | vice. 
63. ingra|ia mwc||ro vt\ta du\\cenda est, j m Aoc 
65. Opfa/ | gtfiej|£i!» Pelo\pis in\[fuR \ paler. 
74. Vecta\bor hume\\rts tunc \ ego ini\\micis | iques. 
78. 2>trtp£|r£ Lu\\nam vo\c\bu8 || j>o*«m | m£i*. 

6. Iambic Trimeter Catalectic. 

This is the common Trimeter (No. 5.) wanting the final 
syllable. It consists of five feet, properly all iambi, Mowed 
by a catalectic syllable : as, 

V6ca\tu$ at^quZ non | mord\\tu$ au\dit. 

like the common Trimeter, however, it admits the spon- 
dee into the first and third places ; but not into the fifth, 
which would render the verse too heavy and prosaic. 



(1) Jfrriu*, from the Greek Ife*. Hence the remark of Maltby 
(Morell. Lex. Grate. Pro*, ad. voc.) *JAwtt apud poetat miki nondum 
oecvrrit / nam ad Pind. Nem. 4. 87. rede dedit Heyniut 'Uvio* non me* 
tro tdum jubente, verum etiom hoc Dammit regvla. "iSk" de gente 
Oraeca termo est, temper hoe rumen tcribi) per*: ted side man Ionia, ' 
temper per o juiyfe" 



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XX METRES OF HORACE. 

TrdhwU\que 8tc\\ca$ ma\ch*nae || c&rifoas. 
Mnnul\ld quer\\cu Htnt\caoa\\ta U «i|mo. 

Terentianus Maxima, without any good reason, prefers 
scanning it as follows : 

Trdhunt\que sic\ca8 || mach*[nae ca\tin&$. 

This species of verse is likewise called Archilochian, from 
the poet Archilochus. 

7. Iambic Dimeter. 

The Iambic Dimeter consists of two measures, or four feet, 
properly all iambi ; as, 

Phvn\xU hoc || ia\sonhn. 

It admits, however, the same variations as the trimeter, 
though Horace much more frequently employs a spondee 
than any other foot in the third place. The scale of this 
measure is as follows : 



1 


s 


3 


4 


\s — 


v— ' — 


s-/ — 


s-/ — 


— s-/ v^ 
v-/ s-/ 




— s-s \~s 



This species of verse is also called Archilochian dimeter 
The following lines from the Epodes will illustrate the scale. 

Epod. 2. line 62. Vtde\re prdp^\\rantt$\d6imm t 
3. — 8. Canidlfi trac\\ti*U \ dtipes. 
5.-48. CanM\ar6\\den8pol\Ucm. 



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metres op horace. x3q 

8. Limbic Dimeter Hypermeter, 

This measure, also called Archilochian, is the Iambic Di 
meter (No. 7.) with an additional syllable at the end ; as, 

Ride\git ad \\ veros \ timo\\rls. 

Horace frequently uses this species of verse in conjuiic 
lion with the Alcaic, and always has the third foot a spon 
dee : for the line, which in the common editions runs thus, 

Bisjic\la nan || lev! \ rut \\na\ 

is more correctly read with lent in place of levi. 

9. Acephalous Iambic Dimeter. 

This is the Iambic Dimeter (No. 7.) wanting the first syl- 
lable: as, 

Aon | tbur || neque au\rZvm. 

It may, however, be also regarded a3 a Trochaic Dimetei 
Catalectic, and scanned as follows : 

JVon e\bur ne\\que aure\um ; 

though, if we follow the authority of Terentianus (De Metr. 
738), we must consider the first appellation as the more cor- 
rect one of the two, since he expressly calls it by this name. 

10. Sapphic 

This verse takes its name from the poetess Sappho, who 
invented it, and consists of five feet, viz. a trochee, a spon- 
dee, a dactyl, and two more trochees ; as, 

Dejlu\it sax\t8 agt\iatus | humor. 

Hut in the Greek stanza, Sappho sometimes makes the 



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XXH METRES OF HORACE 

second foot a trochee, in which she is imitated by Catullus ; 
as, 

IlaTAi\6g &|Xo«\o'xs, XiVtfofAou ct. 
Pauca | nunti\aie meaepueUae. 

Horace, however, uniformly has the spondee in the second 
place, which renders the verse much more melodious and 
flowing. The Sapphic stanza, both in Greek and Latin, is 
composed of three Sapphics and one Adonic. (No. 4.) As 
the Adonic sometimes was irregularly subjoined to any in- 
definite number of Sapphics (vid. Remarks on Adonic verse), 
so, on other occasions, the Sapphics were continued in unin- 
terrupted succession, terrninating as they had begun, with- 
out the addition of an Adonic even at the end, as in Boethi 
iw, lib. 2. melr. 6. — Seneca, Troades, act 4. 

The most pleasing verses, are those in which the caesural 
pause occurs at the fifth half-foot ; as, 

inte\ger vt\tae \\ $ceU\rt8qve \ purus 
Jion l|gef Mau\r% || jdcu\tts nee [ arcu 
Nee ve\nena\&8 || grdvi\dd s&lgttlis 
Fusee pha\retru. 

The following lines, on the contrary, in which the pause 
falls differently, are far less melodious. 

Qui sedens adversus, || identidem te. 
Quindecim Diana || preces virorum. 
Liberwn munivit tier || daturuB. 
Rate Jovem sentire, \\ JDeosque cunctos. 

With regard to the caesura of the foot, it is worth notic- 
ing, that in the Greek Sapphics there is no necessity for any 
conjunction of the component feet by caesura, but every foot 
may be terminated by an entire word. This freedom forms 
the characteristic feature of the Greek Sapphic, and is what 
chiefly distinguishes it from* the Latin Sapphic, as exhibited 
by Horace. 

- 



MBTBB8 OF HOBJLCB. ZXU1 

In Sapphics, the division of a word between two lines fre- 
quently occurs ; and, what is remarkable, not compound but 
simple words, separately void of all meaning ; as, 

Labitur rtpa, Jove turn probante, ux» 
orivs amni*. 

This circumstance, together with the fact of such a divi- 
sion taking place only between the third Sapphic and the 
concluding Adonic, 1 has induced an eminent prosodian (Dr. 
Carey) to entertain the opinion, that neither Sappho nor Ca- 
tullus, nor Horace, ever intended the stanza to consist of four 
separate verses, but wrote it as three, viz. two five-foot Sap- 
phics and one of seven feet (including the Adonic) ; the fifth 
foot of the long verse being indiscriminately either a spon- 
dee ox a trochee. 

11. Choriambic Pentameter. 

The Choriambic Pentameter consists of a spondee, three 
choriamhi, and an iambus : as, 

Tu ne ( quaesierU, | actri nejas, \ quern mihi, quern \ fib*. 

12. Altered Choriambic Tetrameter. 

The proper Choriambic Tetrameter consists of three cho- 
riambi and a bacchius (i. e. an iambus and a long syllable) ; 
as, 



(1) The divisions which take place between the other lines of the 
8apphicstanm, when they are not common cases of Synapheia, (as in 
Horace, Cam. 8. 218.) will be found to regard compound words only, 
and not simple ones. The ode of Horace (4. 2.) which begins 

Pindarum quuquU $tudct aemulari 
Iule 

furnishes no exception to this remark. A Synaeresis operates in /ills, 
which most be read as if written Yule. 



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ZaJV METRICS OF HORACE. 

Jane pater, | Jane turns, ] dhe biceps, \ Inform**. 

(Sept. Serenus.) 

Horace, however, made an alteration, though not on im- 
provement, by substituting a spondee instead of an iaznhus, 
in the first measure, viz. 

Te deos o\ro Sybdrin | cur properis | dmdndo. 

The Choriambic Tetrameter, in its original state, was call- 
ed Phalaecian, from the poet Phalaecius, who used it in some 
of his compositions. 

13. Asclepiadic Choriambic Tetrameter. 

This verse, so called from the poet Asclepiades, consists of 
a spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus ; as, 

Maecenas dtdvts || tdxte re\gibus. 

The caesural pause takes place at the end of the first cho- 
riambus ; on which account some are accustomed to scan 
the line as a Dactylic Pentameter Catalectic ; as, 

Maecenas dld\vis \\ edite | regibus. 

But this mode of scanning the verse is condemned by Te- 
renuanus. Horace uniformly adheres to the arrangement 
given above. Other poets, however, sometimes, though ve- 
ry rarely, make the first foot a dactyl. 

14. Choriambic Trimeter, or Gltconic. 

The Glyconic verse (so called from the poet Glyco) con 
eists of a spondee, a choriambus, and an iambus ; as, 

Sic it || diva, potens | Cppri. 

But the first foot was sometimes varied to an iambus or a 
trochee ; as, 



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METRES OF HORACE. XXV 

Boni$ || credefuga\cibu9. (Boethius.) 
V\0$ || implicat ar\bort8. (CatuUus.) 

Horace, however, who makes frequent use of this mea- 
sure, invariably uses the spondee in the first place. As the 
pause in this species of verse always occurs after the first 
foot, a Glyconic may hence he easily scanned as a Dactylic 
Trimeter, provided a spondee occupy the first place in the 
line; as, 

SU a | diva, po\ieti* Cypri. 

15. Choriambic Trimeter Catalectic, or Pherecratic. 

The Pherecratic verse, (so called from the poet Fhere- 
crites,) is the Glyconic (No. 14.) deprived of its final sylla- 
ble, and consists of a spondee, a choriambus, and a catalec- 
nc syllable; as, 

Grdto | Pyrrhd sub an\tro. 

Horace uniformly adheres to this arrangement, and hence 
m him it may be scanned as a Dactylic Trimeter : 

Grata | Pyrrha sub | an&ro. 

Other poets, however, make the first foot sometimes a tro- 
chee or an anapaest, rarely an iambus. 

16. Choriambic Dimeter. 

The Choriambic Dimeter consists of a choriambus and a 
hacchrus; as, 

Lifdia, die, | ptor omnes. 

This measure is also called, in Greek poetry, Aristopha- 
oic 



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XXLVi METRES OF HORACE. 



17. Ionic a minorc. 

Ionic verses are of two kinds, the Ionic a majore, and the 
Ionic a tntnore, called likewise Ionicus Major and Ionian 
Minor, and so denominated from the feet or measures Oi 
which they are respectively composed. 

The Ionic a minore is composed entirely of the foot or 
measure of that name, and which consists of a pyrrhic and 
a spondee, as docuissent. It is not restricted to any particu- 
lar number of feet or measures, but may be extended to any 
length, provided only, that, with due attention to Synapheia, 
the final syllable of the spondee in each measure be either 
naturally long, or made long by the concourse of consonants ; 
and that each sentence or period terminate with a complete 
measure, having the spondee for its close. 

Horace has used this measure but once (Carm. 3. 12.), 
and great difference of opinion exists as to the true mode of 
arranging the ode in which it occurs. If we follow, how- 
ever, the authority of the ancient grammarians, and particu- 
larly of Terentianus Maurus, it will appear that the true divi- 
sion is into strophes ; and consequently that Cuningam (jflnt- 
madn. in Horal. Bentl. p. 315 ) is wrong in supposing that 
the ode in question was intended to run on in one continued 
train of independent tetrameters. Cuningam's ostensiblo 
reason for this arrangement is, that Martianus Capella (De 
JSupt. PhUoL Ub. 4. cap. vit.) has composed an Ionic poem 
divided into tetrameters : the true cause would appear to be 
his opposition to Bentley. This latter critic has distributed 
the ode into four strophes, each consisting of ten feet ; or, in 
other words, of two tetrameters followed by a dimeter. The 
strict arrangement, he remarks, would be into four lines 
merely, containing each ten feet ; but the size of the mo- 
dern page prevents this, of course, from being done. The 
scanning of the ode, therefore, according to the division 
adopted by Bentley, will be as follows : 



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METRES OF HORACE. XXV11 

Mtserarum est \ neque amort \ dare htdmm, | niqui dulct 
Mala vino I latere, out ex\antmari t | metuentes 
Pdtrtiae ver\berd Bnguae. 

The arrangement, in other editions, is as follows : 

Mtserarum est \ neque amort \ dart ludum t 
Neque dulct | mala vino \ hmere, out ex- 

-animari \ mitwntes | patruae ver\berd Ungual 

i )(heiB again have the following scheme : 

Miserarum est | neque amori | dare ludum, 
Neque dulci | mala vino | lavere, aut ex- 

-animari | metuentes | patruae 
Verberft | linguae, e\>c. 

Both of these, however, are justly condemned by Bentley. 

18. Greater Alcaic. 

This metre, so called from the poet Alcaeus, consists of 
two feet, properly both iambi, and a long catalectic syllable, 
followed .by a choriambus and an iambus ; the caesural 
pause always foiling after the catalectic syllable ; as, 

Vide* | ut dl\ta || stet nwi can\didum. 

But the first foot of the iambic portion is alterable of 
course to a spondee, and Horace much more frequently has 
a spondee than an iambus in this place ; as, 

o ma\M pul\chra \\ fiUa pvl\chrior. 

The Alcaic verse is sometimes scanned with two dactyls 
in the latter member ; as, 

Fides | ut al\ta \\*WnivZ\ candtdum. 

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XXVU1 METRES OF HORACE. » 

19. Archilocbian Heptameter. 

This species of verso consists of two members, the first a 
Dactylic Tetramoter a priare (vid. No. 2. in notis.), and the 
latter a Trochaic Dimeter Brachycatalectic : that is, the first 
portion of the line contains four feet from the beginning of a 
Dactylic Hexameter, the fourth being always a dactyl ; and 
the latter portion consists of three trochees ; as, 

Sokitur | acrU hy\ems gra\ta vice* || veru | et Fa\vonl. 

20. Minor Alcaic. 

This metre consists of two dactyls followed by two tro 
chees ; as 

Lenta \ persdnu\cre \ sdxd. 

21. Dactylico-Iambic. 

This measure occurs in the 2d, 4th, and other even lines 
of the 11th Epode of Horace, as it is arranged in this edi- 
tion. The first part of the verse is a Dactylic Trimeter Cata- 
lectic (No. 3.), the latter part is an Iambic Dimeter (No. 7.) ; 
as, 

Scrtberi | ver8icu\los || amo\re per\cukum \ gram. 

One peculiarity attendant on this metre will need expla- 
nation. In consequence of the union of two different kinds 
of verse into one line, a license is allowed the poet with re- 
gard to the final syllable of the first verse, both in length- 
ening short syllables, and preserving vowels from elision ; as 

Epod. 11. line 6. Inachia furere, silvis, &c. 

— 10. Arguit, et latere pctitus, &c. 

— 26. Libera consilia\ nee, &c. 

— 14. Fcrvidiore mero arcana, &c. 

— 24. Yincere mollitia, amor, 4>o. 

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METRES OV HORACE. XXIX 

Hence, lines thus composed of independent metres are 
called dtfuvafriproi, or inconnexi, on account of this medial li- 
cense. Archilochus, according, to Hephaestion, was the first 
who employed them. (BenUey, ad Epod. 1 1.) Many edi- 
tions, however, prefer the simpler though less correct divi- 
sion into distinct measures ; as, 

Scribere | ver*icu\los 
Amo\re per\\cuUvm \ gravi. 

22. Iambico-Dactylic 

This measure occurs in the 2d, 4th, and other even lines 
of the 13th Epode of Horace, as it is arranged in this edi- 
tion. The first part of the verse is an Iambic Dimeter (No. 
7), the latter part is a Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic (No. 31. 
It is therefore directly the reverse of the preceding. 

0cca\8to\nem de \ die : || dumqut vt\rent genula. 

The license mentioned in the preceding measure, takes 
place also in this ; as, 

Epod. 13. line 8. Reducet in sedem vice. JVtroc, &c. 

— 10. Levare dirts pectora sollicitudinibus. 

— 14. Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus, &c. 

These lines are also, like those mentioned in the preceding 
section, called dttvmgr tyroi, or, inconnexi. Many editions pre- 
fer the following arrangement, which has simplicity in its fa- 
vour, but not strict accuracy : 

Occa\sto\\nhn di | die; 
Dumqui vt\rent ginu a. 



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METRICAL INDEX 



TO THE 



LYRIC COMPOSITIONS OF HORACE * 



jffili, Vetusto, - 
iEquam memento, 
Albi, ne doleas, 
Altera jam teritur, 
Angustam, amice, 
At, O Deorum, 
Audivere, Lyce, 
Bacchum in remotis, 
Beatus ille, - 
Coelo BTipinas, 
Coelo tonantem, 
Cum, tu, Lydia, 
Cur me querelis, 
Delicta majorum, 
Descende coelo, 
Dianam, tenerao, 
DuTugere nives, 
Dive, quern proles, 
Divis orte bonis, 
Donarem pateras, 



18,18, 8,20 
18,18, 8,20. 
13, 13, 13, 14. 

1, 5. 
18,18, 8,20. 

5, 7. 

13, 13, 15, 14. 
18,18, 8,20. 

5, 7. 

18,18, 8,20. 
18, 18, 8, 20. 

14, 13. 

18,18, 8,20 
18, 18, -8, 20. 
18,18, 8,20 
13, 13, 15, 14. 

1, 3. 
10, 10, 10, 4 
13, 13, 13, 14 
13. 



♦ The numbers refer to the several metres, as they have just been ex- 
plained. Thus, in the ode beginning with the words Mli> Vetusto, the 
first and second tines of each stanza are Greater Alcaics (No. 18), the 
third line is an Iambic Dimeter (No. 8), and the last line a Minor Alca 
(No. 90) and so of the rest 

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METRICAL INDEX. 



XXXI 



Donee gratus eram tibi, 
Eheu! fugaces, 
Est mihi nonum, 
Et thure et fidibus, - 
Exegi monimentum, 
Extremum Tanain, 
Faune, Nympharum, 
Festo quid potius die, 
Herculis ritu, - 
Horrida tempestas, 
Ibis Iiburnis, - 
Icci, beatis, 
Hie et nefasto, 
Impios parrae, 
Inclusam Danaen, 
Intactis opulentior, 
Integer vitae, - 
Intermissa, Venus, 
Jam jam efficaci, 
Jam pauca aratro, 
Jam satis terris, 
Jam veris comites, 
Justum et tenacem, 
Laudabunt alii, 
Lapis et agnis, 
Ljdia, die, per omnes, 
Maecenas atavis, 
Mala soluta, - 
Martiis coelebs, 
Mater saeva Cupidinum, 
Mercuri, facunde, 
Mercuri, nam te, 
Miserarum est, 
Mollis inertia, 
Montium custoe, 
Motum ex Metello, 



14, 13. 

18, 18, 8, 20. 

10, 10, 10, 4. 

14, 13. 

14. 

13, 13, 13, 14. 
10, 10, 10, 4. 

14, 13. 
10, 10, 10, 4 

1,22. 

5, 7. 

18,18, 8,20, 
18,18, 8,20. 
10, 10, 10, 4. 

13, 13, 13, 14. 

14, 13. 

10, 10, 10, 4 
14, 13. 

5. 

18,18, 8,20. 
10, 10, 10, 4. 

13, 13, 13, 14. 
18, 18, 8, 20. 

1, 2. 

5, 7. 
16, 12. 
13. 

5, 7. 
10, 10, 10, 4, 

14, 13. ' 
10, 10, 10, 4. 
10, 10, 10, 4 
17. 

1, 7. 

10,10,10, 4. 
18,18, 8,20 

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auurii 



METRICAL IflPJiX. 



Musis amicus, 
Natis in usum, 
Ne forte credas, 
Ne sit ancillae, 
Nolis longa ferae, 
Nondum subacta, 
Non ebur, neque, 
Non semper imbres, 
Non usitata, - 
Non vides quanto, 
Nox erat, 
Nullam, Vare, 
Nullus argento, 
Nunc est bibendum, 
O crudelis adhuc, 
O Diva, gratum, 
O fons Bandusiae, 
O matre pulchra, 
O nata mecum, 
O navis, referunt, 
O saepe mecum, 
O Venus, regina, 
Odi profanum, 
Otium Divos, • 
Parcius junctas, 
Parous Deorum, 
Parentis olim, 
Pastor quum trahera 
Pereicos odi, - 
Pecti, nihil me, 
Phoebe, sylvarumque, 
Phoebus volentem, 
Pindanun quisquis, 
Poscimur : m quid, 
Gluae cura patrum, 
tatualem ministnun, 



18, 18, 
18, 18, 
18, 18, 
10, 10, 
13, 13, 
18, 18, 

9, 6. 
18, 18, 
18, 18, 
10, 10, 

1, 7. 
11. 

10, 10, 
18, 18, 
11. 

18, 18, 
13, 13, 
18, 18, 
18, 18, 
13, 13, 
18, 18, 
10, 10, 
18,18, 
10, 10, 
10, 10, 
18, 18, 

5, 7. 
13, 13, 
10, 10, 

5,21. 
10, 10, 
18, 18, 
10, 10, 
10, 10, 
18, 18, 
18, 18, 



8,*-. 

8,20. 

8,20 
10, 4 
13,14 

8,20 

8,20 

8,20. 

10, 4 



10, 4. 
8,20, 

8,20. 
15, 14 

8,20. 

8,20. 
15, 14. 

8,20. 
10, 4 

8,20. 
10, 4. 
10, 4. 

8,20. 

13, 14. 
10, 4. 

10, 4. 

8,20. 
10, 4. 
10, 4. 

8,20. 

8,20. 



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METRICAL IftDEX. 



XXXli] 



Quando repostum, 
Quantum distet, 
Quein tu, Melpomene, 
Quern virum, - 
Quid bellicosus, 
Quid dedicatum, 
Quid fles, Asterie, 
Quid immerentes, 
Quid obseratis, 
Quid tibi vis, - 
Quia deaiderio, 
Quis multa gracilis, 
Quo, me, Bacche, 
Quo, quo, scelesti, 
Rectius vives, 
Rogare longo, 
Scriberis Vario, 
Septimi Grades, 
Sic te, Diva, - 
Solvitur acris hyems, 
Te maris et terrae, 
Tu ne quaesieris, 
Tvnbena regum, 
UUa si juris, - 
Uxor pauperis Ibyci, 
Velox amoemim, 
Vides ut alta, - 
Vile potabis, - 
.Vitas hmnuleo, 
Vbripuellis, • 



5, 7. 
14, 13. 
14, 13. 

10, 10, 10, 4. 
18, 18, 8, 20. 

18, 18, 8, 20. 
13, 13, 15, 14. 

5, 7. 
5. 

1, 2. 
13, 13, 13, 14. 

13, 13, 15, 14. 

14, 13. 
5, 7. 

10, 10, 10, 4. 
5, 7. 

13, 13, 13, 14. 
10, 10, 10, 4. 

14, 13. 

19, 6. 
1, 2. 

11. 

18,18, 8,20. 

10, 10, 10, 4. 

14, 13. 

18, 18, 8, 20. 

18, 18, 8, 20. 

10, 10, 10, 4. 

13, 13, 15, 14. 

18,18, S t W 



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U. HORATH FLACCI 

CARMINDM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 



Carmen I. 
AD MAECENATEM. 



Maecenas atavis edite regibus, 

O et praesidium et dulce decus meum, 

Sunt, quos cuiriculo pulverem Olympicum 

Collegisse juvat, metaque fervidis 

Evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 5 

Terrarum dotninos evehit ad Deos. 

Hunc, si mobiHum turba duiritium 

Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus : 

Ulum, si proprio condidit horreo 

Gluidquid de Libycis verritur areis. 10 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 

Agree, Attalicis conditionibus 

Nunquam demoveas, ut trabe Cypria 

Myrtoum pavidus nanta secet mare. 

Luctantem Icaiiis fluctibus Africum 15 

Mercatar metuens otium et oppidi 

Laudat rura «iri : mox reficit rates 

Ctuassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

Est, qui nee veteris pocula Massici, 

Nee partem solido demere de die SO 

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4. HORATII FLACC1 ^ 

Spemit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto 

Stratus, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae 

Multos castra juvant, et lituo tubae 

Permixtus sonitus, bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 25 

Venator, tenerae conjugis immemor, 

Sett visa est catulis cerva fidehbus, 

Seu rupit^teretes Marsufc^ajger plagas. 

Me doctarum ederae praemiaTrontiiim 

Dis miflcent superis : me gelidum nemus 30 

Nympharumque levee cum Satyris chori 

Secernunt populo : si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet, nee Polyhymnia 

Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton. 

Quod si me lyricis vatibus inseris, 35 

Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 

Carmen II. 

AD AUGUSTUM CAESAREM. 

Jam sans terris nivis atque dTrae 
Grtmdinfe nUstt'Pater, et, rubeW 
Dextera sacras jaculatue arces, 
Terruil urbem : 

Terruit gentes, grave ne rediret 5 

Saeculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questae j 
Omne quum Proteus pecus egit altos 
Visere montes, 

Piflcium et summa genus haesit ulmo, 
Nota quae sedes fuerat palumbis, 10 

Et superjecto pavidae natarunt 
Aequore damae. 

Vidimus flavum Tiberim, retortis 
Litore Etrusco violcnter undis, 

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gf. CARMINUM. LIB. I. 2. 3 

Ire dejectum monimenta Regis, 15 

Templaque Vestae, 

Hiae dum se nimhim querent; 
j Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra \ 
\ Labitur ripa, Jove non probante, u* 

xorius annus. 20 

Audiet cives acuisse femim, 
duo graves Persae melius perirent ; 
Audiet pugnas, vitio parentum 
Rara, juventus. 

Ctuem vocet Divum populus menus 25 

Impeit rebus 1 prece qua fatigent 
Virgines sanctae minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

Cui dabit partes scelus expiandi 
Jupiter ? Tandem venias, precamur, 30 

Nube candentes humeros amictus, 
Augur Apollo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
duam Jocus circum volat et Cupido ; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes 35 ' 

Respicis, auctor, 

Heu I nimis longo satiate Iudo, 
Q,uem juvat clamor galeaequo leves, 
Acer et Marsi peditis omentum 

Vultus in hostem ; 40 

Sive mutata juvenem figura, 
Ales, in terns imitaris, almae 
FDius Maiae, patiens vocari 
Caesaris ultor : 

4 

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Q. HORATII FLACCI * 

Serus in coelum redeas, diuque 45 

Laetus intersis populo Quirini, 
Neve te , nostris vitiis iniquum, 
Ocioraura 

Tollat : hie magnos potius triumpho*, 
Hie ames dici Pater atque Princeps, 5C 

Neu sinas Medoe equitare inultos, 
Te duce, Caesar. 

Carmen HI. 
AD VIRGILIUM. 

Sic te Diva, potens Cypri, 

Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater, 

Obstrictis aliis praeter Iapyga, 
Navis, quae tibi creditum ft 

Debes Virgilium finibus Atticis, 
Reddas incolumem, precor, 

Et serves animae dimidium meae. 
IUi robur et aes triplex 

Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 10 

Commisit pelago ratem 

Primus, nee timuit praecipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus, 

Nee tristes Hjadas, nee rabiem Noti, 
Cluo non arbiter Adriae 15 

Major, tollere seu ponere vult freta. 
Quern Mortis timuit gradum, 

Qui rectifl oculis monstra natantia, ' 
Ctui vidit mare turgidum et 

Infames scopulos Acroceraunia % 20 

Nequidquam Deus abscidit 

Prudens Oceano dissociabili 

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CAKMINUH. LIB. I. 4. 5 

Terras, ed tamen impiae 

Non tangenda rates transeiliunt vada. 
Audax omnia perpeti 25 

Gens humana ruit per vetitum et nefas. 
Atrox Iapeti genus 

Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit : 
Post ignem aatheria domo 

Subductum, Macies et nova Febrium 3t) 

Terria incubuit cohors : 

Semotique prius tarda necessitas 
Led corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera 
Pennis non homini datis. 35 

Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 
Nil mortalibus arduum est : 

Coelum ipsum petimus stultitia : neque 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 

Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. 40 



Cabmen IV. 

AD L. SEXT1UM. 

Hohitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favont, 

Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas. - 
Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet pecus, aut arator igni ; 

Nee prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Jam Cytherea choros ducit Venus, imminente Luna : 5 

Junctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Alterno terrain quatiunt pede ; dum graves Cyclopum 

Yulcanus ardens urit offipnas. 
Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto, 

Aut flore, terrae quern ferunt solutae. 10 

Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolate lucis, 

Sou poscat agna, sive malit haedo. 



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4. HORATII FLACCI 

Pallida Mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernaa 

Kegumque turres. O beate Sexti, 
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoart longam. j ] 5 

Jam te premet noz, fabulaeque Manes, 
Et domus exilis Plutonia : quo simul mearis, 

Nee regna vini sortiere talis, 
Nee tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo ealet iuventua 

Nunc omnia et mox yirgines tepebunt 

Carmen V. 

AD PYRRHAM. 

Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urguet odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religas comam 

Simplex munditiis ? Heu I quoties fidem 5 

Mutatosque Deos flebit, et aspera 
Nigris aequora ventis 
Emirabitur insolens, 

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea ; 
Ctui semper vacuam, semper amabilem 10 

Sperat, nescius aurae 
Fallacis. Miseri, quibus 

' Intentata nites 1 Me tabula sacer 
Votiva paries indicat uvida 

Suspendisse potenti 15 

Vestimenta maris Deo. 



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C'ARMINUM. UB. 1. 6. 7. 



Carmen VI. 
AD AGRIPPAM. 

Scribetis Varioiortis et hostium 
Victor, Maeoniicarminis aliti, 
Q,uom rem cunque ferox navibus aut equis 
Mies, te duce, gesserit. 

Nob, Agrippa, neque haec dicere, nee gravera 5 
Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii, 
Nee cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei, 
Nee eaevam Pelopis domum 

Conamur, tenues grandia : dum pudor 
ImbeUisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas 
Culpa deterere ingent. 

Ctuia Martem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit 1 aut pulvere Trolo 
Nigrum Merionen % aut ope Palladia 15 

Tydiden Superis parem % 

Nob convivia, nos proelia virgmum 

Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium \ , 

Cantamus, vacui, sive quid urimur, . - "' 

Non praeter solitum leves. / \ 20 

Carmen VII. 
AD MUNATTOM PLANCUM. 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mit jlenen, 

Aut Epheeon, bimarisve Corinthi 
Moettia, vel Baccho Thebas, vel Apolline Delphos 

lasagnes, aut Thessala Tempi 
4* 

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4. HORA.TII FLACC1 

Sunt, quibus unum opus est, intactae Palladis arces 5 

Carmine perpetuo celebrare, 
Indeque decerptam fronti praeponere olivam. 

Plurimus, in Junonis honorem, 
Aptum dicit equis Argos, ditesque Mycenas. 

Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon, 10 

Nee tarn Larissae percussit campus opimae, 

Ctuam domus Albuneae resonantis, 
Et praeceps Anio, ac Tiburni lucus, et uda ' 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut obscuro deterget nubila coelo 15 

Saepe Notus, neque parturit imbres 
Perpetuos : sic tu sapiens finire memento 

Tristitiam vitaeque labores 
Molli, Plance, mero : seu te fulgentia signis 

Castra tenent, seu densa tenebit 20 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 

Gluum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes affatus amicos : 
duo nos cunque feret melior Fortuna parente, 2a 

Ibimus, o socii comitesque 1 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro ; 

Certus enim promisit Apollo 
Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 

O fortes, pejoraque passi 3U 

Mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas : 

Cras ingens iterabimus aequor. 



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CARMINUM. LIB. I. 8. 9. 9 

Carmen Vm. 

AD LYDIAM. 

Lydia die, per omnes 

Te deoe oro, Sybarin cur properas amando 
Perdere? cur apricum 

Oderit campum, patiena pulveris atque solis % 
Cut neque militaris 5 

Inter aequales equitat, Gallica nee lupatis 
Temperat ora frenis % 

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere ? cur ohvum 
Sanguine viperino 

Cautius vital % neque jam livida gestat armis 10 

Rrachia, saepe disco, 

Saepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expedito 1 
Uuid latet, ut marinae 

FUium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Trojae 
Funera, ne virilis 15 

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 

Carmen IX. 
AD THALIARCHUM. 

Vides, ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee jam sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto % 

Dissolve frigus, ligna super foco - 

Large reponens ; atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
O Thaliarche, merum diota. 

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10 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Permitte Divis caetera : qui simul 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deproeliantes, nee cupressi 
Nee veteres agitantur orni; 

Quid sit futurum eras, fuge quaerere : et 
Quern Fore dierum cunque dabit, lucro 
Appone : nee dulces amores 15 

Speme puer, neque tu choreas, 

Donee virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et Campus et areae, 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri 
Composita repetantur hora : 20 

Nunc et latentis proditor intimo 
Grains puellae risus ab angulo, 
Pignusque dereptum lacertis 
Aut digito male pertinacL 

Carmen X. 

AD MERCURIUM. 

M ercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum 
Voce formasti catus et decorae 
More palaestrae : 

Te canam, magni Jovis et deorum 5 

Nuntium, curvaeque lyrae parentern j 
Callidum, quidquid placuit, jocoso 
Condere furto. 

Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses 
Per dolum amotas, puerum minaci 10 

Voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 
Riwt Apollo. 

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CAKMiNUM. LIB. I. 11. 12. 11 

Qlxotl et Atridas, duce te, superboe, A^w^^i^ *■ " >- 

Dio dives Priamus relicto ^ Mu '*"' ! 

Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae 15 
Castra fefellit. 

Tu pias laetis animas reponis 
Sedibus, virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam, superis deorum 

Gratus et imis. 20 



Carmen XI. 

AD LEUCONOEN. 

Tu ne quaesieris, scire nefas, quern mihi, quern tibi 
Fznem dt dederint, LeuconoS ; nee Babylonios 
Tentaris numeros. Ut melius, quidquid erit, pad 1 
Seti plures hiemes, seu tribuit Jupiter ullimam, 
Quae nunc oppoedtis debilitat pumicd us mare 
Tyrrhenum. Sapias, vina liquea, et vpatio brevi 
Spem longam reseces. Dmn loquimur, ragerit invida 
Aetas. Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 



Carmen XII. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Quem virum aut heroa lyra vel acn 
Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio % 
Quern deum 1 cujus recinet jocosa 
Nomen imago, 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 
Aut super Pindo, gelidove in Haema 
Unde vocalem temere insecutae 
Orphea srilvae, 

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12 C#.L x i*\* -*-<*■ HORATII FLACCI 

Arte materna rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus celeresque ventos, 10 

Blandum ot auritas fidibus canoris 
Ducere quercus. 

Quid prius dicam solids Parentis 
Laudibus 1 qui res hominum ac deorum, 
Qui mare ac terras, variisque mundum 1 b 

Temperat horis : 

Unde nil majus generatur ipso, 

Nee viget quidquam simile aut secundum : 

Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. 20 

Proebis audax, neque te silebo, 
Liber, et saevis inirnica Virgo - &v*j£J£ v 
Belluis : nee te, metuende certa 
Phoebe sagitta. 

Dicam et Alciden, puerosque Ledae, - A w ./ ^ 25 
Hunc equis, ilium superare pugnis f r ' " K *- 

Nobilem : quorum simul alba nautis 
Stella refulsit, 

Defluit saxis agitatus humor, 
Concidunt venti, fugiuntque nubes, 30 

Et minax, nam sic voluere, ponto 
Unda recumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius, an quietum 
Pompill regnum memorem, an superbos 
Tarquint fasces, dubito, an Catonis 35 

Nobile letum. 

Regulum, et Scauros, animacque magnae 
Prodigum Paullum, superante Poeno, 
Gratus insigni referam Camena, \ 

Fabriciumque. 40 J 

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CARMINUM. LIB. I. 13 13 

Hunc, et incomtia Curium capQlia, 
Utilem bello tulit, et Camillum, 
Saeva paupertas et avitua apto 
Cum lare fundus. 

Creacit, occulto velut arbor aevo, 45 

Fama MarcelH : micat inter omnes 
Julium sidus, velut inter ignes 
Luna minores. 

Gentis humanae pater atque cuatos, 
Orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 50 

Caesaris fatis data ; tu secundo 
Caesare regnes. 

Die, aeu Parthoe Latio imminentes 
Egerit juato domitos triumpho, 
Sive aubjectoe Orientis orae 55 

Seras et Indos. 

Te minor latum regat aequus orbem 
Tu gravi curru quatias Oljmpum j 
Tu parum caatia inimica mittaa 

Fulmina luck. 60 



Carmen XIII. 
AD LYDIAM. 

Quum tu, Lydia, Telephi 

Cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi 
I^audas brachia, vae, meum 

Fervena diffiaK bile tumet jecur. 
Tunc nee mens mihi nee color 

Certa aede manent : humor et in genaa 
Furtim labitur, arguena 

Quam lentia penitus macerer ignibua. 



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14 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Uror, seu tibi candidos 

Turparunt humeros immodicae mero 1 J 

Rixae, aive puer fiirens 

Impressit memorem dente labris notam. 
Non, si me satis audias, 

Speres perpetuum, dulcia barbare 
Laedentem oscula, quae Venus 15 

Gluinta parte sui nectaris imbuit. 
Felices ter et amplius, 

duos irrupta tenet copula, nee malis 
Divulsus querimoniis 

Suprema citius solvet amor die. 20 



Carmen XIV. 

AD REMPUBLICAM. 

O navis, referunt in mare te novi 
FluctusI Oquidagis? fortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides, ut 
Nudum remigio latus ? 

Et malus celeri saucius Africo 6 

Antennaeque gemunt : ac sine furribus 
Vix durare carinae 
Possunt imperiosius 

Aequor. Non tibi sunt mtegra lintea, 
Non dt, quos iterum pressa voces malo : 1 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
Silvae filia nobilis, 

Jactes et genus et nomen inutile. 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 
Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis 15 

Debes ludibrium. cave. 

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CARMINUM. LIB. J. 16. 

Nuper solHcitum quae mihi taedium, \ 

Nunc desiderium curaque non levis, 
Interfusa nitentes 

Vites aequora Cycladas. 20 

Carmen XV. 

NEREI VATICINIUM DE EXCIDIO TROJAE 

Pastor quum traheret per fireta navibus 
Idaeis Helenen perfidus hospitam, 
Ingrato celeres obruit otio 
Ventos, ut caneret fera 

Nereusfata: Mala ducis avi domum, 5 

Cluam multo repetet Qraecia milite, 
Conjurata tuas rumpere nuptias 
Et regnum Priami vetus. 

Heu, heu 1 quantus equis, quantus adest nrw 
Sudor ! quanta moves funera Dardanae 10 

Genti ! Jam galeam Pallas et aegida 
Currusque et rabiem paxat. 

Nequidquam, Veneris praesidio ferox, 
Pectes caesariem, grataque feminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides : 15 

Nequidquam thalamo graves 

•Hastas et calami spicula Gnoesii 
Vitabis, strepitumque, et celerem sequi 
Ajacem: tamen, heu, serus adulteros 

Crines pulvere collines. 20 

Non Laertiaden, cxilium tuae 
Genti, non Pylium Nestora respicis % 
Urguent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer, te Sthenelus sciens 

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16 <l. HORATII FLACC1 

Pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equis, 25 

Non auiiga piger. Merionen quoque 
Nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atrox 
Tydides, melior patre : 

Quern tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte lupum graminis immemor, 80 

Sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu ; 
Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 

Iracunda diem proferet Hio 
Matronisque Phrygum classis Achillei ; 
Post certas hiemes uret Achaius 35 

Ignis Pergameas domos. 



Carmen XVI. 

PALINODIA. 

O matre pulchra filia pulchrior, 
duem criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis ; sive flamma 
Sive mari libet Adriano. 

Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 5 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Py thius, 
Non liber aeque, non acuta 
Si geminant Corybantes aera, 

Tristes ut irae ; quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis, nee mare naufragum, 10 

Nee saevus ignis, nee tremendo 
Jupiter ipse mens tumultu. 

Fertur Prometheus, addere principi 
Limo coactus particulam undique 
Desectam, et instni leonis 15 

Vim stomacho apposuisse nostro. 



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CABMIKUM. LIB. I. 17. 17 

Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
Stravere, et altis urbibus ultiznae 
Stetere causae, cur perirent 

Funditus, imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compe8co mentem : me quoque pectoris 
Tentavit in dulci juvcnta 
Fervor, et in celeres iambos 

Misit furentem : nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare quaero tristia ; duin mihi 
Fias recantatis arnica 
Opprobriis, animumque rcddas. 



Cabmen XVII. 

AD TYNDARIDEM. 

Velox amoenum saepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus, et igneam 
Defendit aestatem capellis 
Usque meis pulviosque ventos. 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 6 

Quaerunt latentes ct thyma deviae 
Olends uxores mariti : 
Nee virides metuunt colubras, 

Nee Martiales haeduleae lupoe : 
Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

Valles et Usticae cubantis 
Laevia personuere saza. 

Dl me tuentur : dls pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hie tibi copia 
Manabit ad plenum benigno |5 

Runs honorum opulenta corou. 



y Google 



IS Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Hie in reducta valle Canicular 
Vitabis aestus : et fide Tela 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penetopen vitreamque Circeri. 20 

Hie innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra : nee Semeleius 
Cum Marte confundet Thyoneus 
Proelia: nee metues protervum 

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 25 

Incontinentes injiciat manus, 
Et scindat haerentem coronam 

Crinibus, immeritamque vestem. 

Carmen XVHI. 
AD VARUM. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 

Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili. 

Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit ; neque 

Mordaces aliter diflugiunt sollicitudines. 

duis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat ? 5 

Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus ? 

At ne quis modici transsiliat munera Liberi, 

Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero • 

IJebellata ; monet Sithoniis non levis Euius, 

Quum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum 1 

Disceraunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu, 

Invitum quatiam : nee variis obsita frondibus 

Sub divum rapiam. Saeva tene cum Berecyntio 

Cornu tympana, quae subsequitur caecus Amor sui, 

Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticem, lr> 

Arcanique Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 



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CARMINUM. LID. I. 19. 20. , 19 

Carmen XIX. 

DE GLYCERA. 

Mater saeva Cupidinum, 

Thebanaeque jubet me Semeles puer 
Et lasciva Licentia, 

Finitis ariimum reddere amoribusi 
Urit me Glycerae nitor 5 

Splendentis Pario marmore purius 
Urit grata protervitas, 

Et vultus nimium lubricus adspici. 
In me tola mens Venus 

Cyprum deseruit ; nee patitur Scytbas, lb 

Et versis animosum equis 

Parthum dicere, neb quae nibil attinent 
Hie vivum mibi cespitem, hie 

Verbenas, pueri, ponite, thuraque 
Bimi cum patera meri : 15 

M aetata veniet lenior hostia. 

Carmen XX. 

AD MAECENATEM. 

• 

Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
Conditum levi, datus in theatro 
Q,uum tibi plausus, 

Care Maecenas eques^ ut paterni 5 

Fluminis ripae, simul et jocosa 
Hedderet laudes tibi Vaticani 
Montis imago. 
6* 

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20 4- HORATII FLACCI 

Caecubam et prelo domitam Galeno 
Tu bibes uvam : mea nee Falernae 10 

Temperant rites, neque Formiani 
Pocula colles. 

Carmen XXL 
IN D1ANAM ET APOLLINEM. 

Dianam tenerae dicite virgincs : 
- Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cjnthium : 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus Jovi. 

Vos laetam fluviis et nemorum coma, 5 

Quaecunque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvia, aut viridis Cragi 

Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus, 
Natalemque, mares, Delon ApoUinis, 10 

Insignemque pharetra 

Fratemaque humerum lyra. 

Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram famem 
Pestemque a populo, principe Caesare, in 

Persas atque Britannos ] j 

Vestra motus aget prece. 



Carmen XXII. 

AD ARISTIUM FUSCUM. 

Integer vitao scelerisque purus 
Non eget Mauris jaculis, neque arcu f 
Nee venenatis gravida sagittts, 
Fusee, pharetra : 



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CARH1HUM. LIB. I. 23. 21 

Sive per Syrtea iter aestuosas, 5 

Sive facturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum, vel quae loca fabulosus 
Lambit Hydaspes. 

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen, et ultra 10 

Terminum curia vagor expeditis, 
Fugit inermem. 

Quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis, 
Nee Jubae tellus generat, leonum 15 

Arida nutrix. 

Pone me, pigris ubi nulla campis 
Arbor aestiva recreatur aura j 
Quod latufi mundi nebulae malusque 

Jupiter urguet : 20 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solis, in terra domibus negata : 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loquentem. 

Carmen XXIII. 
AD CHLOfiN. 

"Vitas hinnuleo me similis, ChloS, 
Quaerenti pavidam montibus aviis 
Matrem, non sine vano 
Aurarum et siluae metu. 

Nam seu mobilibus vepris inhorruit 5 

Ad ventum foliis, seu virides rubum 
Dimovere lacertae, 

Et corde et genibus tremit. 

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82 <*. HORATII PLACC1 

Atqui non ego te, tigris ut aspera 
Gaetulusve leo, frangere persequor ; 10 

Tandem desine matrem 
Tempestiva sequi viro. 



Carmen XXIV. 

AD VIRGILIUM. 

Q,uis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn cari capitis ? Praecipe lugubres 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam Pater 
Vocem cum cithara dedit. 

Ergo duinctilium perpetuus sopor b 

Urguet ! cui Pudor, et Justitiae soror, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
duando ullum inveniet parem ? 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit : 
Nulli flebilior, quam tibi, Virgili. 10 

Tu frustra pius, heu ! non ita creditum 
Poscis duinctilium deos. 

Cluod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Non vanae redeat sanguis imagini, 15 

Cluam virga semel horrida, 

Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerit Mercurius gregL 
Durum ! Sed levius fit patientia, 
Cluidquid corrigere est nefas. 20 



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CARMTNtTM. LIB. I. 25. 2#. 23 

Carmen XXV. 

AD LYDIAM. 

Parcius junctas quatiunt fenestras 
Ictibus crebris juvenes protervi, 
Nee tibi somnos adimunt : amatque 
Janua limen, 

Quae prius multum facilis movebat 5 

Cardines. Audis minus et minus jam 
Me tuo longaa perevnte noctes, 
Lydia, dormisl 

Invicem moechos anus arrogantes 
Flebis in solo levis angiportu ; 10 

Thracio bacchante magis sub inter- 
lunia vento : 

Quum tibi flagrans amor, et libido, 
Quae solet matres furiare equorum, 
Saeviet circa jecur ulcerosum ; 1 5 

Non sine questu, 

Laeta quod pubes hedera virenti 
Gaudeat pulla magis atque myrto : 
Aridas frondes Hiemis sodali 
Dedicet Euro 

Carmen XXVI. 

DE AELIO LAMIA. 

Musis amicus, tristitiam et metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis : quts sub Arcto 
Rex gelidae metuatur orae, 

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24 • Q. HOBATII VLAOCI 

Cluid Teridaten terreat, unice fi 

Securus. O, quae fontibus integris 
Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
Necte meo Lamiae coronam, 

Pimplei dulcis ; nil sine te mei 
Possunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro, 
Teque tuasque decet sorores. 



Carmen XXVII. 

AD SO DALES. 

Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 

Pugnare Thracum est : tollite barbarum 

Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 

Sanguineis probibete rixis. 

y 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces b 

Immane quantum discrepat I impium 

Lenite claraorem, sodales, 

^Et cubito remanete presso. > 

Vultis severi me quoque sumere 
Partem Falerni ? dicat Opuntiae 10 

Frater Megillae, quo beatus 
Vulnere, qua pereat sagitta. 

Cessat voluntas ? non alia bibam 
Mercede. Quae te cunque domat Venus, 

Non erubeecendis adurit 1 

Ignibus,' ingenuoque semper 

Amore peccas. Quidquid habes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus-^-Ah miser, 
Gluanta laborabas Charybdi, 

Digne .puer meliore flamma ! „ 20 



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CAHMIHUM. LIB. I. 28. 

Quae saga, quia te solvere Thessalis 
Magus venenis, quia potent deus % 
Vix illigatum te triformi 

Pegasus expediet Chimaerae. 



Carmen XXVIH. 

NAUTA ET ARCHYTAE UMBRA 

Nauta. 4, » •• r 
Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis arenae 

Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera : nee quidquam tibi prodest 
Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotundum 

Percurrisse polum, morituro ! 



Archytae umbra. ' " '* " 
Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva deorum, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras, 
Et Jovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 

Tartara Panthoiden, iterum Oreo 10 

Demissum ; quamvis, clypeo T^ojana refixo 

Tempora testatus, nihil ultra 
Nervos atque cutem Morti concesserat atrae ; 

Judice te non sordidus auctor 
Naturae verique. Sed omnes una manet nox, 15 

Et calcanda semel via leti. 
Bant alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti : 

Exitio est avidum mare nautis : 
Mixta sen urn ac juvenum densentur funera : nullum 

Saeva caput Proserpina fugit. 20 

Me quoque devexi rapidus comes Ononis 

Ulyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arenae 

Ossibus et capiti inhumato 

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86 Q. HORATII FLACC1 

Particulam dare : sic, quodcunque minabitur Eurus 26 

Fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae, te sospite, multaque merces, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 
Ab Jove, Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti. 

Negligifl immeritis nocituram 30 

Poetmodo te natis fraudem committere 1 Fors et 

Debita jura vicesque superbae 
Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis ; 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent, 
Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa ; licebit 35 

Injecto ter pulvere curras. 



Carmen XXIX. 

AD ICCIUM. 

Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis, et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante devictis Sabaeae 
Regibus, horribilique Medo 

Needs catenas ? Quae tibi vurginum, 5 

Sponso necato, barbara serviet % 
Puer quia ex aula capillis 
Ad cyathum statuetur unctis, 

Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Arcu paterno 1 Gluis neget arduis 10 

Pronos relabi posse rivos 

Montibus, et Tiberim reverti 

Quum tu coemtos undique nobiles 
Libros Panaeti, Socraticam et domum, 
Mutare loricis Iberis, 15 

Pollicitus meliora, tendis % 



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CARMINUM. LIB. I. 30. 81. 27 

Carmen XXX. 

AD VENEREM. 

O Venus, regina Gnidi Paphique, 
Sperne dilectam Cypron, et vocantis 
Thure te multo Glycerae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

Fervidus tecum Puer, et solutis 6 

Gratiae zonis, properentque Nymphae, 
Et parum comis sine te Juventas, 
Mercuriusque. 

Carmen XXXI. 

AD APOLLINEM. 

Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates ? quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimas 
Sardiniae segetes feracis ; 

Non aestuoeae grata Calabriae 5 

Armenta ; non aurum, aut ebur Indicum ; 
Non rura, quae Iiris quieta 
Mordet aqua, taciturnus amnis. 

Premant Calena falce, quibus dedit 
Fortuna, vitem: dives et aureis 10 

Mercator ezsiccet culullis 
Vina Svra reparata merce, 

DIs cams ipsis, quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 
Impune. Me pascant olivae, 1 5 

Me cichorea, levesque malvao. 



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4. HORATII FLAOOI 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
La toe, donee, et, precor, integra 
Cum mente ; nee turpem senectam 

Degere, nee cithara carentem. 20 

Carmen XXXTT 
' AD LYRAM. 

Poscimur. Si quid vacui sub umbra 
Lusimus tecum, quod et hunc in annum 
Vivat et plures : age, die Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 

Lesbio primum modulate civi ; 6 

Qui, ferox bello, tamen inter arraa, 
Sive jactatam religarat udo 
Litore navim, 

Liberum et M usas, Veneremque, et illi 
Semper haerentem Puerum canebat, 10 

Et Lycum, nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 

O decus Phoebi, et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo Jovis, o laborum 
Dulce lenimen, mihi cunque salve Id 

Rite vocanlL 



Carmen XXXIII. 

AD ALBIUM TIBULLUM. 

AIbi, ne doleas plus nimio, memor 
Immitis Glycerae, neu miserabiles 
Deeantes elegos, cur tibi junior 
Laesa praeniteat ride. 



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CABMIITOM. LIB. I. 84. SO 

Insignem tenui fronto Lycorida 5 

Cyri torret amor, Cyrus in asperam 
Declinat Pholoen : sed prius Appulis 
Jungentur capreae lupis, 

Ctuam turpi Pholoe peccet adultero. 
Sic visum Vencri, cui placet impares 10 

Formas atque animos sub juga aenea 
Saevo mittere cum joco. 

Ipsum me melior quum peteret Venus, 
Grata detinuit compede Myrtale 
libertine, fretis acrior Adriae 15 

'Jurvantis Calabros sinus. 



Carmen XXXIV. 

AD SE IPSUM. 

Marcus deorum culior et infrequens, 
Cnsanientis dum sapientiae 
Consultus errQ, nunc retrorsum 
Vela dare atque iterare cursus 

Cogor relictos. Namque Biespiter, 5 

Igni corusco nubila dividens 
Plerumque, per purum tonantes 
Egit equos volucremque currum ; 

duo bruta tellus, et vaga flumina, 
Quo Styx et invisi horrida Taenari 10 

Sedes, Atlanteu&que finis 

Concutitur. Valet ima summis 

Mutare, et insignia attenuat deus, 
Obscura promens. Hinc apicem rapax 
Fortuna cum stridore acuto 15 

Sustulit, bic posuisse gaudet 

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90 Q. HORATII VLAGGI 

Carmen XXXV. 

AD FORTUNAM. 

diva, gratum quae regis Antium, 
Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus, vel superbos 
Vertere tuneribus triumphos : 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece, 5 

Rurifl, colonus ; te dominam aequoris, 
Quicunque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina. 

Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae, 
Urbesque, gentesque, et Latium ferox, 10 

Regumque matres bart>arorum, et 
Purpurei metuunt tyranni, 

Injurioso ne pede proruas 

Stantem columnam, neu populus frequens 

Ad arma cessantes ad arma 15 

Concitet, imperiumque frangat. 

Te semper anteit serva Necessitas, 
Clavos trabales et cuneos manu 
Gestans aena ; nee severus 

Uncus abest, liquidumque plumbum. 20 

Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata panno : nee comitem abnegat, 
Utcunque mutata potentes 
Yeste domoe inimica Hnquis. 

At vulgus infidum et meretrix retro 25 

Perjura cedit : difiugiunt cadis 
Cum faece siccatis amici 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. 

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CABMINUM. LIB. I. 86. 3] 

Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 
Orbis Britannos, et juvenum recena 30 

Examen Eois timendum 
Partibua, Oceanoque rubro. 

Eheu ! cicatricum et sce«eris pudet 
Fratrumque — Gluid nos dura refugimus 
Aetas ? quid intactum nefasti 35 

Liquimus ? unde manum juventus 

Metu deoxum continuit 1 quibus 
Pepercit aris % O utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 
Massagetas Arabasque ferrum. 40 



Carmen XXXVI. 
AD PLOTIUM NUMIDAM. 

Bt thure et fidibua juvat 

Placare et vituli sanguine debito 
Custodes Numidae deos, 

Ctui. nunc, Hesperia sospes ab ultima, 
Cans multa sodalibus, 5 

NuHi plura tamen, dividit oscula, 
Q,uam dulci Lamiae, memor 

Actae non alio rege puertiae, 
Mutataeque simul togae. 

Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota : 10 

Neu promtae modus amphorae, 

Neu morem in Salitim sit requies pedum : 
Neu multi Damalis men 

Bassum Threicia vincat amystido : 

Neu desint epulis rosae, 1 5 

Neu vivax apium, neu breve Mum. 
6* 

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83 ft. HORATII FLACCI 

Omnes in Damalin putres 

Deponent oculos : nee Damalia novo 

Divelletur adultero, 

Lascivis hederis ambitioaior. 20 



Carmen XXXVII. 

ADSODALES. 

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libera 
Pulsanda tellus ; nunc Saliaribus 
Ornare pulvinar deorum 

Tempus erat dapibus, sodales. 

Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum 5 

Cellis avitis, dum Capitolio 
Regina dementes ruinas, 
Funus et imperio parabat 

Contaminato cum grege turpium 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens 10 

Sperare, fortunaque dulci 
Ebria. Sed minuit furorem 

Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus : 
Mentemque ljmphatam Mareotico 

Redegit in veros timores 15 

Caesar, ab Italia volantem 

Remis adurguens : accipiter velut 
Moiles columbas, aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 

Haemoniae ; daret ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum ; quae generosius 
Perire quaerens, nee muliebriter 
Expavit ensem, nee latcntes 
Claase cita»reparavit oras : 



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CABMINUM. LIB. I. 38. 33 

Ausa et jacentem visere regiam 25 

Vultu sereno, fortis et asperas 
Tractare serpentes, ut atrum 
Corpora combiberet venenum - 

Deliberata morte ferocior : 

Baevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 30 

Frivata deduci superbo 

Non humilis mulier triumpho. 



Carmen XXXVIII. 

AD PUERUM. 

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus ; 
Displicent nexae philyra coronao ; 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 
Sera raoretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil allabores 6 

Sedulus curae ; neque te ministrum 
Dedecet royrtus, neque me sub arcta 
Vite bibentem. 



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Q. HORATII FLACCI 

CARMINUM 



LIBER SECUNDUS. % 



Carmen I. 
AD AS1NIUM POLLIONEM. 

Motum ex Metello consule civicum, 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos, 
Ludumque Fortunae, gravesque 
Principum amicitias, et arma 

Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus, ft 

Periculosae plenum opus aleae, 
Tractas, et incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 

Paulum severae Musa tragoediae 
Desit theatns : mox, ubi publicas 10 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 

Insigne moestis praesidium reis 
Et consulenti Pollio curiae, 

Cui launis aetemos honores I ft 

Dalmatico peperit triumpho. 

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CARMIIf CM. LIB. II. 2. 35 

Jam nunc minaci murmure cornuum 
Perstringis atures : jam litui strepunt 
Jam tulgor armorum fugaces 

Terret equos equitumque vultus. 20 

Audire magnos jam videor duces 
Ncm indecoro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuncta terrarum subacta 
Praeter atrocem animum Catonis. 

Juno, et deorum quisquis amicior 25 

Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure, victorum nepotes 
Retulit inferiaa Jugurthae. 

Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris impia proelia 30 

Testatur, auditumque Medis 
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae % 

ftui gurges, aut quae flumina lugubris 
Ignara belli ? quod mare Dauniae 
Non decoloravere caedes 1 35 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro % 

Sed ne, relictis, Musa procax, jocis, 
Ceae retractes munera naeniae : 
Mecum Dionaeo sub antro 

€tuaere modos levioro plectro. 40 

Carmen II. • 

AD SALLUSTIUM CRISPUM 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terns ; inimice lamnae, 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
Splendeat usu. 

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36 H. HORATII FLACCI 

Vivet extento Froculeius aevo 5 

Notus in fratres animi paterni : 
Hlum aget penna metuente solvi 
Fama superstes. 

Latins regnes avidum domando 
Spiritum, quam si Iibyam remotis 10 

Gadibus jungas, et uterque Poenus 
Serviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dims hydrops, 
Nee sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis, et aquosus albo 15 

Corpore languor. 

Redditum Cvri solio Phrahaten 
Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
Eximit Virtus, populumque falsis 

Dedocet uti 20 

Vocibus ; regnum et diadema tutum 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
3,uisquis ingentes oculo irretorto 
Spectat acervos. 

Carmen III. 

AD DELLIUM. 

Aequam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Laetitia, moriture Delli, 

Seu moestus omni tempore vixeris, b 

Seu te in remoto gramine per dies 
Festos reclinatum bearis 
Interiore nota Falerni, 

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CARMIKUM. MB. U. 4. 37 

Qua pinos ingens albaque populus 
Umbram hoepitalem consociare amant 10 

Ramis, et obliquo laborat 
Lympha fugax trepidare rivo : 

Hue vina et unguenta et nimium brevis 
Flores amoenos ferre jube rosae, 
Dum res et aetas et Sororum ' 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes coemtis saltibus, et domo, 
Villaque, flavus quam Tiberis lavit : 
Cedes ; et exstmctis in altum 
Divitiis potietur haerea. 20 

Divesne prisco natus ab Inacho, 
Nil interest, an pauper et innma 
De gente, sub divo moreria, 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 

Omnes eodem cogimur : omnium 25 

Versatur uma serius ocius 
Sots exitura, et nos in aeternum 
Exsilium impositura cjmbae. 

Carmen IV. 

AD XANTfflAM PHOCEUM. 

Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori, 
Xanthia Phoceul Prius insolentem 
Serva Briseis niveo colore 
Movit Achillem : 

Movit Ajacem Telamone natum 5 

Forma captivae dominum Tecmessae : 
Arsit Atrides medio in triumpho 
Virgine rapta, 

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38 d* HOBATII FLACCI 

Barbarae postquam cecidere turmae 
Thessalo victore, et ademtua Hector 10 

Tradidit fesais leviora tolli 
Pergarna Gratis. 

Nescias, an te generum bead 
Phyllidifl flavae decorent parentes : 
Regium certe genus et Penates 15 

Moeret iniquos. 

Crede non illam tibi de scelesta 
Plebe delectam ; neque sic fidelem, 
Sic lucro aversam potuisse nasci 

Matre pudenda. 20 

Brachia et vultum terctesque suras 
Integer laudo : rage suspicari, 
Gujus octavum trepidavit aetas 
Claudere lustrum. 



Carmen V. 

Nondum subacta ferre jugum valet 
Cervice, nondum munia comparis 
Aequare, nee tauri mentis 
In venerem tolerare pondus. 

Circa virentes est animus tuae 6 

Campos juvencae, nunc fluviis gravem 
Solantis aestum, nunc in udo 
Ludere cum vitulis salicto 

Praegestientis. Tolle cupidinem 
Immitis uvae : jam tibi lividos 10 

Distinguet Auctumnus racemos 
Purpureo varius colore. 



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CARMINUM. LIB. II. 0. 39 

Jam te sequetur : currit enim ferox 
Aetas, et illi, quos tibi demserit, 

Apponet annos : jam proterva 15 

Fronte petet Lalage maritum : 

Dilecta, quantum non Pholoe fugax, 
Non Chloris, albo sic humero nitens, 
Ut puia nocturno renidet 

Luna man, Gnidiusve Gyges ; 20 

Quern si puellarum insereres choro, 
Mire sagaces falleret hospites 
Discrimen obecurum solutis 
Crinibus ambiguoque vultu. 



Casmxn VI. 
AD SEPTIMIUM. 

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra, et 
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura semper 
Aestuat unda : 

Tibur, Argeo positum colono, 5 

Sit meae sedes utinam senectae, 
Sit modus lasso maris et viarum 
MUitiaeque: 

Unde si Parg^prohibent iniquae, 
Dulce pellitis ovibus Galaesi 10 

Flumen et regnata petam Laconi 
Rura Pha^pito. 

IDe terrarum mihi praeter omnes 

Angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 

Mella decedunt, viridique certat 16 

Baoca Venafro. 
7 



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40 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
Jupiter brumas, .et amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho minimum Falernis 
Invidet uvis. 

Die te mecum locus et beatae 
Postulant arces : ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
Vatis amicL 



Carmen VII. 

AD POMPEIUM. 

O saepe mecum tempus in ultimum 
Deducte, Bruto militiae duce, 
Quia te redonavit Quiritem 
Dls patriis Italoque coelo, 

Pompei, meorum prime sodalium ? 5 

Cum quo morantem saepe diem mero 
Fregi, coronatus nitcntes 
Malobathro Syrio capillos. 

Tecum Philippos et celerem fugam 
8ensi, relicta non bene parmula ; 10 

Q,uum fracta Virtus, et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 

Sed me per hostes Mercurius celer 
Denso paventem sustulit aere : 

Te rursus in bellum resorbens 15 

Unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 

Ergo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea, nee 

Parce cadis ubi destinatis. 2( 



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CARMINUM. LIB. II. 8. 41 

Oblivioso laevia Masaico 
Ciboria exple : funde capacious 
Unguenta de conchia. Quia udo 
Deproperare apio coronas 

Ouratve m^rto ? quern Venus arbitrum 25 

Dicet bibendi ? Non ego sanius 
Bacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce mini furere est amico. 



Carmen VIII. 

AD BARINEN. 

UUa si juris tibi pejerati 
Poena, Barine, nocuisset unquam ; 
Dente si nigro fieres vel uno 
Turpior ungui : 

Crederem. Sed tu, simul obligasti 5 

Perfidum votis caput, enitescis 
Pulchrior multo, juvenumque prodis 
Publica cura. 

Expedit matris cineres opertos 
Fallere, et toto taciturna noctis 10 

Signa cum coelo, gelidaque divos 
Morte carentes. 

Ridet hoc, inquam, Venus ipsa, rident 
Simplices Njmphae, ferus et Cupido 
Semper ardentes acuens sagittas 15 

Cote cruenta. 

Adde, quod pubes tibi crescit omnia, 
Servitus crescit nova ; nee priores 
Impiae tectum dominae relinquunt 

Saepe minati. 20 



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42 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Te suis matres metuunt juventis, 
Te genes parci, miseraeque nuper 
Yirgines nuptae, tua ne retardet 
Aura maritos. 



Carmen IX. 

AD VALGIUM. 

Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros ; aut mare Caspium 
Vexant inaequales procellae 
Usque ; nee Armeniis in oris, 

Amice Valgi, stat glacies'iners ft 

Menses per omnes ; aut Aquilonibus 
Querceta Gargani laborant, 
Et foliis viduantur orni. 

Tu semper urgues flebilibus modis 
Mjsten ademtum ; nee tibi vespero 10 

Surgente decedunt amores, 
Nee rapidum fugiente Solem. 

At non ter aevo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 
Annos ; nee impubem parentes 15 

Troilonj aut Phrygiae sorores 

Flevere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querelarum ; et potius nova 
Cantemus Augusti tropaea 
Caesaris, et rigidum Niphaten ; 20 

Medumque flumen, gentibus additum 
Victis, minores volvere vortices ; 
Intraque praescriptum Gelonoe 
Exiguis equitare campis. 

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OABMINUM. LIB. U. 10. 43 

Carmkn X. 
AD LICINIUM. 

RectiuB vives, Iicini, neque altum 
Semper urguendo, neque, dum procellas 
Cautus horrescis, nimium premendo 
Litus iniquum. 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 6 

Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 
Sobrius aula. 

Saepius ventis agitatur ingens 
Pinus, et celsae graviore casu 10 

Decidunt turres, feriuntque summos 
Fulmina montes. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
Pectus. Informes hiemes reducit 15 

Jupiter, idem 

Summovet. Non, si male nunc, et olim 
Sic erit. Quondam cithara tacentem 
Suscitat Musam, neque semper arcum 

Tendit Apollo. 20 

Rebus arigustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare : sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimhim secundo 
Turgida vela. 



7* 

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44 Q. HORATII FLAOCI 

Carmen XI. 

AD aUINCTIUM. 

Gtuid bellicosus Cantaber, et Scythes, 
Hirpine GLuincti, cogitet, Adria 
Divisus objecto, remittas 
duaerere : nee treptdes in usum 

Poscentis aevi pauca. Fugit retro 
Levis Juventas, et Decor ; arida 
Pellente lascivos Amores 
Canitie facilemque Somnum, 

Non semper idem floribus est honor 
Vernis ; neque uno Lima rubens nitet 
Vultu : quid aeternis minorem 
Consiliis animum fatigas ? 

Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac 
Pinu jacentes sic temere, et rosa 
Canos odorati capillos, 

Dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 

Potamus uncti ? Dissipat Euius 
Cura3 edaces. Q,uis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falerni 
Pocula praetereunte lvmpha ? 

Q,uis devium scortum elieiet domo 
Lyden 1 eburna, die age, cum lyra 
Maturet, in comtum Lacaenae 
More comam religata nodum. 



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CARMINUM. LIB. II. 12. 45 

Carmen XII. 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Nolis longa ferae bella Numantiae, 
Nee dirum Hannibalem, nee Siculum mare 
Pocno purpureum sanguine, mollibus 
Aptari citharae modis : 

Nee saevos Lapithas, et nimium mero 5 

Hylaeum ; domitosve Herculea manu 
Telluris juvenes, unde periculum 

Fulgens contremuit domus 

Batumi veteris : tuque pedestnbus 
Dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 10 

Maecenas, melius, ductaque per vias 
Regum colla minacium. 

Me dulces dominae Musa Licymniae 
Cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 
Fulgentes oculos, et bene mutuis 15 

Fidum pectus amoribus : 

Guam nee ferre pedem dedecuit choris, 
Nee certare joco, nee dare brachia 
Ludentem nitidis virginibus, sacro 

Dianae Celebris die. 20 

Num tu, quae tenuit dives Achaemenes, 
Aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias opes, 
Permutare velis crine Licymniae, 

Plenas aut Arabum domos ? 

Dum flagrantia detorquet ad oscula 25 

Gervicem, aut facili saevitia negat, 
Auae poscente magis gaudeat eripi, 
Interdum rapere occupeu 

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46 ft. HORATII FLACCI 

Carmen XIII. 

In arborem, cujus casu paene opprcesus fuerat 

Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 
Uuicunque primum, et sacrilega manu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
Perniciem, opprobriumque pagi. 

Ilium et parentis crediderim aui 5 

Fregisse cervicem, et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturno cruore 
Hospitifl ; ille venena Colcha, 

Et quidquid usqUam concipitur nefeis, 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Te triste lignum, te caducum 
In domini caput immerentis. 

Q,uid quisque vitet, nunquam homini satis 
Cautum est, in horas. Navita Bosporum 
Poenus perhorrescit, neque ultra 15 

Caeca timet aliunde fata ; 

Miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi ; catenas Parthus et Italum 
Robur: sed improvisa leti 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. 20 

Gtuam paene furvae regna Proserpinae, 
Et judicantem vidimus Aeacum : 
Sedesque discretas piorum ; et 
Aeoliis fidibus querentem 

Sappho puellis de popularibus ; 25 

Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis, 
Dura fugae mala, dura belli. 

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CARMINUM. LIB. II. 14. 47 

Utrumque sacro digna silentio 
Mirantur Umbrae dicere : sed magis 30 

Pugnas et exactos tyrannoe 
Densum humeris bibit aure vulgus. 

Quid minim ? ubi illis carminibus etupenfl 
Demittit atras bellua centiceps 
Aures, et intorti capillis 35 

Eumenidum recreantur angues 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborum decipitur sono : 
Nee curat Orion leones 
Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 

Carmen XIV. 

AD POSTUMUM. 

Eheu ! fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
Labuntur anni : nee Pietas moram 
Rugis et instanti Senectae 
Afferet, indomitaeque MortL 

Nan, si trecenis, quotquot eunt dies, 5 

Amice, places illacrimabilem 
PLutona tauris ; qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tit yonque tristi 

Compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
Quicunque terrae munere vescimur, 10 

Enaviganda, sive reges 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Prustra cruento Marte carebimus, 
Fractisque rauci fluctibus Adriae ; 
Frustra per auctumnos nocentem 13 

Corporibus metuemus Austrum : 

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48 <l* HOBATII FLACGI 

Visendus ater flumine languido 

Cocytos errans, et Danai genus 

Infame, damnatusque longi 

Sisyphus Aeolides iaboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus, et domus, et placens 
Uxor ; neque hanim, quas colis, arborum 
Te, praeter in visas cupressos, 
Ulla brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet haeres Caecuba dignior 25 

Servata centum clavibus, et mero 
Tinguet pavimentum superbis 
Pontincum potiore coenis. 

Carmen XV. 
IN SUI SAECULI LUXURIAM. 

Jam pauca aratro jugera regiae 
Moles relinquent : undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu : platanusque caeleba 

Evincet ulmos : turn violaria, et 5 

Myrtus, et omnis copia narium, 
Spargent olivetis odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori : 

Turn spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
Excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli 10 

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis, veterumque norma. 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Commune magnum : nulla decempedis 

Metata privatis opacam 1 f> 

Porticus excipiebat Arcton : 

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CARMINUM. LIB. II. 16. 49 

Nec fortuitum spernere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumtu jubentes et deorum 
Templa novo decorare saxo 20 



Carmen XVI. 

AD GROSPHUM. 

Otium divos rogat impotent! 
Pre86U8 Aegaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit Lunam, neque certa fulgent 
Sidera nautis : 

Otium bello furiosa Thrace, 5 

Otium Medi pharetra decorL 
Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura ve- 
nale neque auro. 

Non enim gazae neque consularis 
Summovet lictor miseros tumultus 10 

Mentis, et Curas laqueata circum 
Tecta volantes. 

Vivitur parvo bene, cui paternum 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum : 
Nec leves soxnnos timor aut cupido 15 

Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes jaculamur aevo 
Multa ? quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus ? Patriae quis exsul 

Se quoque fugit % 20 

Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves 
Cura : nec turmas equitum relinqnit : 
Ocior cervis, et agente nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 



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50 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Laetus in praesens animus, quod ultra est 25 

Oderit curare, et amara lento 
Temperet risu. Nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatum. 

AbstuKt clarum cita mors Achillem, 
Longa Titbonum minuit senectus : 30 

Et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 
Porriget Hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccae : tibi tollit binnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa ; te bis Afro 35 

Murice tinctae 

Vestiunt lanae : mihi parva rura, et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae 
Parca non mendax dedit, et malignum 

Spernere vulgus. 40 

Carmen XVII. 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Cur me querelis exanimas tuis % 
Nee dts amicum est, nee mihi, te priua 
Obire, Maecenas, mearum 
Grande decus columenque rerum. 

Ah ! te meae si partem animae rapit i> 

Maturior vis, quid moror altera % 
Nee cams aeque, nee superstes 
Integer. Hie dies utramque 

Ducet ruinam. Non ego perfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 10 

Utcunque praecedes, supremum 
Carpere iter coniiles paiali. 



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CAKMINUM. LIB. II. 18. 51 

Me nee Chimaeiae spiritus igneae, 
Nee, si itesurgat, centimanus Gygee 
Divellet unquam. Sic potenti 15 

Justitiae placitumque Parcis. 

Beu Libra, seu me Scorpius adspicit 
Fonnidolosus, pars violentior 
Natalia home, seu tyrannus 
Hesperiae Capricornus undae : 20 

Utrumque nostrum incredibiH modo 
Consentit astrum. Te Jovis impio 
Tutela Saturno refulgens 
Eripuit, volucrisque Fati 

Tardavit alas, quum populus frequens 25 

Laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum : 
Me truncus illapsus cerebro 
Sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 

Deztra levasset, Mercurialium 
Custoe virorum. Reddere victimas 30 

Aedemque votivam memento : 
Nos humilem feriemus agnam. 



Carmen XVIII. 

Non ebur neque aureum 

Mea renidet in domo lacunar ; 
Non trabes Hymettiae 

Premunt columnas ultima recisas 
Africa : neque Attali 6 

Ignotus haeres regiam occupavi : 
Nee Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honestae purpuras clientae. 
At fides et ingenl 

Benigna vena eM ; paupeiemque dives 10 

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68 d. HORAT1I FLACCI 

Me petit ; nihil supra 

Deos lacesso : nee potentem ^iwim 
Largiora flagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die, 15 

Novaeque pergunt interire Lunae : 
Tu secanda marmora 

Locas sub ipsum funus ; et, sepulcri 
Immemor, struis domos ; 

Marisque Baiis obstrepentis urgues 20 

Summovere litora, 

Parum locuples continente ripa. 
Quid % quod usque proximos 

Rerellis agri terminos, et ultra 
Limites clientium 25 

Salis avarus ; pellitur paternos 
In sinu ferens deos 

Et uxor, et vir, sordidosque natos. 
Nulla certior tamen, 

Rapacis Orci fine destinata 30 

Aula divitem manet 

Herum. Quid ultra tendis ? Aequa tellus 
Pauperi recluditur 

Regumque pueris : nee satelles Orci 
Callidum Promethea 35 

Revexit auro captus. Hie superbum 
Tantalum, atque Tantali 

Genus coercet ; hie levare functum 
Pauperem laboribus 

Vocatus atque non moratus audit 40 



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GABJcnruM. lib. ii. 19. 53 

Carmen XIX. 

IN BACCHUM. 

Bacchum in remoti* carmina rupibus 
Vidi docentem, (credite posteri !) 
Nymphasque discentes, et aures 
Capripedum Satyroram acutaa. 

Euoe I recenti mens trepidat metu, 5 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Laetatur ! Euoe ! parce, liber 1 
Parce, gravi metuende thyrso ! 

Fas pervicaces est mfhi Thyiadas, 
Vinique fontem, lactis et uberes 10 

Cantare rivos, atque truncia 
Lapsa cavis iterare xnella. 

Fas et beatae conjugis additum 
Stellis honorem, tectaque Penthei 
Disjecta non leni niina, 15 

Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. 

Tu flectis amnes, tu mare barbarum ; 
Tu separatis uvidus in jugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 
Bistonidum sine fraude crines. 20 

Tu, quum parentis regna per arduum 
Cohors Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhoetum retorsisti leonis 
Unguibus horribilique mala : 

ftuamquam, choreis aptior et jocis 2& 

TiUdoquc dictus, non sat idoncus 
Pugnae ferebaris ; sed idem 
Pacis eras mediusque belli. 

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54 I. UORATII FLACCI 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Cornu decorum, leniter atterens 30 

Caudam, et recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 

Carmen XX. 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Non usitata, non tenui ferar 
Penna biformis per liquidum aethera 
Vates : neque in terns morabor 
Longius : invidiaque major 

Urbes relinquam. Non ego pauperum 5 

Sanguis parentum, non ego, quern vocal 
Dilecte, Maecenas, obibo, 
Nee Stygia cohibebor unda. 

Jam jam residunt cruribus asperae 
Pelles; et album mutor in alitem 10 

Supema : nascunturque leves 
Per digitos humerosque plumae. 

Jam Daedaleo notior Icaro 
Visam gementis litora Bospori, 
Syrtesque Gaetulas canorus 15 

Ales Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus, et qui dissimulat metura 
Marsae cohortis ; Dacus, et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni : me peritus 

Discet Iber, Rodanique potor 20 

Absint inani funere naeniae, 
Luctusque turpes et querimoniae . 
Compesce clamorem, ac sepulcri 
Miltc supervacuos honores. 

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Q. HOBATn FLACCI 

CARMINUM 

LIBER TERTIUS. 



Carmen 1. 

Odi profanum vulgus et arceo : 
Favete Unguis : carmina non prius 
Audita Musarum eacerdos 
Virginibus pueiisque canto. 

Regum timendorum in proprios greges, 6 

Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Cuncta supercilio movenlis. 

Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbusta sulcis ; hie generosior 10 

Descendat in Campum petitor ; 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 

Contendat ; illi turba clienlium 
Sit major : aequa lege Necessitas 
Sortitur insignes et imos ; 1 5 

Omne capak movet urna nomen. 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
Ehilcem elaborabunt saporem, 

Non avium citharaeve cantus 20 

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56 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Somnum reducent. Somnus agrestium 
Lenis virorum non humiles domoe 
Fastidit, umbrosamve ripam, 
Non Zephjris agitata Tempo. 

Desiderantem quod satis est neque 
Tumultuoaum sollicitat mare, 
Nee saevus Arcturi cadentis 
Impetus, aut orienttB Haedi : 

Non verberatae grandine vineae, 
Fundusve mendax, arbore nunc aquas 
Culpante, nunc torrentia agros 
Sidera, nunc hiemes iniquas. 

Contracta pisces aequora sentiunt 
Jactis in altum molibus : hue frequens 
Caementa demittit redemtor 
Cum famulis, dominusque tenae 

Fastidiosus : sed Timor et Minae 
Scandunt eodem, quo dominus : neque 
Decedit aerata triremi, et 
Post equitem. sedet atra Cura. 

Cluod si dolentem nee Phrygius lapis, 
Nee purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus, nee Fttlerna 
Vitis, Achaemeniumve costum ; 

Cur invidendis postibus et novo 
Sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores ? 



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CARMIHUM. LIB. HI. 2. 57 



Carmen IE. 

Angustam amice* pauperiem pad 
Robustus acri militia puer 
Condiscat; et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques metuendus hasta : 

Vitamque sub divo trepidis agat 6 

In rebus. Ilium et moenibus hosticis 
Matrona bellantis tyranni 
Prospiciens et adulta virgo 

Suspiret : eheu ! ne rudis agminum 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum 10 

Tactu leonem, quern cruenta 
Per medias rapit ira caedes. 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori : 
Mors et fugaccm persequitur virum, 
Nee parcit imbellis juventae 15 

Poplitibus timidoque tergo. 

Virtus, repulsae nescia sordidae, 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus : 
Nee sumit aut ponit secures 

Arbitrio popularis aurae. 20 

Virtus, recludens immeritis mori 
Coelum, negata tentat iter via : 
Coetusque vulgares et udam 
Spernit humum fugiente penna. 

Est et fideli tuta silentio 25 

Merces : vetabo, qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcanae, sub tsdem 
Sit trabibus, fragilemve mecum 

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- 68 Q, HORATII FLACCI 

Solvat phaselon. Saepe Dtespiter 
Neglectus incesto addidit integrum : 
Raro antecedentem scelestum 
Deseruit pede Poena claudo. 



Carmen III. 

Justum ac teuacem propositi virum 
Non civium ardor prava jubentium, 
Non vultus instantis tyranni 
Mente quatit solida, neque Auster, 

Dux inquieti turbidus Adriae, 5 

Nee fulminantis magna manus Jovis : 
Si firactus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinae. 

Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas : W 

Cluos inter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. 

Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae 
Vexere tigres, indocili jugum 
Collo trahentes. Hac Q,uirinus * 5 

Martis equis Acheronta fugit, 

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
Junone divis : Hion, Dion 
Fatalis incestusque judex 
Et mulier peregrina vertit 20 

In pulverem ; ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castaeque damnatum Minervae 
Cum populo et duce fraudulento. 

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CARMINUM. LIB. HI. 3. 59 

Jam nee Lacaenae splendet adulterae 25 

Famosus hospes, nee Priami domus 
Perjura pugnaces Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit : 

Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et graves 30 

Iras, et invisum nepotem, 
Troia quern peperit sacerdos, 

Marti redonabo. Ilium ego lucidas 
Tnire sedes, discere nectaris 
Succos, et adscribi quietis 35 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter saeviat Dion 
Romamque pontus, qualibet exsules 
In parte regnanto beati : 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

Insultet armentum, et catulos ferae 
Celent inultae, stet Capitolium 
Fulgens, triumphatisque poesit 
Roma ferox dare jura Medis. 

Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 45 

Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 
Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus : 

Aurum irrepertum, et sic melius situm 
Quum terra celat, spernere fortior, 50 

duam cogere humanos in usus 
Omne sacrum rapiente dextra. 

ttuicunque mundo terminus obstitit, 
Hunc tangat armis, vincere gestiens, 

Clua parte debacchantur ignes, 55 

Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 



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60 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Sed bellicosis fata duiritibus 

- Hac lege dico ; ne nimium pii 

Rebusque fidentes avitae 

Tecta velint reparare Trojae. 60 

Trojae renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices cateryas 
Conjuge me Jovis et sorore. 

Ter si resurgat munis aeneus 65 

Auctore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis ; ter uxor i 

Capta virum puerosque ploret 

Non haec jocosae conveniunt lyrae : 
Cluo Musa tendis ? Desine pervicax 70 

Referre sermones deorum et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 

Carmen IV. 

AD CALLIOPEN. 

Descende coelo, et die age tibia 
Regina longum Calliope melos, 
Seu voce nunc mavis acuta, 
Seu fidibus citharaque Phoebi. 

Auditis ? an me ludit amabilis 5 

Insania ? Audire et videor pios 
Errare per lucos, amoenae 
duos et aquae subeunt et aurae. 

Me fabulosae, Vulture in Appulo 
Nutricis extra limen Apuliae, 10 

Ludo fatigatumque somno # 

Fronde nova puerum palumbes 

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CARMINUM. LIB. HI. 4. 61 

Texere : minim quod foret omnibus, 
Quicunque celsae nidum Acherontiae, 

Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum 15 

Pingue tenent humilis Forenti ; 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Donnirem et u/sis j ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque collataque myrto, 

Non sine dls animosus infans. 20 

Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos 
Toflor Sabinos ; seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste, seu Tibur supinum, 
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 

Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 25 

Non me Philippis versa acies retro, 
Devota non exstinxit arbor, 
Nee Sicula Palinurus unda. 

(Jtcunque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem, navita, Bosporum 30 

Tentabo, et urentes arenas 
Litoris Assyrii, viator. 

Visam Britannos hospitibus feros, 
Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum ; 
Visam pharetratos Gelonos 35 

Et Scythicum inviolatus amnem. 

Vos Caesarem altum, militia simul 
Fessas cohortes abdidit oppidis, 
Fmire quacrentem labores, 
Pierio recreatis antro : 40 

Vos lene consilium et datis, et dato 
Gaudetis almae. Scimus, ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmine sustulerit corusco, 

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62 Q. HORATII PLACCI 

Qui terrain inertem, qui mare temperat 45 

Ventosum ; et umbras regnaque tristia, 
Divosque, mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 

Magnum ilia terrorem intulerat Jovi 
Fidens, juventus horrida, brachiis, 50 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion impoeuisse Olympo. 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 

Quid Rhoetus, evulsisque truncis- 55 

Enceladus jaculator audax, 

Contra sonantem Palladis aegida 
Possent ruentes % Hinc avidus stetit 
Vulcanus, hinc matrona Juno, et 

Nunquam humeris positurus arcum, 60 

Ctui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
Crines solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

Vis consilt expers mole ruit sua! 65 

Vim temperatem dl quoque provehunt 
In majus ; Idem odere vires 
Omne nefas ammo moventes. 

Testis mearum centimanus Gyges 
Sententiarum, notus et integrae 70 

Tentator Orion Dianae 
Virginea domitus sagitta, 

Injecta monstris Terra dolet suis, 
Moeretque partus fulmine luridum 

Missos ad Orcum : nee peredit 75 

Impositam celer ignis Aetnen ; 

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CARMINUM. LIB. HI. 5. 63 

bcontinentis nee Tityi jecur 
telinquit ales, neqtdtiae addilus 
Custos : amatorem et trecentae 
Firithoum cohibent catenae. 80 



Carmen V. 

Coelo tonautcm credidimus Jovem 
Regnare : praesens divus habebitur 
Augustus, adjectis Britannia 
Imperio gravibusque Peisk. 

MUesne Crasai conjuge barbara 5 

Turps maritU8 vixit ? et hostium — 
Pro Curia, inversique mores I — 
Consenuit socerorum in arvis, 

Sub rege Medo, Marsus et Appulus ! 
Anciliorum et nominis et togae 10 

Oblitus aetexnaeque Vestae, 
Incolumi Jove et urbe Roma * 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli, 
Dissentientis conditionibus 
Foedis, et exemplo trahenti If 

Pernicdem veniens in aevum, 

Si nan perirent immiserabOis 
Captiva pubes. " Signa ego Punick 
Affixa delubris, et anna 
Multibus sine caede," dixit, 20 

" Derepta vidi : vidi ego eivhim 
Retorta tergo brachia libero, 
Portasque non clusas, et arva 
Marte coli populata noetro. 

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64 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Auro repensus scilicet acrior 25 

Miles redibit 1 Flagitio additis 

Damnum. Neque amissos colores 
Lana refert medicata fuco, 

Nee vera virtus, quum semel excidit, 
Curat reponi deterioribus. T 30 

Si pugnet extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

Clui perfidis se credidit hostibus ; 
£t Marte Poenos proteret altero, 
Clui lora restrictis lacertis 35 

Sensit iners, timuitque mortem 

Hinc, unde vitam sumeret aptius : 
Pacem et duello miscuit. O pudor ! 
O magna Carthago, probrosis 

Altior Italiae ruinis I" 40 

Fertur pudicae conjugis osculum, 
Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, 
Ab se removisse, et virilem 
Torvus humi posuisse vultum ; 

Donee labantes consilio Patres 45 

Firmaret auctor nunquam alias dato, 
Interque moerentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 

Atqui sciebat, quae sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen 50 

Dimovit obstantes propinquos, 
Et populum reditus morantem, 

Cluam si clientum longa negotia 
Dijudicata lite relinqueret, 
Tendons Venafranos in agros, 55 

Aut Lacedaemonium Tarentum. 

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CABMINUM. LIB. III. 6. 65 

Cabmen VL 

AD ROMANOS. 

Deficta majorum immeritus lues, 
Romane, donee templa refeceris, 
Aedesque labentes deorum, et 
Foeda nigro simulacra fumo. 

Dta te minorem quod geris, imperas : 5 

Hinc omne principium, hue refer exitum. 
Dl multa neglecti dederunt 
Hesperiae mala luctuosae. 

Jam bis Monaeses et Pacori manus 
Non auspicatos contudit impetus 10 

Nostroe, et adjecisse praedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet 

Paene occupatam seditionibus 
Delevit Urbem Dacus et Aethiops ; 
Hie classe formidatus, ille 15 

Missilibus melior sagittis. 

Fecunda culpae saecula nuptias 
Primum inquinavere, et genus, et domos : 
Hoc fonte derivata clades 
In patriam populumque fluxit 20 

Motus doceri gaudet Ionicoe 
Matura virgo, et fingitur artibus : 
Jam nunc et incestos amores 
De tenero meditatur ungui. 

Mox juniores quaerit adulteros 25 

Inter mariti vina ; neque eligit, 
Cui donet impermissa raptim 
Gaudia, luminibus remotis ; 

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66 Q. HOllATII FLACCI 

Sed jussa coram non sine conscio 
Surgit marito, seu vocat inatitor, 30 

Seu navis Hispanae magister, 
Dedecorum pretiosus emtor. 

Non his juventus orta parentibus 
Infecit aequor sanguine Punico, 

Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 35 

Antiochum, Hannibalemque din in : 

Sed rusticorum mascula militum 
Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
Versare glebas, et severae 
Matris ad arbitrium recisos 40 

Portare fustes, sol ubi montium 
Mutaret umbras et juga demeret 
Bobus fetigatis, amicum 
Tempus agens abeunte curru. 

Damnosa quid non imminuit dies 1 45 

Aetas parentum, pejor avis, tulit 
Nos nequiores, mox daturos 
Progeniem vitioadorem. 



Carmen VBL 

AD ASTERIEN. 

Gtuid fles, Asterie, quern libi candidi 
Primo restituent vere Favonii, 
Thyna merce beatum, 
Constantis juvenem fide, 

Gjgen ? Die Notis actus ad Oricum 
Post insana Caprae sidera, frig:' das 
Noctes non sine multis 
Insomnia lacrimis agit 



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CARMIMUM LIB. III. 8. 67 

Atqui sollicitae nuntius hospilae, 
Suspirare Chloen, et miseram tuis 10 

Dicens ignibus tin, 
Tentat mille vafer modis. 

Ut Proetum mulier perfida credulum 
Fates impulerit criminibus, nimis 
Casto Bellerophonti 15 

Maturare necem, refert. 

Nanat paene datum Pelea Tartaro, 
Magnessam Hippolyten dum fugit abstinens : 
Et peccare docentes 

Fallax historias movet : 20 

Frustra : nam scopulis surdior Icart 
Voces audit adhuc integer. At, tibi 
Ne vicinus Enipeus 
Plus justo placeat, cave : 

Quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 26 

Aequo conspicitur gramine Martio, 
Nee quisquam citus aeque 
Tusco denatat alveo. 

Prima nocte domum claude : neque in vias 
Sub cantu querulae despice tibiae : 30 

Et te saepe vocanti 
Duram difficilis mane. 



Carmen VIII. 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
Quid velint flores et acerra thuris 
Plena, miraris, positusque carbo 
Cespite vivo, 
9* 

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68 Q. HOBAT1I FLACCI 

Docte sermones utriusque linguae 1 5 

Voveram dulces epulas et album 
Libero caprum, prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu. 

Hie dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem adstrictum pice demovebit 10 

Amphorae fumum bibere institutae 
Consule Tullo. 

Sume t Maecenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum, et vigiles lucemas 
Perfer in lucem : procul omnia esto 15 

Clamor et ira. 

Mitte civiles super Urbe curas : 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen : 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 

Dissidet armis : 20 

Servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae, 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena : 
Jam Scythae laxo meditantur arcu 
Cedere campis. 

Negligens, ne qua populus laboret 25 

Parte, privatim nimium cavere, 
Dona praesentis cape laetus horae, et 
Linque severa. 

Carmen IX. 
CARMEN AMOEBAEUM. 

Horatius. 

Donee gratus eram tibi, 

Nee quisquam potior brachia candidae 
Cervici juvenis dabat : 

Persarum vigui rege beatior. 

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CAKJIINUM LIB. III. 9. 09 

Lydia. 

Donee non aliam magis 5 

Arsisti, neque erat Lydia post Chloen : 

Multi Lydia nominis 
Romana vigui clarior Dia. 

Horatius. 

Me nunc Thressa Chloe regit, 

Dulces docta modos. et citharae sciens : 10 

Pro qua non metuam mori, 

Si parcent animae fata supersu'tL 

Lydia. 

Me torret face mutua 

Thurini Calais filius Ornyti : 
Pro quo bis patiar mori, 15 

Si parcent puero fata superstitL 

Horatius. 

Quid 1 si prisca redit Venus, 

Diductosque jugo cogit aeneo % 
Si flava excutitur Chloe, 

Rejectaeque patet janua Lydiae % 20 

Lydia. 

Quamquam sidere pulchrior 

Die est, tu levior cortice, et improbo 
Iracundior Adria : 

Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam Hbens. 



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79 4. HORATH FX.ACC1 

Carmen X. 

AD LYCEN. 

Externum Tanain si biberes, Lyce, 
Saevo nupta viro ; me tamen asperaa 
Projectum ante fores objicere incolia 
Plorares Aquilonibus. 

Audifl quo strepitu janua, quo nemus 5 

Inter pulchra satum tecta remugiat 1 
Sentis et positas ut glaciet nives 
Puro numine Jupiter % 

Ingratam Veneri pone superbiam, 
Ne currente rota funis eat retro. 10 

Non te Penelopen dimcilem procis 
Tyrrhenus genuit parens. 

O, quamvis neque te munera, nee preees, 
Nee tinctus viola pallor amantium, 
Nee vir Pieria pellice saucius U 

Curvat : supplicibus tuis 

Parcas, nee rigida mollior aesculo, 
Nee Mauris animum mitior anguibus. 
Non noe semper erit liminis aut aquae 

Coelestis patiens latus. 2f 

Carmen XL 
AD LYDEN. 

Mercuri, nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo, 
Tuque, Testudo, resonare septem 
Callida nervis, 

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CARMOTUM LIB. III. 11. 71 

Nec loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 5 

Divitum mensis et arnica tempfis : 
Die modos, Lyde quibus obstinatas 
Applicet aures. 

Quae, velut latis equa trima campis, 
Ludit exsultim, metuitque tangi, 10 

Nuptiarum expers, et adhuc protervo 
Cruda marito. 

Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere, et rivos celeres morari, 
Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 15 

Janitor aulae, 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput, aestuetque 
Spiritus teter saniesque manet 

Ore trilingui. 20 

Quin et brion Tityosque vultu 
Risit invito : stetit urna paulum 
Sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 
Carmine mulces. 

Audiat Lyde scelus atque notas 25 

Virginum poenas, et inane lymphae 
Dolium fundo pereuntis imo, 
Seraque feta, 

Quae manent culpas etiam sub Oreo. 
Impiae, nam quid potuere majus % 30 

Impiae sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multis, face nuptiali 
Digna, perjurum fuit in parentem 
Splendide mendax, et in omne virgo 85 

Nobilis aevum. 

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TO <*. HOBATII FLACCI 

" Surge," quae dixit juveni marito, 
" Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, UDde 
Non times, detur : socerum et scelestaa 

Falle sorores ; 40 

Quae, velut nactae vitulos leaenae, 
Singulos, eheu 1 lacerant. Ego, ilbs 
MolHor, nee te feriam, neque intra 
Claustra tenebo. 

Me pater saevis oneret catenis, 45 

Quod viro clemens misero peperci : 
Me yel extremos Numidarum in agroe 
Classe releget. 

I, pedes quo te rapiunt et aurae, 
Ehun favet nox et Venus : I secundo 50 

Omine : et nostri memorem sepulcro 
Scalpe querelam." 



Cabmen XII. 

AD NEOBULEN. 

Miserarum est, neque Amori dare ludum, neque dulci 

Mala vino lavere : aut exanimari metuentes 

Patruae verbera linguae. Tibi qualum Cjthereae 

Puer ales, tibi telas, operosaeque Minervae 

Studium aufert, Neobule, Liparei nitor Hebri, 5 

Simul unctos Tiberinis humeros lavit in undis, 

Eques ipso melior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 

Neque segni pede victus : catus idem per apertum 

Fugientes agitato grege cervos jaculari, et 

Celer arcto latitantem fruticeto excipere aprum. 10 



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CARMINUM UB. III. 13. 14. 73 

Carmen XIII. 

AD FONTEM BANDUSIUM. 

fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero, non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis haedo, 
Cui frons turgida cornibus 

Primis et Venerem et proelia deetinat : 5 

Frustra : nam gelidoe inficiet tibi 
Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi suboles gregis. 

Te flagranti atrox horn Caniculae 
Nescit tangere : tu frigus amabile 10 

Fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes, et pecori vago. 

Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis impoeitam ilicem 
Saxis, unde loquaces 15 

Ljmphae desiliunt tuae. 

Carmen XIV. 

AD ROMANO S. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, O Plebs ! 
Morte venalem peliisse laurum, 
Caesar Hispana repetit Penates 
Victor ab ora. 

Unico gaudens mulier marito 5 

Prodeat, justis operata divis ; 
Et soror clari ducis, et decorae 
Supplice vitta ■ 

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74 O. HORATII FLACCI 

Virginum matres, juvemimque nuper 
Sospitum. Vos o pueri, et puellae 10 

Jam virtim expertes, male nominatia 
Parcite verbis. 

Hie dies vere mihi festus atras 
Eximetcuras: ego nee tumultum, 
Nee mori per vim metuam, tenente 15 

Caesare terras. 

I, pete unguentum, puer, et coronas, 
Et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 

Fallere testa. 20 

Die et argutae properct Neaerae 
Mjrrheum nodo cohibcre crinem : 
Si per invisum mora janitorem 
Ret, abito. 

Lenit albescens animos capillus 25 

Litium et rixae cupidos protervae : 
Non ego hoc ferrem, calidus juventa, 
Consule Planco. 



Carmen XV. 
AD CHLORIN. 

Uxor pauperis Ibyci, 

Tandem nequitiae fige modum tuae, 
Famosisque laboiibus : 

Maturo propior desine funeri 
Inter ludere virgines, 

Et stellifl nebulam spargere candidis 
Non, si quid Pholoen satis, 

Et tc, Clilori, decet : filid rectius 



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CARMUTOM LIB. III. 16. 75 

Expugnat juvenum demos, 

PuIbo Thyias uti concita tympana 10 

Blam eogit amor Nothi 

Lascivae similem ludere capreae : 
Te lanae prope nobilem 

Tonsae Luceriam, non citharae, decent, 
Nee flew purpureus rosae," 15 

Nee poti, vetulam, faece tenus cadL 



Carmen XVI. 
AD MAECENATEM. 

Inclusam Danaen turria aSnea, 
Robustaeque fores, et vigilum canum 
Tristes excubiae munierant satis 
Nocturnis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium, Virginia abditae 6 

Custodem pavidum, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 
Convereo in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
Et perrumpere amat saxa potentius 10 

Ictu fulmineo I Concidit auguris 
Argivi domus, ob lucrum 

Demersa ezitio. Diffidit lurbium 
Portas vir Macedo, et submit aemulos 
Reges muneribus. Munera navium 15 

Saevos illaqueant duces. 

Grescentem sequitur cura pecuniam, 
Majorumque fames. Jure perhorrui 
Late conspicuum tollere verticem, 

Maecenas, equitum decus ! 20 

10 



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n 4. HOKATII FLACCI 

Quanto quisque sibi plum negarait, 
Ab d1s plura feret Nil cupienthun 
Nudus castra peto, et transruga divitum 
Partes Hnquere gestio ; 

Contemtae dominus splendidior rei, 25 

Quam si, quidquid arat impiger Appulus, 
Occultare meis dicerer horreis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 

Purae rivus aquae, silvaque jugerum 
Paucorum, et segetis certa fides meae, 30 

Fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae 
Fallit. Sorte beatior, 

Quamquam nee Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
Nee Laestrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
Langueecit mihi, nee pinguia Qallicis 35 

Crescunt vellera pascuis : 

Importuna tamen Pauperies abest ; 
Nee, si plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine 
Vectigalia porrigam, 40 

Uuam si Mjgdoniis regnum Aljattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa. Bene est, cui Deus obtulit 
Parca, quod satis est, manu. 

Carmen XVII. 

AD AELIUM IiAMIAM. 

Aeli, vetusto nobilis ab Lamo ! 
[Gluando et priores nine Lamias ferunt 
Denominates, et nepotum 

Per memares genus oinne fastos 

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CARMIN0M LIB. 111. 18. 7T 

Auctore ab illo ducit originem,] 
Qui Formiarum moenia dicitur 
Princep8 et innantem Maricae 
Litoribus tenuisse Lirim, 

Late tyrannus : eras foliis nemus 
Multis et alga litus inutili 1U 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Stemet, aquae nisi fallit augur 

Annoea comix. Dum potis, aridum 
Compone lignum : eras Genium mero 
Curabis et porco bimestri, lb 

Cum famulis operum solutis. 

Carmen XVIII. 

AD FAUNUM. 

Faune, Nympharum fugientum amator, 
Per meos fines et apnea rura 
Lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
Aequus alumnis : 

Si tener pleno cadit haedus anno, 5 

Larga nee desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina craterae, vetus ara multo 
Fumat odore. 

Ludit herboso pecus omne campo, 

Cluum tibi Nonae redeunt Decembres : 1 

Festus in pratis vacat otioso 

Cum bove pagus : 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnos : 
Spargit agrestes tibi silva frondes • 
Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor 15 

Tei pe«le teoam. 

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78 Q. HORATII FLAOCI 

Carmen XIX. 

AD TELEPHUM. 

Quantum distet ab Inacho 

Codrus, pro patria non timidus mori, 
Narras, et genus Aeaci, 

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Eio : 
Cluo Chium pretio cadum 5 

Mercemur, quia aquam temperet ignibus, 
Quo praebente domum et quota 

Pelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 
Da Lunae propere novae, 

Da Noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 10 

Murenae : tribus aut novem 

Miscentor cyathis pocula commodis. 
Qui M usas amat impares, 

Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet 
Vates: tres prohibet supra 15 

Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia, 
Nudis juncta sororibus. 

Insanire juvat : cur Berecyntiae 
Cessant flamina tibiae ? 

Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyra % 20 

Parcentes ego dexteras 

Odi : sparge rosas : audiat invidus 
Dementem strepitum Lycus 

Et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 
Spissa te nitidum coma, 25 

Puro te similem, Telephe, Vespero, 
Tempestiva petit Rhode : 

Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meae. 



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CARMUf UM LIB. III. 20. 21. TO 

Cabmen XX. 

AD PYRRHUM. 

Non Tides, quanto moveas periclo, 
Pyrrhe, Gaettilae catulos leaenae ? 
Dora poet paulo fugies inaudax 
Proelia raptor 

Quum per obstantes juvenum catervas S 

Ibit insignem repetens Nearchum : 
Grande certamen, tibi praeda cedat 
Major an ill). 

Interim, dum tu celeres sagittas 
Promis, haec dentes acuit timendos, 10 

Arbiter pugnae posuisse nudo 
Bub pede palmam 

Fertur, et leni recreare vento 
Sparsum odoratis humerum capillis ; 
Qualis aut Nireus fait, aut aquosa 15 

Raptus ab Ida. 

Carmen XXI. 

AD AMPHORAM. 

O nata mecum consule Manlio, 
Sen tu querelas, sive geris jocos, 
Seu nxam et insanos amores, 
Sou facilem pia, Testa, somnum ; 

duocunque laetum nomine Massicum 6 

Servas, moveri digna bono die, 
Descende, Corvino jubente 
Promere languidiora vina. 
10* 

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60 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, to negliget horridus : 10 

Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Saepe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
Plerumque duro . tu sapientium 

Curas et arcanum jocoso 15 

Consilium retegis Lyaeo : 

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiifl 
Viresque : et addis cornua pauperi, 
Post te neque iratos trementi 
Regum apices, neque militum anna. 20 

Te Liber, et, si laeta aderit, Venus, 
Segnesque nodum solvere Qratiae, 
Vivaeque producent lucemae, 
Dum rediens fugat astra Phoebus. 



Carmen XXII. 
AD DIANAM. 

Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, 
Quae laborantes utero puellas 
Ter yocata audis, adimisque leto, 
Diva triformis : 

Imminens villae tua pinus esto, 
Quam per exactos ego laetus annos 
Verris obliquum meditantk ictum 
Sanguine donem. 



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CARMINUM UB. III. 23. 24. 81 

Carmen XXTTT. 
AD PHIDYLEN. 

Coelo supinas si tuleria manus 
Nascente Luna, rustica Phidyle, 
Si thure placaris et horna 
Fruge Lares, avidaque porca : 

Nee pestilentem sentiet Africum 5 

Fecunda vitis, nee sterilem seges 
Robiginem, aut dulces alumni 
Pomifero grave tempus anno. 

Nam, quae nivali pascitur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et ilices, 10 

Aut crescit Albania in herbis, 
Victima, pontificum securim 

Cervice tinguet. Te nihil attinet 
Tentare multa caede bidentium 
Parvos cofonantem marino 15 

Rore deos fragilique myrto. 

Immunis aram si tetigit manus, 
Non sumtuosa blandior hostia 
Mollivit aversos Penates 
Farre pio et saliente mica. 20 



Carmen XXTV. 

Intactis opulentior 

Thesauris Aiabum et divitis Indian 
Caementis licet occupes 

Tyrrhenum omne tins et mare Apulicum, 



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Q. HOBATH 1XACCI 

Si figit adamantinos 5 

Surnmis verticibus dira Necessitas 
Clavos, non animum metu- 

Non mortis laqueis expedies caput 
Campestres melius Scjthae, 

Cluorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 10 
Vivunt, et rigidi Getae : 

Immetata quibus jugera liberas 
Fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

Nee cultura placet longior annua : 
Defunctumque laborious 15 

Aequali recreat sorte vicarius. 
Ulic matre carentibus 

Privignis mulier temperat innocens : 
Nee dotata regit virum 

Conjux, neo nitido fidit adultero : 20 

Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus, et metuens alterius viri 
Certo foedere castitas, 

Et peccare nefas, aut pretium emori. 
O quis, quia volet impias 25 

Caedes et rabiem tollere civicam ? 
Si quaeret Pater Urbium 

Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 
Refrenare licentiam, 

Clarus postgenitis, quatenus, heu nefas ! 30 

Yirtutem incolumem odimus, 

Sublatam ex oculis quaerimus invidi. 
Quid tristes querimoniae, 

Si non supplicio culpa reciditur % 
duid leges, sine moribus 35 

Vanae, proficiunt, si neque fervidis 
Pars inclusa caloribus 

Mundi, nee Boreae nnitimum latus, 
Durataeque polo nives, 

Mercatorem abigunt ? horrida callidi ^ 

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CARMINUM LIB. til. 25. 83 

Vincunt aequora navitae ? 

Magnum pauperiee opprobrium jubet 
Qiridvis et facere et pati, 

Virtutisque viam deserit arduae ? . 
Vel noe in Capitolium, 45 

duo clamor vocat et turba faventium, 
Vel nos in mare proximum 

Gemmas, et lapides, aurum et inutile, 
Summi materiem maH, 

Mittamus, scelerum si bene poenitet 50 

Eradenda cupidinis, 

Pravi sunt elementa : et tenerae nimis 
Mentes asperioribus 

Firmandae studiis. Nescit equo rudk 
Haerere ingenuus puer, 55 

Venarique timet ; ludere doctior, 
Seu Graeco jubeas trocho, 

Seu malis vetita legibus alea : 
Quum perjura patris fides 

Consortem, sochim fallat, et hospiten\ 30 

Indignoque pecuniam 

Haeredi properet Scilicet improbae 
Crescunt divitiae : tamen 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest iei. 



Carmen XXV. 

AD BACCHUM. 

Cluo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

Plenum ? Quae nemora ? quos agor in specus, 
Velox mente nova ? Cluibus 

Antris egregii Caesaris audiar 
4etemum meditans decus 

StelHs ineerere et consilio Jovis % 



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84 O. HORATII VLACCI 

Dicam insigne, recens, adhuo 

Indictum ore alio. Non secus in jugis 
Exsomnis stupet Euias, 

Hebrum prospiciens, et nive candidam 
Thracen, ac pede barbaro 

Lustratam Rhodopen. Ut mihi devio 
Ripas et vacuum nemus 

Mirari libet ! O Naiadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos : 
Nil parvum aut humili modo, 

Nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum, 
O Lenaee 1 sequi deum 

Cingentem viridi tempora pampino. 



Carmen XXVI. 

AD VENEREM. 

Vixi puellis nuper idone isi 
Et militavi non sine gloria : 
Nunc arma defunctumque bello 
Barbiton hie paries habebit, 

Laevum marinae qui Veneris latus 
Custodit. Hie, hie ponite lucida 
Funalia, et vectes, et harpas 
Oppositis foribus minaces. 

O quae beatam, diva, tenes C jprurn, et 
Memphin carentem Sithonia nive, 
Regina, sublimi flagello 
Tange Chloen semel arrogantem. 



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CAKMINUM LIB. III. 27. 85 

Carmen XXVII. 

AD GALATEAM. 

Impios parrae recinentis omen 
Ducat, et praegnans canis, aut ao agro 
Rava decurrens lupa Lanivino, 
Fetaque vulpes : 

Rumpat et serpens iter institutum, 5 

Si per obliquum similis sagittae 
Terruit mannoe. — Ego cui timebo, 
Providus auspex, 

Antequam stantes repetat paludes 
Imbrium divina avis imminentum, JO 

Ostinem corvnm prece suscitabo 
Solis ab oxtu. 

Sis licet felix, ubicunque mavis, 
At memor noetri, Galatea, vivas : 
Teque nee laevus vetet ire picus, 16 

Nee vaga comix. 

Sed vides, quanto trepidet tumultu 
Pronus Orion. Ego, quid sit ater 
Adriae, novi, sinus, et quid albus 

Peccet Iapyx. 20 

Hostium uxores puerique caecos 
Sentiant motus orientis Austri, et 
Aeqnoris nigri fremitum, et trementes 
Verbere ripas. 

Sic et Europe niveum doloso 25 

Credidit tauro latus ; at scatentem 
Belluis pontum mediasque fraudes 
Palluit audax. 

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f*6 Q. HORATII FLAOCI 

Nupei in pratis studiosa florum, et 
Debitae Nymphis opifex coronae, 30 

Nocte sublustri nihil astxa praeter 
Vidit et undas. 

Quae cdmul centum tetigit potentem 
Oppidis Creten, " Pater ! O relictum 
Filiae nomen ! pietasque," dixit. 35 

" Victa furore 1 

Unde % quo veni ? Levis una mora est 
Virginum culpae. Vigilanane ploro 
Turpe commissum % an vitio carentem 

Ludit imago 4'J 

Vana, quam e porta fugiens eburna 
Somnium ducit ? Meliusne ductus 
Ire per longos ftrit, an recentes 
Carpere flores % 

Si quis infamem mihi nunc juvencun 4£ 

Dedat iratae, lacerare ferro et 
Frangere enitar modo multum amati 
Cornua monstri 1 

Impudens iiqui patrios Penates : 
Impudens Orcum moror ! O deorum 5t 

Si quis haec audis, utinam inter errem 
Nuda leones ! 

Antequam turpis macies decentes 
Occupet malas, teneraeque succus 
Defluat praedae, speciosa qiiaoro 55 

Pascere tigres. 

Vilis Europe, pater urguet absens, 
Cluid mori cessas ? Potes hac ab omo 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 

Laedere collum. 61 

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CARMINUM LIB. III. 28. 87 

Sive te rapes et acuta leto 
Saxa delectant, age, te procellae 
Crede veloci : nisi herile mavis 
Carpere pensum, 

(Regius sanguis 1) dominaeque tK*di 65 

Barbarae pellex." Aderat querenti 
Perfidum ridens Venus, et remisso 
Filius arcu. 

Mox, ubi lusit satis, " Abstineto," 
Dixit, " irarum calidaeque rixae, 70 

Quum tibi invisus laceranda reddet 
Cornua taurus. 

Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis : 
Mitte singultus ; bene ferre magnam 
Disce fortunam : tua sectus orbis 76 

Nomina ducet" 



Carmen XXVHI. 

AD LYDEN. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam % Prome reconditum, 
Ljde strenua, Caecubum, 

Munitaeque adhibe vim sapientiae. 
Tnclinare meridiem b 

Sentis : ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli Consulis amphoram % 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum, et virides NereSdum choros : 10 

Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam, et ceteris spicula Cynthiae : 

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68 Q. HDRATII FLACCI 

Summo carmine, quae Gnidon 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paphoi 

Junctis visit oloribus : 15 

Dicetur merita Nox quoque naenia. 

Carmen XXIX. 
AD MAECENATEM. 

Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
Non ante verso lene merum cado, 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum, et 
Pressa tuis balanus capillis 

Jam dudum p.pud me est. Eripe te morae: 5 

Ut semper-udum Tibur, et Aesulae 
Declive contempleris arvum, et 
Telegoni juga parricidae. 

Fastidiosam desere copiam et 
Molem propinquam nubibus arduis : 10 

Omitte mirari beatae 
Fumum et opes strepitumque Romae. 

Plerumque gratae divitibus vices, 
Mundaeque parvo sub lare pauperum 

Coenae, sine aulaeis et ostro, 15 

Sollicitam explicuere frontem. 

Jam clarus occultum Andromedae pater 
Ostendit ignem : jam Procyon furit * 

Et stella vesani Leonis, 
Sole dies refercnte siccos. 20 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
Rivumque fessus quaerit, et horridi 
Dumeta Silvani : caretque 
Ripa vagis taciturna vends. 

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CARMINUM LIB. III. 29.» 89 

Tu civitatem quia deceat status 25 

Curas, et Urbi sollicitus times, 
Quid Seres et regnata Cjro 
Bactra parent Tanaisque discern 

Prudens futuri temporis ezitum 
CaJiginoea nocte premit deus, 30 

Ridetque, si mortalis ultra 
Fas trepidat. Quod adest memento 

Componere aequus : cetera fluminis 
Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 
Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 

In mare, nunc lapides adesos, 

Stirpesque raptas, et pecus et domos 
Volventis una, non sine montium 
Clamore vicinaeque silvae, 
Quum fera diluvies quietos 40 

Irritat amnes. Die potens sui 
Laetusque deget, cui licet in diem 
Dbrisse, " Vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum Pater occupato 

Vel sole puro : non tamen irritum, 45 

Quodcunque retro est, efficiet : neque 
Diffinget infectumque reddet, 
Cluod fugiens semel hora ve^L n 

Fortuna saevo laeta negotio, et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinax, 50 

Transmutat incertos honores, 
Nunc mini, nunc alii benigna. 

Laudo manentem : si celeres quatit 
Pennas, resigno quae dedit, et mea 
Virtute me involvo, probamque 55 

Pauperiem sine dote quaero. 

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30 O. HORATII FLACC1 

Non est meum, si mugiat Africis 
Malus procellis, ad miseras preces 
Decurrere ; et votis pacisci, 
Ne Cypriae Tyriaeve merces 60 

Addant avaro diyitias mari. 
Turn mo, biremis praesidio scaphae 
Tutum, per Aegaeos tumultus 
Aura feret geminusque Pollux. 

Carmen XXX. 

Exegi monimentum aere perennius, 

Regalique situ pyramidum altius ; 

Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis ' 

Annorum series et fuga temporum. ft 

Non omnia moriar ! multaque pars mei 

Vitabit Iibitinam. Usque ego postera 

Grescam laude recens, dum Capitolium 

Bcandet cum tacita Virgine pontifex. 

Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus, 10 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 

Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens, 

Princepe Aeolium carmen ad Italos 

Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 

duaesitam mentis, et mihi Delphica 15 

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. 



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Q. HOIIATU FLACCI 

CARMINUM 

LIBER QUARTUS. 



Carmen L 
AD VENEREM. 



intermissa, Venus, diu 

Rursus bella moves. Parce, precor, precor ! 
Non sum, qualis eram bonae 

Sub regno Cinarae. Desine, dulcium 
Mater saeva Cupidinum, 5 

Circa lustra decern flectere mollibus 
Jam durum imperiis. Abi, 

Q,uo blandae juvenum te revocant preces. 
Tempestivius in domum 

Paulli, purpureis ales oloribus, 10 

Comissabere Maximi, 

Si torrere jecur quaeris idoneum. 
Namque et nobilis, et decens, 

Et pro sollicitis non tacitus reis, 
Et centum puer artium, 15 

Late signa feret militiae tuae : 
Et quandoque potentior 

Largis muneribus riserit aemuli, 
Albanos prope te lacus 

Ponet marmoream, sub trabe citrea. 20 

11* 



92 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Clic jrima naribus 

Daces thura, ljracque et Berecyntiae 
Delectabere tibiae 

Mixtis carminibus, non sine fistula. 
Clic bis pueri die 25 

Numen cum teneris virginibus tuum 
Laudantes, pede candido 

In morem Salium ter quatient humum. 
Me nee femina, nee puer 

Jam, nee spes animi credula mutui, 30 

Nee certare juvat mero, 

Nee vincire novis tempora floribus. 
Sed cur, heu, Ligurine, cur 

Manat rara meas lacrima per genas % 
Cur facunda parum decoro • 35 

Inter verba cadit lingua silentio ? 
Nocturnis ego somniis 

Jam captum teneo, jam volucrem sequor 
Te per gramina Martii 

Campi, te per aquas, dure, volubiles. 40 



Carmen II. 

AD IULUM ANTONIUM. 

Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari, 
lule, ceratis ope Daedalea 
Nititur pennis, vitreo daturus 
Nomina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres 
Q,uem super notas aluere ripas, 
Fervet immensusque ruit profundo 
Pindarus ore j 

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CARMINUM LIB. IV. 2. 93 

Laurea donandus Apollinari, 
Seu per audaces nova dithyramboe 10 

Verba devolvit, numerisque fertur 
Lege solutis : 

Seu deos, regesve canit, deorum 
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere justo 
Marte Centauri, cecidit Iremendae 15 

FlammaChimaerae: 

Sive, quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma coelestes, pugilemve equumve 
Dicit, et centum potiore signis 

Munere donat : 20 

Flebili sponsae juvenemve raptum 
Plorat, et vires animumque moresque 
Aureos educit in astra, nigroque 
Invidet Oreo. 

Multa Dircaeum levat aura eyenum, 25 

Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus : ego, apis Matinae 
More modoque, 

Grata carpentis th jma per laborem 
Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique 30 

Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
Carmina fingo. 

Concines majore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, quandoque trahet foroces 
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus 35 

Fronde, Sygambros : 

Cluo nihil majus meliusvo terris 

Fata donavere bonique divi, 

Nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 

Tempora priscum. 40 

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94 <*. IIORATII FLACC1 

Concines laetosque dies, et Urbis 
Publicum ludum, super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu, forumque 
Litibus orbum. 

Turn meae (si quid loquor audiendum) 45 

Vocis accedet bona pars : et, " O Sol 
Pulcher, O laudande," canam, recepto 
Caesare felix. 

Tuque dum procedis, " Io triumphe I" 
Non semel dicemus, " Io triumphe !" 50 

Civitas omnis, dabimusque divis 
Thura benignis. 

Te decern tauri totidemque vaccae, 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta ^ 

Matre, qui largis juvencscit herbis 55 

In mea vota, 

Fronte corvatos imitatus ignes 
Tertium Lunae referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit niveus videri, 

Caetera fulvus. 60 



Carmen III. 

AD MELPOMENEN. 

duem tu, Melpomene, 6emel 

Nascentcm placido lumine videris, 
IUum non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 
Curru ducet Achaico 

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 
Ornatum foliis ducem, 

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 



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CARMINUM LIB. IV. 4. 95 

Ostendet Capitolio : 

Sed quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt, 10 

Et spissae nemorum comae, 

Fingent Aeolio carmine nobilem. 
Romae principis urbium 

Dignatur suboles inter amabilea 
Vatum ponere me choros : 15 

Et jam dente minus mordeor invido. 
0, testudinis aureae 

Dulcem quae strepitum, Pieri, temperas : 
0, mutis quoque piscibus 

Donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum 1 20 

Totum muneris hoc tui est, 

Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 
Romanae fidicen ljrae : 

Quod spiro et placeo, (si placeo,) tuum est 



Carmen IV. 

DRUSI LAUDES. 

tlualem ministrum fulminis alitem, 
Oui rex deorum regnum in aves vagas 
Permisit, expertus fidelem 
Jupiter in Ganymede flavo, 

j)lim juventas et patrius vigor 5 

*Jido laborum propulit inscium : 
Vernique, jam nimbis remotis, 
Insolitos docuere nisus % 

f enti paventem : mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem vividus impetus : 10 

Nunc in reluctantes dracones 
Egit amor dapis atque pugnae : 



y Google 



06 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Gtualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenla, fulvae matris ab ubere 

Jam lacte depulsum leonem, 15 

Dente novo peritura, vidit : 

Videre Raetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentera Vindelici : [quibua 
Mos unde deductus per omne 

Tempus Amazonia securi 20 

Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli : 
Nee scire fas est omnia :] sed diu 
Lateque victrices catervae, 
Consiliis juvenis revictae, 

Sensere, quid mens rite, quid indoles, 25 

Nutrita faustis sub penetralibus, 
Posset, quid Augusti paternus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus : et bonis 
Est in juvencis, est in equis patrum 30 

Virtus : neque imbellem feroces 
Progenerant aquilae columbam. 

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Rectique cultus pectora roborant , 

Utcunque defecere mores, 35 

Indecorant bene nata culpae. 

Quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Hasdrubal 
Devictus, et pulcher fugatis 
Ille dies Latio tenebris, 40 

Clui primus alma risit adorea, 
Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas, 
Ceu flamma per taedas, vel Eurus 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

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CARMINUM LIB. IV. 4. 97 

Post hoc secundis usque laborious 45 

Romana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata Poenorum tumultu 
Fana deos habuere rectos : 

Dbdtque tandem perfidus Hannibal : 
" Cervi, luporum praeda rapacium, 60 # 

Sectamur ultro, quos opimus 
Fallere et effugere est triumphus. 

Gens, quae cremato fortis ab Bio 
Jactata Tuscis aequoribus sacra, 
Natosque maturosque patres 55 

Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus 
Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per damna, per caedes, ab ipso 

Ducit opes animumque ferro. 60 

Non Hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem : 
Monstrumve submisere Colchi 
Maju3, Echioniaeve Thebae. 

Merses profundo, pulchrior evenit : 65 

Luctere, multa proruet integrum 
Cum laude victorcm, geretque 
Proelia conjugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit 70 

Spes omnifi et fortuna nostri 
Nominis, Hasdrubale interemto 

JStI Claudiae non perficient manus : 
Quas et benigno numine Jupiter 

Defendit, et curae sagaces 75 

Expediunt per acuta belli 

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98 4. HORATIf FLACCJ 

Carmen V. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Divis orte bonis, optime Romulae 
Custos gentis, abes jam nimium diu : 
» Maturum reditum pollicitus Patrum 

Sancto consilio, recti. 

Lueem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae : 
Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus 
Affulsit populo, gratior it dies, 
Et soles melius nitent. 

Ut mater juvenem, quern Notus invido 
Flatu Carpathii trans maris aequora 
Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
Dulci distinet a domo, 

Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
Curvo nee faciem litore demovet : 
Sic desideriis icta fldelibus 

Cluaerit patria Caesarem. 

Tutus bos etenim tuta perambulat : 
Nutrit rura Ceres, almaque Faustitas : 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae : 
Culpari metuit Fides : 

Nullis polluitur casta domus stupris : 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas : 
Laudantur simili prole puerperae : 

Culpam Poena premit comes. 

Cluis Parthum paveat? quisgelidumScythcn? 
ftuis, Germania quos horrida parturit 
Fetus, incolumi Caesare % quis ferae 
Bellum curet Ib^riae ? 

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CABM1NUH UB. IV. 6. 99 

Condit quisque diem collibus in suis, 
Et vitem viduas ducit ad arbores : 30 

Hbc ad vina venit laetus, et alteris 
Te mensis adhibet deum : 

Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
Defuso pateris : et Laribus tuum 
Mscet numen, uti Graecia Castoria 35 

Et magni memor Herculis. 

Longas o utinam, dux bone, ferias 
Praestes Hesperiae 1 dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 

Q,uum Sol oceano subest 40 



Carmen VI. 

AD APOLLINEM. 

Dive, quem proles Niobea magnae 
Viadicem linguae, Tityosque raptor 
Sensit, et Trojae prope victor altae 
Phthius Achilles, 

Caeteris major, tibi miles impar ; 5 

Filius quamquam Thetidos marinae 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 
Cuspide pugnax. 

Hie, mordaci velut icta ferro 

Piaus, aut impulsa cupressus Euro, 10 

Procidit late posuitque collum in 
Pulvere Teucro. 

Ille non, inclusus equo Minervae 
Sacra mentito,"male feriatos 

Troas et laetam Priami choreis 15 

Falleret aulam ; 

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100 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Sed palam captis gravis, heu nefas ! hen I 
Neecios fan pueros Achivis 
CJreret nammis, etiam latentem 

Matris in alvo : 20 

Ni, tuis flexus Venerisque gratae 
Vocibus, divfim pater adnuisset 
Rebus Aeneae potiore ductos 
Alite muro3. 

Doctor Argivae fidicen Thaliae, 25 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines, 
Dauniae defende decus Camenae, 
Levis Agjieu. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem 
Carniinis, nomenque dedit poetae. 30 

Virginum primae, puerique clans 
Patribus orti, 

Deliae tutela deae, f>lgaces 
Lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pcdem, meique 35 

Pollicis ictum, 

Rite Latonae puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosperam fhigum, celeremque pronos 

Volvere menses. 40 

Nupta jam dices : Ego dis amicum, 
Saeculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen, docilis modorum 
Vatis Horatt. 



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CARMIlfUM LIB. IV. 7. 101 

Carmen VII. 

AD TORQUATUM 

Kflugere nives ; redeunt jam gramina campis, 

Arboribusque comae : 
Mutat terra vices : et decrescentia ripas 

Flumina praeteTeunt : 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet 5 

Ducere nuda choros. 
Immortalia ne speres, monet Annus et almum 

Quae rapit Hora diem. 
Frigora mitescunt Zephyris : Ver proterit Aestas, 

nteritura, simul 10 

Pomifer Auctumnus fruges effuderit : et mox 

Bruma recurrit iners. 
Damna tamen celeres reparant coelestia lunae : 

Nos, ubi decidimus, 
Quo pius Aeneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 
Quis scit, an adjiciant hodiernae crastina summae 

Tempora di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient haeredis, amico 

Quae dederis animo. 20 

Quum semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria : 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

Restituet pietas. 
Inferais neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum 25 

libera t Hippoljtum : 
Nee Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

Vincula Pirithoo. 



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102 <*. HORATU VLACCI 

Carmen VIII. 

AD CENSORINUM. 

Donarem pateras grataque commodus, 
Censorine, meis aera sodalibus ; 
Donarem tripodas, praemia fortium 
Graiorum ; neque tu pessima munerum 
, Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, 5 

Q,uas aut Parrhasius protulit, aut Scopas, 
Hie saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 
Boilers nunc homincm ponere, nunc deum. 
Sed non haec mihi vis : nee tibi talium 
Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. 10 

Gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 
Donare, et pretium dicere muneri. 
Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 
Per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 
Post mortem ducibus ; non celeres fugue, 15 

Rejectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, 
[Non stipendia Carthaginis impiae,] 
Ejus, qui domita nomen ab Africa 
Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 
Laudes, quam Calabrae Pierides : neque, 20 

Si chartae sileant, quod bene feceris, 
Mercedem tuleris. Q,uid foret Iliae 
Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 
Obstaret mentis invida Romuli % 
Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum 25 

Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 
Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 
Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori : 
Coelo Musa beat. Sic Jovis interest 
Optatis epulis impiger Hercules : 30 

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CABJflNUM LIB. IT. 9. 103 

Clarum Tyndaridae sidus ab infimia 
GLuassas eripiunt aequoribus rates : 
Ornatus viridi tempora pampino 
liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 



Carmen IX. 

AD LOLLIUM. 

Ne forte credas interitura, quae, 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum, 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Verba loquor socianda chordis. 

Non, si priores Maeonius tenet 5 

Sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent, 
Ceaeque, et Alcaei minaces, 
Stesichorique graves Camenae : 

Nee, si quid olim lusit Anacreon, 
Delevit aetas : spirat adhuc amor, 10 

Vivuntque commissi calores 
Aeoliae fidibus puellae. 

Non sola comtos arsit adulteri 
Crines, et aurum vestibus illitum 
Mirata, regalesque cultus 15 

Et comites Helene Lacaena : 

Primusve Teucer tela Cydorio 
Direxit arcu : non semel Ilios 
Vexata : non pugnavit ingens 
Idomeneus Sthenelusve solus 20 

Dicenda Musis proelia : non ferox 
Hector, vel acer Deiphobus graves 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 

Conjugibus puerisque primus. 

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104 ^ HORATII FLACCI 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi : sed omnes illacrimabiles 
Urguentur ignotique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paulum sepultae distat inertiae 
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis 
Chartis inomatum silebo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 
Rerumque prudens, et secundis 
Temporibus dubiisque rectus : 

Yindex avarae firaudis, et abstinens 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae : 
Consulque non unius anni, 
Sed quoties bonus atque iidus 

Judex honestum praetulit utili, 
Rejecit alto dona nocentium 
Vultu, per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem multa vocaveris 
Recte beatum : rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti, 

Duramque callet pauperiem pari, 
Pej usque leto flagitium timet ; 
Non ille pro cans amicis 
Aut patria timidus perire. 



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CABMHTOM LIB. IT. 10. 11. 105 

Carmen X. 

AD LIGURINUM. 

crudelis adhuc, et Veneris muneribus potens, 
Insperata tuae quum veniet pluma superbiae, 
Et, quae nunc humeris involitant, deciderint comae, 
Nunc et, qui color est puniceae flore prior rosae, 
Mutatus Ldgurinum hi faciem verterit hispidam : 5 

Dices, heu ! quoties te in speculo videris alterum, 
Quae mens est hodie, cur eadem non puero fuit ? 
Vel cur his animis incolumes non redeunt genae % 

Carmen XL 

AD PHYLLIDEM. 

Est mihi nonum superantis gynn^im 
Plenus Albani cadus : est in horto, 
Phylli, nectendis apium coronis : 
Est ederae vis 

Multa, qua crines religata fudges : 5 

Ridet argento domus : ara castis 
Vincta verbenis avet immolato 
Spargier agno : 

Cuncta festinat manus : hue et illuc 
Cursitant mixtae pueris puellae : 10 

Sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 
Venice fumum 

Ut tamen noris, quibus advoceris 
Gaudiis : Idus tibi sunt agendae, 
Qui dies mensem Veneris marinae 15 

Findit Aprilem : 

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100 <t HORATII FLACC1 

Jure solennis mihi, sanctiorque 
Paene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Luce Maecenas meus affluentes 

Ordinat annos. 20 

Telcphum, quem tu petis, occupavit, 
Non tuae sortis juvencm, puella 
Dives et lasciva, tenetque grata 
Compede vinctum. 

Terret ambustus Pkaethon avaras 25 

Spes : et exemplum grave praebet ales 
Pegasus, terrenum equitem gravatus 
Bellerophontem : 

Semper ut te digna sequare, et, ultra 
GLuam licet sperare nefas putando, 30 

Disparem vites. Age jam, meorum 
Finis amorum, — 

Non enim posthac alia calebo 
Femina, — condisce modos, amanda 
Voce quos reddas : minuuntur atrae & 

Carmine curae. 

Carmen XII. 
AD VIRGILIUM. 

Jam Veris comites, quae mare temperant, 
Impellunt animae lintea Thraciae : 
Jam nee prata rigent, nee fluvii strepunt 
Hiberna nive turgidi. 

Nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens, * 

Infclix avis, et Cecropiae domus 
Aeternum opprobrium, quod male barbaras 
Regum est ulta libidines. 

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CARMINUM LIB. IV. 13. 107 

Dicunt in tenero gramine pmguium 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula, 10 

Delectantque deum, cui pecus et nigrae 
Colles Arcadiae placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora, Virgili : 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Iiberum 
Si gestis, juvenum nobilium cliens, 15 

Nardo vina mereberis. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum, 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis 
Spes donare novas largus, amaraque 

Curarum eluere efficax. 20 

Ad quae si properas gaudia, cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immunem meditor tinguere poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Fenim pone moras et studium lucri ; 25 

Nigrorumque memor, dum licet, ignium, 
Misce sultitiam consiliis brevem : 

Dulce est desipere in loco. 

Carmen XIH. 

AD LYCEN 

Audivere, Lyce, dt mea vota, dl 
Audivere, Lyce. Fis anus, et tamen 
Vis formosa videri, 
Ludisque ct bibis impudens, 

Et cantu tremulo pota Cupidinem 6 

Lentum sollicitas. Ille virentis et 
Doctae psallere Chiae 
Pulchris excubat in genis 

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106 <*. HORATII FLACGI 

Importunus enim transvolat aridaa 
Quercus, et refugit te, quia luridi 10 

Dentes te, quia rugae 
Turpant et capitis nives. 

Nee Coae referunt jam tibi purpurae, 
Nee clari lapides tempora, quae seme* 

Notis condita fastis 15 

Inclusit Yolucris Dies. 

Quo fugit Venus % heu 1 quove color ? dececs 
Quo motus % quid habes illius, illius, 
Quae spirabat Amores, 

Quae me surpuerat mihi % 20 

Felix post Cinaram notaque et artium 
Qratarum facies 1 Sed Cinarae breves 
Annos fata dederunt, 
Servatura diu parem 

Cornicis vetulae temporibus Ljcen : 25 

Possent ut juvenes visere fervidi, 
Multo non sine risu, 
Dilapsam in cineres facem. 

Carmen XTV. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Quae cura Patrum, quaeve Quiritium, 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevum 
Per titulos memoresque fastos 

Aeternet % o, qua sol habitabilcs 5 

IUustrat oras, majcme principum ; 
Quern legis expertes Latinae 
Vindelici didicere nuper, 

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CARMIWUM U6. IV. 14. 109 

Quid Marte posses. Milite nam tuo 
Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 10 

Breunosque veloces, et arces 
Alpibus impositas tremendis, 

Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. 
Major Neronum mox grave proelium 

Commisit, immanesque Raetos 1 5 

Auapiciis pepulit secundis : 

Spectandus in certamine Martio, 
Devota morti pectora liberae 
duantis fatigaret minis : 
Indomitas prope qualis undas 20 

Exercet Auster, Pleiad um choro 
Scindente nubes : impiger hostium 
Vexare turmas, et frementem 
Mittere equum medios per ignes. 

Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 25 

Qua regna Dauni praefluit Appuli, 
Quum saevit, horrendamque cultis 
Diluviem meditatur agris : 

Ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 
Ferrata vasto diruit impetu, 30 

Primosque et extremos metendo 
Stravit humum, sine clade victor, 

Te copias, te consilium et tuos 
Praebente divos. Nam, tibi quo die 
Portus Alexandrea supplex 35 

Et vacuam patefecit aulam, 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
lAudemque et optatum peractb 
Imperils decus arrogavit 

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1 10 4. HORATII FLACGI 

Te Cantaber non ante domabilis, 
Medusque, et Indus, te profugus Scythes 
Miratur, o tutela' praesens 
Italiae dominaeque Romae : 

Te, fontium qui celat origines, 45 

Nilusque, et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te belluosus qui remotis 
Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis : 

Te non paventis funera Galliae 
Duraeque tellus audit Iberiae : 50 

Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
Compositis venerantur armis* 

Carmen XV. 

AUGUSTI LAUDES. 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Victas et urbes, increpuit, lyra : 
Ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor 
Vela darem. Tua, Caesar, aetas 

Fruges et agris retulit uberes, 5 

Et signa nostro restituit Jovi, 
Derepta Parthorum superbis 
Postibus, et vacuum dueUis 

Janum duirinum clusit, et ordinem 
Rectum evaganti frena licentiae IV 

Injecit, emovitque culpas, 
Et veteres revocavit artes : 

Per quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
Crevere vires, famaque et impert 

Porrecta majestas ad ortum 1& 

Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 

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CARMINUlt LIB. IT. 15. Ill 

Custode remm Caesare, non furor 
Civilis aut via exiget otium, 
Non ira, quae procudit enses, 
£t miseras inimicat urbes. 20 

Non, qui profundum Danubium bibunt, 
Edicta rumpent Julia, non Getae, 
Non Seres, infidive Persae, 
Non Tanain prope flumen orti. 

Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris. 25 

Inter jocosi munera Iiberi, 
Cum prole rnatronisque nostris, 
Rite deos prius apprecati, 

Virtute functos, more patrum, duces, 
Lydia remixto carmine tibiis, 30 

Trojamque et Anchisen et almae 
Progeniem Veneris canemus. 



13 

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<!• HOBATH FLACCI 

E P O D O N 

LIBER. 

Carmen I. 
AD MAECENATEM. 

Ibis Iiburnis inter alta navium, 

Amice, propugnacula, 
Paratus omne Caesari periculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo 1 
Quid nos, quibus te vita si superstite 5 

Jucunda, si contra, gravis 1 
Utrumne jussi persequemur otium, 

Non dulce, ni tecum simul 1 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet 

Gtua ferre non molles viros 1 I0 

Feremus ; et te vel per Alpium juga, 

Inhospitalem et Caucasian, 
Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Roges, tuum labore quid juvem meo l5 

Imbellis ac firmus parum % 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Gtui major absentes habet : 
Ut asaidens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpcntium allapsus timet 20 

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EPODON LIBER. L 113 

Magis relktifl ; non, Tit aflat, aiudlt 

Latum plus praesentibus. 
Tibenter hoc et omne militabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratiae ; 
Non ut juvencis illigata pluribua 25 

Aratra nitantur mea : 
Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum 

Lucana mutet pascuis : 
Nee ut 8upemi villa candens Tusculi 

Circaea tangat moenia. 80 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 

Ditavit : baud paravero, 
Quod aut, avarus ut Chremes, terra premam, 

Discinctua aut perdam ut nepos. 



Carmen II. 

11 fieatus Hie, qui procul negotiis, 

Ut priflca gens mortalium, 
Paterna rura bubus exercet suis, 

Solutus omni fenore. 
Neque excitatur classico miles truci, 5 

Neque hoiret iratum mare ; 
Forumque vitat et superba civium 

Potentiorum limina. 
Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos, 10 

Inutilesque falce ramoe amputans 

Feliciores inserit ; 
Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Proepectat errantes greges ; 
Aut pressa puris mella condit amphoris ; 15 

Aut tondeVinnnnas oves ; 
Vel, quum decorum mitibus pomis caput 

Auctumnus agris extulit, 



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1 14 Q. HOHATII FLACC1 

(Jt gaudet insitiva decerpens pira, 

Certantem et uvam purpurae, 20 

Gluts muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
Libet jacere, modo sub antiqua ilice, 

Modo in tenaci gramine. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aquae ; 25 

dueruntur in silvis aves ; 
Frondesque lymphk obstrepunt manantibus ; 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 
At quum Tonantis annus hibernus Jovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

Aut trudit acres hinc et nine multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas ; 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos ; 
Pavidumque leporem, et advenam laqueo gruem, 35 

Jucunda captat praemia. 
Cluis non malarum, quas amor cuius habet, 

Haec inter obliviscitur ? 
Quod si pudica mulier in partem juvet 

Domum atque dulces fiberos, 40 

Sabina qualis, aut perusta solibus 

Pemicis uxor Appuli, 
Sacrum et vetustis extruat lignis fbcum, 

Lassi sub adventum viri ; 
Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus, 45 

Distenta siccet ubera ; 
Et horna dulci vina promens dolio, 

Dapes inemtas apparet : 
Non me Lucrina juverint conchyKa, 

Magisve rhombus, aut scan, 50 

Si quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hiems ad hoc vertat mare ; 
Non Afira avis descendat in ventrem meum, 

Non attagen Ionicus 

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BPODON LIBER. III. lltf 

Jucundior, quam lecta de pmgwssimis 55 

Ofiva ramifl arborum, 
Aut herba lapathi prata amantis, et gravi 

Mahae salubres corpori, 
Vel agna festis caesa Tenninalibus, 

Vel haedus ereptus lupo. CO 

Has inter epulas, ut juvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum I 
Videre feseos vomerem inversum boves 

Collo trahentes languido 1 
Positosque vernas, ditis examen domus, 65 

Gircum remdentea Lares I" 
Haec uM locutus fenerator Alphius, 

Jam jam futurus rusticus, 
Omnem redegit Idibus pecuniam — 

Ctuaerit Kalendis ponere ! 70 



Carmen III. 
AD MAECENATEM. 

Parentis olim si quis impia manu 
. Senile guttur fregerit, 
Edit cicutis allium nocentius. 

O dura messorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni saevit in praecordiis ? 5 

Num viperinus his cruor 
Incoctus herbis me fefellit 1 an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes % 
Ut Argonautas praeter omnes candidum 

Medea mirata est ducem, 10 

Ignota tauris illigaturum juga, 

Perunxit hoc Iasonem : 
Hoc delibutis ulta donis pellicem, 

Serpente fugit alite. 

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1 16 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Nec tantus unquam edderum insedit vapor 15 

Siticulosae Apuliac : 
Nec munus humeris efficacis Hercuils 

Inarsit aestuosius. 
At, si quid unquam tale concupiveris, 

Jocose Maecenas, precor 20 

Manum puella savio opponat tuo, 

Extrema et in sponda cubet 

Carmen IV. 

Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit, 

Tecum mini discordia est, 
Ibericis peruste funibus latus, 

Et crura dura compede. 
Licet superbus ambules pecunia, & 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 
Videsne, Sacram metiente te viam 

Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indignatio % 10 

" Sectus flagellis hie Triumviralibus, 

Praeconis ad fastidium, 
Arat Falerni mille fundi jugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit ; 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis cques, I* 

Othone contemto, sedet. 
GLuid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Rostrata duci pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum, 

Hoc hoc tribuno militum T 20 



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BFODOJf USBJU Y. ] 17 



Carmen V. 



IN CANIDIAM VENEFICAM. 

11 At, o deorum quicquid in coelo regit 

Terras et framanum genus ! 
Ghrid iflte fert tumultus % aut quid omnfum 

^lltus in unum me truces 1 
Per Eberos te, si vocata partubus 5 

Lucina veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane purpurae decus precor, 

Per improbaturum haec Jovem, 
Quid ut noverca me intueris, aut uti 

Petita ferro bellua ?"— . 10 

Ut haec tremente questus ore constitit 

Insignibus raptis puer, 
Impube corpus, quale posset impia 

Mollire Thracum pectora ; 
Canidia brevibus implicata viperis 1 5 

Urines et incomtum caput, 
Jubet sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

Jubet cupressus funebres, 
Et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine, 

Plumamque nocturnae strigis, 20 

Herbasque, quas Iolcos atque Iberia 

Mitlit venenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapta jejunae canis, 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 
At expedita Sagana, per totam domum 26 

Spargens Avemales aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

Echinus, aut Laurens aper. 
Abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

Iigonibua duris humum 30 

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119 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Exoauriebat, ingemens laboribus ; ^ 

Cluo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque mutatae dapis 

Inemori speotaculo ; 
duum promineret ore, quantum exstant aqua 35 

Suspensa mento corpora : 
Exsucca uti medulla et aridum jecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 
Interminato quum semel fixae cibo 9 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Non defuisse masculae libidinis 

Ariminensem Foliam, 
Et oliosa credidit Neapolis, 

Et omne vicinum oppidum ; 
Quae sidera excantata voce Thessala 4 s 

Lunamque coelo deripit. 
Hie irresectum saeva dente livido 

Canidia rodens pollicem 
GLuid dixit % aut quid tacuit % " O rebus meis 

Non infideles arbitrae, 50 

Nox, et Diana, quae silentium regis, 

Arcana quum fiunt sacra, 
Nunc nunc adeste : nunc in hostiles domos 

Iram atque numen vertite. 
Formidolosae dum latent silvis ferae, 65 

Dulci sopore languidae, 
Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

Latrent Suburanae canes, 
Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Meae laborarint manus. — 60 

Ctuid accidit? cur dim barbarae minus 

Venena Medeae valent, 
Cluibus superbam fugit ulta pellicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Cluum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam 65 

Incendio nuptam abstulit ? 

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CPODON LIBER. V. 119 

Atqui nee herba, nee latens in asperis 

Radix fefellit me locis. 
Indormit unctis omnium cubilibus 

Obhvione peDicum. — 70 

Ah ! ah 1 solutus ambulat veneficae 

Scientioris carmine. 
Non usitatis, Vare, potionibus, 

O multa fleturum caput ! 
Ad me recurres : nee vocata mens tua 75 

Marsis redibit vocibus. 
Majus parabo, majus infundam tibi 

Fastidienti poculum. 
Priusque coelum Bidet inferius man, 

Tellure porrecta super, 80 

0,11am non amore sic meo fiagres, uti 

Bitumen atris ignibus." — 
Sub haec puer, jam non, ut ante, molhbus 

Lenire verbis impias ; 
Sed dubius, unde rumperet silentium, 85 

Misit Thyesteas preces : 
* Yenena magica fas nefasque, non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem. 
Diris agam vos : dira detestatio 

Nulla expiatur victima. 90 

QrUin, ubi perire jussus expiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram Furor, 
Petamque vultus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Cluae vis deorum est Manium ; 
Et inquietis assidens praecordiis 95 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatim hinc et nine saxis petens 

Contundet obscenas anus. 
Post insepulta membra different lupi 

Et Esquilinae alites. 100 

Neque hoc parentes, heu mihi superstites 1 

Efiugerit spectoculum. 

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120 4. HORATII FLACCI 



Carmen VI. 

Quid immerentes hospites vexas, canis, 

Ignavus adversum lupos % 
Gtuin hue inanes, si potes, vertis minas, 

Et me remorBurum petis % 
Nam, qualis aut Molossus, aut fulvus Lacon .*> 

Arnica vis pastoribus, 
Agam per altas aure sublata nives, 

Quaecunque praecedet fera. 
Tu, quum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata tollo cornua ; 
Gtualis Lycambae spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
An, si quis atro dente me petiverit, 15 

Inultus ut flebo puer % 

Carmen VII. 
AD POPULUM ROMANUM. 

duo, quo scelesti ruitis % aut cur dexteris 

Aptantur enses conditi % 
Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguinis ? 
Non ut superbas invidae Carthaginis 5 

Romanus arces ureret : 
Intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

Sacra catenatus via : 
Sed ut, secundum vota Parthorum, sua 

Urbs haec periret dextera. 10 

Neque hie lupis mos, nee fuit leonibus, 

Nunquam, nisi in dispar, feris. 



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BFODON LIBER. VIII* 121 

Furome caecus, an rapit vis acriar ? 

An culpa 1 responsum date. — 
Tacent ; et ora pallor albus inficit, 15 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 
Sic est ; acerba fata Romanos agunt, 

Scelusque fraternae necis, 
Ut immerentis fluxit in terrain Remi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 20 

Carmen VIII. 
IN ANUM LIBIDINOSAM. 

Rogare longo putidam te saeculo, 

Vires quid enervet meas % 
Gtuum sit tibi dens ater, et rugis vetus 

Frontem senectus exaret ; 
Hietque turpis inter aridas nates 5 

Podex, velut crudae bovis. 
Sed incitat me pectus, et mammae putres, 

Equina quales ubera ; 
Venterque mollis, et femur tumentibus 

Exile suris additum. 10 

Esto beata, funus atque imagines 

Ducant triumphales tuum ; 
Nee sit marita, quae rotundioribus 

Onusta baccis ambulet. 
Quid 1 quod libelli Stoici inter sericos 15 

Jacere pulvillos amant : 
IDiterati num minus nervi rigent % 

Minusve languet fascinum % 
Gtuod ut superbo provoces ab inguine, 

Ore allaborandum est tibi. 20 



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ltt <*. HORATII FLAGCI 

Carmen EL 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes» 

Victore laetus Caesare, 
Tecum sub alta, sic Jovi gratum, domo, 

Beate Maecenas, bfbam, 
Sonante mixtum trbiis carmen lyra, 5 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut nuper, actus quum fireto Neptunius 

Dux rugit, ustis navibus, 
Minatus Urbi vincla, quae detraxerat 

Servis amicus perfidis. 10 

Romanus, eheu 1 poeteri negabitis, 

Emancipatus feminae, 
Fert vallum et anna miles, et spadonibus 

Servire rugosis potest I 
Interque signa turpe militaria 15 

Sol adspicit conopium ! 
Ad hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equoe 

Galli, canentes Caesarem ; 
Hostiliumque navium portu latent 

Puppes sinistrorsum citae. 20 

lo Triumphe ! tu moraris aureos 

Currus, et intactas boves ; 
lo Triumphe ! nee Jugurthino parem 

Bello reportasti ducem, 
Neque Africanum, cui super Carthaginem 25 

Virtus sepulcrum condidit. 
Terra marique victus hostis, Punico 

Lugubre mutavit sagum ; 
Aut ille centum nobilem Crctam urbibus, 

Vends iturus non suis ; 30 

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1PODON UBSR. X 128 

Exercitatas ant petit Syrtes Noto ; 

Ant fertur incerto mari 
Capaciores affer hue, puer, scyphos, 

Et Chia vina, aut Lesbia, 
Vel, quod fluentem nauseam coSrceat, 35 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Cuiam metumque Caesaris rerum juvat 

Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 



Carmbn X. 

IN MAEVTOM POETAM. 

Mala soluta navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Maevium. 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus, 

Auster, memento fluctibus. 
Niger rudentes Eurus, inverso mari, 5 

Fractosque remos differat ; 
Insurgat Aquilo, quantus altis montibus ■ 

Frangit trementes ilices ; 
Nee sidus atra nocte amicum appareat, 

dua tristis Orion cadit ; 10 

Quietiore nee feratur aequore,. 

CLuam Graia victorum manus, 
Q,uum Pallas usto vertit iram ab Ilio 

In impiam Ajacis ratem. 
O quantus instat navitis sudor tuis, 15 

Tibique pallor luteus, 
Et ilia non virilis ejulatio, 

Preces et aversum ad Jovem, 
lonhis udo quum remugiens sinus 

Noto carinam ruperit I 20 

U 



y Google 



124 O. HORATII FLACCI 

Opima quod si praeda curvo Ktore 
Projecta mergos juveris, 

Libidinosus immolabitur caper 
Et agna Tempestatibus. 



Carmen XI. 

AD PECTIUM. 

Peed, nihil me, sicut antea, juvat 

Scribere versiculos amore percussum gravi : 
Amore, qui me praeter omnes expetit 

Mollibus in pueris aut in puellis urere. 
Hie tertiufl December, ex quo destiti 5 

Inachia furere, silvis honorem decutit. 
Heu I me, per urbem, nam pudet tanti mali, 

Fabula quanta fui ! conviviorum et poenitet, 
In queis amantem et languor et silentium 

Arguit, et latere petitus imo spiritua. 10 

Contrane lucrum nil valere candidum 

Pauperis ingemum 1 querebar applorans tibi; 
Simul calentis inverecundus deus 

Fervidiore mero arcana promorat loco. 
Quod si meis inaestuat praecordiis It 

Libera bills, ut haec ingrata ventis dividat 
Fomenta, vulnus nil malum levantia ; 

Desinet imparibus certare summotus pudor. 
Ubi haec severus te palam laudaveram, 

Jussus abire domum, ferebar incerto pedo 20 

Ad non amicos heu 1 mihi postes, et heu ! 

Limina dura, quibus lumbos et infregi latus. 
Nunc, gloriantis quamlibet mulierculam 

Vincere mollitia, amor Lycisci me tenet : 



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EPODON LIBER. XII. 126 

Unde expedite non amicorum queant 25 

libera consifia, nee contumeliae graves ; 

Bed alius ardor aut puellae candidae, 
Aut teretis pueri, longam renodantis comam. 



Carmen XII. 
IN ANUM LIBIDINOSAM. 

Gluid fibi vis, mulier nigris dignissima barris % 

Munera cur mihi, quidve tabellas 
Mittis, nee firmo juveni, neque naris obesae % 

Namque sagacius unus odoror, 
Polvpus, an gravis hirsutis cubet hircus in alis, 5 

Quam canis acer, ubi lateat bus. 
Qui sudor vietis et quam malus undique membris 

Crescit odor I quum, pene soluto, 
Indomitam properat rabiem sedare ; neque illi 

Jam manet humida creta, colorque 10 

Stercore fucatus crocodili ; jamque subando 

Tenta cubilia tectaque nimpit. 
Yel mea quum saevis agitat fastidia verbis : 

" Inachia langues minus ac me : 
Inachiam ter nocte potes ; mihi semper ad unum 15 

Mollis opus : pereat male, quae te, 
Lesbia, quaerenti taurum, monstravit inertem ; 

Quum mihi Cous adesset Amyntas, 
Cujus in indomito constantior inguine nervus, 

Quam nova collibus arbor inhaeret. 20 

Muricibus Tyriis iteratae'vellera lanae 

Cui properabantur 1 tibinempe; 
Ne foret aequales inter oonviva, magis quern 

DiHgcret mulier sua, quam te. 
O ego infeh'x, quam tu fagis, ut pavct acres 25 

Agna lupos, capreaeque leones." 



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126 O. HORATH FLACCI 

Carmen XITT. 

AD AMICOS. 

m 
Horrida tempestas coelum contract, et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt Jovem ; nunc mare, nunc siluae 
ThreTcio Aquilone sonant Rapiamus, amici, 

Occasionem de die ; dumque virent genua, 
Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move Consule pressa meo. 
Caetera mitte loqui : deus haec fortasse benigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Acbaemenio 
Perfundi nardo juvat, et fide Cyllenea 

Levare dins pectora eolHcitudinibus. 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumno : 

Invicte, mortalis dea nate, puer, Tbetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 

Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus et Simoi? ; 
Unde tibi reditum curto subtemine Parcae IS 

Rupere ; nee mater domum caerula te revehet 
Illic omne malum vino cantuque levato, 

Deformis aegrimoniae dulcibus alloquiis. 

Carmen XIV. 
AD MAECENATEM. 

Mollis inertia cur tantam difruderit imis 

Oblivionem sensibus, 
Pocula Letbaeos ut si ducentia somnos 

Arente fauce traxerim, 
Candide Maecenas, occidis saepe rogando : 5 

Deus, deus nam me vetat 
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, iambos 

Ad unibilicum adducere. 

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EfODOH LIBER. XV. 127 

Nan alitor Samio dicunt arsisse Bathyll 

Anacreonta Teium ; 10 

Qui persaepe cava testudine flevit amorem, 

Non elaboratum ad pedem. 
Ureris ipse miser ! quod d non pulchrior ignis 

Accendit obsessam Dion, 
Gaude sorte tua ; me libertina, neque uno 15 

Contenta, Phryne macerat 



Carmen XV. 

AD NEAERAM. 

Nox erat, et coelo fulgebat Luna sereno 

Inter minora sidera, 
duum tu, magnorum numen laesura deorum, 

In verba jurabas mea, 
Arctius, atque bedera procera adstringitur ilex, 5 

Lentis adhaerens brachiis ; 
Dum pecori lupus, et nautis infestus Orion 

Turbaret hibernum mare, 
Intonsosque agitaret Apollinis aura capillos, 

Fore hunc amorem mutuum. 10 

dolitura mea multum virtute Neaera, 

Nam, si quid in Flacco viri est, 
Non feret assiduas potiori te dare noctes, 

Et quaeret iratus parem, 
Nee semel offensae cedet constantia formae, lb 

Si certus intrarit dolor. 
At tu, quicunque es felicior, atque meo nunc 

Superbus incedis malo, 
Bis pecore et multa dives tellure licebit, 

TOiique Pactolus fluat, 20 

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128 <l. HORATII FLACCI 

Nec te Pythagorae follant arcana renati, 

Formaque vincas Nirea ; 
Eheu 1 translates alio moerebis amores : 

Ast ego vicissim risero. 



Carmen XVI. 
AD POPULUM ROMANUM. 

Altera jam teritur bellis civilibus aetas, 

Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit. 
Ctuam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi, 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus, 
Aemula nec virtus Capuae, nec Spartacus ace* 5 

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox ; 
Nec fera caerulea domuit Germania pube, 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal : 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas J 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. 10 

Barbaras, beu ! cineres insistet victor, et Urbem 

Eques sonante verberabit ungula ; 
duaeque carent ventis et solibus, ossa Gluirini, 

Nefas videre 1 dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter, aut melior pars 1 5 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus. 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia ; Phocaeorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitas : 
Agros atque Lares proprios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis : 20 

Ire, pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per undas 

Notus vocabit, aut protervus Afhcus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suaderc % secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sedjuremusinhaec: Simul imis saxa renarint 25 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas ; 



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KPODON LIBSB. XVI. 129 

Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea, quando 

Padua Matina laverit cacumina ; 
In mare ecu celsus proruperit Apenninus ; 

Novaque monstra junxerit lihidine 30 

Minis amor, juvet ut tigres subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur et columba miluo ; 
Credula nee flavos timeant armenta leones ; 

Ametque salsa laevis hircus aequora. 
Haec, et quae poterunt reditus abscindere dulces, 35 

Eamus omnia exsecrata civitas, 
Aut para indocili melior grege ; mollis et exspes 

Inominata perprimat cubilia. 
Yos, quibus est virtus, muliebrem tollite luctum, 

Etrusca praeter et volate litora. 40 

Nos manet Oceanus circumvagus : arva, beata 

Petamus arva, divites et insulas ; 
Heddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, 

Et imputata floret usque vinea ; 
Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes olivae, 45 

Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem ; 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 
Ulic injuasae veniunt ad mulctra capellae, 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera : 50 

Nee vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovili ; 

Nee intumescit alma viperis humus. 
Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

Gregem aestuosa torret impotentia. 
Pluraque felices mirabimur ; ut neque largis 55 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nee siccis urantur semina glebis ; 

Utrumque rege temperante Coelitum. 
Non hue Argoo contendit remige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 60 

Non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua nautae, 

Laboriosa nee cohors Ulixei. 

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130 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Jupiter ilia piae secrevit litora genti, 

Ut inquinavit aere tempus aureum : 
Aerea dehinc ferro duravit saecula ; quorum 65 

PKs secunda vate me datur fuga. 



Carmen XVtL 

IN CANIDIAM. 

Horatius. 

Jam jam efficaci do manus scientiae 

Supplex, et oro regna per Proserpinae 

Per et Dianae non movenda numina, 

Per atque libros carminum valentium 

Defixa coelo devocare sidera, 5 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris, 

Citumque retro solve, solve turbinem. 

Movit nepotem Telephus Nereium, 

In quern superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum, et in quern tela acuta torserat 10 

Unxere matres Iliae addictum feris 

Alitibua atque canibus homicidam Hectorem, 

Postquam relictis moenibus rex procidit 

Heu 1 pervicacis ad pedes Achillel. 

Setosa duris exuere pellibus 15 

Laboriosi remiges UlixeT, 

Volente Circa, membra ; tunc mens et sonus 

Relapsus, atque notus in vultus honor. 

Dedi satis superque poenarum tibi, 

Amata nautis multum et institoribus. 80 

Fugit juventas, et verecundus color 

Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida ; 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus, 

Nullum a labore me reclinat otium. 

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EPODON LIBER. XVU. 131 

Urgaet diem nox, et dies noctem, neque est 25 

Levare tenta epiritu praecordia. 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina, 

Caputque Marsa dissilire naenia. 

Quid amplius vis % O mare 1 O terra I ardeo, 30 

Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules 

Nessi cruore, nee Sicana fervida 

Furens in Aetna flamma. Tu, donee cinis 

Injuriosis aridus vends ferar, 

CaJes venenis officina Colchicis. 35 

Quae finis ? aut quod me manet stipendium % 

Effare : jussas cum fide poenas luam ; 

Paratus, expiare seu poposceris 

Centum juvencis, sive mendaci ljra 

Voles sonare Tu pudica, tu proba ; 40 

Perambulabis astra sidus aureum. 

Infamis Helenae Castor offensus vice, 

Fraterque magni Castora, victi prece, 

Ademta vati reddidere lumina. 

Et tu, potes nam, solve me dementia, 45 

O nee paternis obsoleta sordibiu, 

Nee in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

Tibi hospitale pectus, et purae manus : 

Tuusque venter Pactumeius ; ettuo 50 

Cruore rubros obstetrix pannos lavit, 

Utcunque fortis exsQis puerpera. 

Canidia. 

Quid obseratis auribus fundis preces ? 
Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 
Neptunus alto tundit hibernus salo. 55 

Inultus ut tu riseris Cot jttia 
Vulgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis ? 
Et EsauiHni Pontifex veneficl 

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132 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Impune at Urbem nomine impleris rneo % 

Quid proderat ditasse Pelignas anus 60 

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 

Sed tardiora fata te votis manent : 

Ingrata misero vita ducenda est, in hoc, 

Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. 

Optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, 65 

Egens benignae Tantalus semper dapis ; 

Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti ; 

Optat supremo collocare Sisyphus 

In monte saxum ; sed vetant leges Jovis. 

Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 70 

Modo ense pectus Norico recludere ; 

Frustraque vincla gutturi nectes tuo, 

Fastidiosa tristis aegrimonia. 

Vectabor humeris tunc ego inimicis eques, 

Meaeque terra cedet insolentiae. 75 

An, quae movere cereas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti curiosus, et polo 

Deripere Lunam vocibus possim meis, 

Possim crematos excitare mortuos, 

Desiderlque temperare poculum, 80 

Plorem artis, in te nil agenus, exitum % 



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i*. HORATU FLACCI 

CARMEN SAECULARE 

PRO INCOLUMITATE IMPERIL 



Phoebe, sflvarumque potens Diana, 
Lucidum coeli decus, o colendi 
Semper et culti, date, quae precamur 
Tempore sacro : 

Cluo SibyBini monuere versus 6 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dfe, quibus septem placuere colles, 
Dicere carmen. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Promifl et celas, aliusque et idem 10 

Nasceris, posas nihil urbe Roma 
Yiseremajus. 

Rite maturos aperire partus 
Lenis IHthyia, tuere matres : 
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari, 15 

Seu Genitalis. 

Diva, producas subolem, Patrumque 
Proeperes decreta super jugandis 
Feminis, prolisque novae feraci 

Lege marita : 20 

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. 84 4. HORATII f LACCI 

Certus undenos decies per annoe 
Orbifl ut cantua referatque ludos, 
Ter die claro, totiesque grata 
Nocte frequentes. 

Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcae, 2b 

Q,uod semel dictum est, stabilisque rerum 
Terminus servat, bona jam peractis 
Jungite fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus 
Spicea donet Cererem corona : 30 

Nutriant fetus et aquae salubres, 
Et Jovis aurae. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, Apollo : • 

Siderum regina bicornis, audi, - 35 

Luna, puellas. 

Roma si vestrum est opus, Diaeqne 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
Jussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospite cureu : 40 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus Aeneas patriae superstes 
Liberum munivit iter, daturus 
Plura relictis : 

Dt, probos mores docili juventae, 45 

Dt, senectuti placidae quietem, 
Romulae genti date remque prolemque 

Et decus omne. 

i 

duique vos bubus veneratur albis, 
Clarus Anchisae Yenerisque sanguis, W 

Imperet, bellante prior, jacentem 
Lenis in hoetem. 

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CARMEN 8AECULARE. 135 

Jam man terraque manus potentes 
Medus Albanasque timet secures : 
Jam Scythae responsa petunt, superbi 55 

Nuper, et IndL 

Jam Fides, et Pax, et Honor, Pudorque 
Priscus, et neglecta redire Virtus 
Audet : apparetque beata pleno 

Copia cornu. 60 

Augur, et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phoebus, acceptusque novem Camellia 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos 
Corporis artus. 

Si Palatinas videt aequus arces, 65 

Remque Romanam Lauumque, felix, 
Alterum in lustrum, meliusque semper 
Proroget aevum. 

Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
duindecim Diana preces virorum 70 

Curet, et votis puerorum arnicas 
Applicet aures. 

Haec Jovem sentire, deosque cunctos, 
8pem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
Doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae 7C 

Dicere laudes. 



15 

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Q. HORATII FLACCI 

SERMONES. 

<**>** * * *** «Q *> * * ** * * ***** * * * W * W»W» f »M»<M 0> +* +***>***>** <* * « 



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Q. HORATII FLACCI 

SERMONUM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 



Satira L 

IN AVAROS. 

Uul fit, Maecenas, ut nemo, quam sibi sortem 
Seu ratio dederit, seu fore objecerit, ilia 
Contentus vivat, laudet diverea sequentes % 
Ofortunati mercatores ! gravis annis 
Miles ait, multo jam fractus membra labore. 5 

Contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris, 
Militia est potior ! Quid enim % concurritur : horae 
Momento aut cita mors venit ant victoria laeta. 
Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus, 
Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. 10 

Ifle, datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est, 
Solos felices viventes clamat in urbe. 
Cetera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquacem 
Delassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi 
duo rem deducam. Si quis deus, En ego, dicat, 1 5 

Jam faciam quod vtdtis : eris tu, qui modo miles, 
Mercator : tu } consultus modo, rusticus : hinc vos, 
Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus. Eia, 
Quid stalis ? — nolint. Atqui licet esse beads. 
Quid causae est, merito quin illis Jupiter ambas 20 

15* 



140 Q, HORATI1 FLACCI 

Iratus buccas inflet, neque se fore posthac 
Tarn facilem dicat, votis ut praebeat aurem? 

Praeterea, ne sic, ut qui jocularia, ridens 
Percurram : quamquam ridentem dicere verum 
Ctuid vetat 1 ut pueria olim dant crustula blandi 25 

Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima : 
Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo. 
Ille gravem duro terrain qui vertit aratro, 
Perfidus hie cautor, miles, nautaeque, per omne 
Audaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem 30 

Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, 
Aiunt, quum sibi sint congesta cibaria ; sicut 
Parvula (nam exemplo est) magni formica laboria 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest, atque addit acervo, 
Cluem struit, haud ignara ac non incauta futuri. 35 

Quae, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum, 
Non usquam prorepit, et illis utitur ante 
Cluaesicis sapiens : quum te neque fervidus aestus 
Demoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ferrum ; 
Nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

Quid juvat immensum te argenti pondus et auri 
Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra % — 
Quod, si comminuas, vilem redigatur ad astern. — 
At, ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus 1 
Millia frumenti tua triverit area centum ; 45 

Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus : ut, si 
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 
Forte vehas humero, nihilo plus accipias, quam 
Qui nil portarit. Vel die, quid referat intra 
Naturae fines viventi, jugera centum an 50 

Mille aret 1 — At suave est ex magno toilers acervo, — 
Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire relinquas, 
Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris % 
Ut tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna 
Vel cyatho, et dicas : Magno defiumine malim, 55 

Quam ex hocfonticulo tantundem sumere. Eo fit, 

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8ESMONUM LIB. I. 1. Ml 

Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo, 

Com ripa simul avulsos ferat Aufidus acer : 

At qui tantuli eget, quanto est opus, is neque limo 

Turbatam haunt aquam, neque vitam amittit in undis. CO 

At bona pars hominum, decepta cupidine falso, 
Nil satis est, inquit ; quia tanti, quantum habeas, sis. 
ftuid facias illi % Jubeas miserum esse, libenter 
Quatenus id fecit. Ut quidam memoratur Athenis 
Sordidus ac dives populi contemnere voces 65 

Sic solitus : Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo 
Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in area. — 
Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat 
Flumina : Cluid rides % mutato nomine de te 
Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 70 

Indonnis inhians, et tanquam parcere sacris 
Cogens, aut pictis tanquam gaudere tabellis. 
Nescis quo valeat nummus ? quem praebeat usum ? 
Panis ematur, olus, vim sextarius : adde, 
Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 75 

An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque 
Foxmidare malos fures, incendia, servos, 
Nee te compilent fugientes, hoc juvat % Horum 
Semper ego optarim pauperrimus esse bonorum. — 

At si condoluit tcntahmfrigore corpus, 80 

Aut alius casus lecto te affixit, habes qui 
Assideat, /omenta paret, medicum roget, ut te 
Suscitet, ac naiis reddat carisque propvnquis. — 
Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius : omnes 
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae. 85 

Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia ponas, 
Si nemo praestet, quem non merearis, amorem % 
An sic cognatos, nullo natura labore 
Quos tibi dat, retincre velis, servareque amicos % 
Infelix operam perdas, ut si quia asellum 90 

In campo doceat parentem currere firenis 1 

Denique sit finis quaerendi ; quoque habeas plus, 

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142 Q. HORATII FLA.CCI 

Pauperiem metuas minus, et finire laborem 
Incipias, parto quod avebas. Ne facias, quod 
Ummidius, qui, tarn (non longa est fabula) dives, 95 

Ut metiretur nummos ; ita sordidus, ut se 
Non unquam servo melius vestiret ; ad usque 
Supremura tempus, ne se penuria victus 
Opprimeret, metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 
Divisit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. 100 

Quid ml igiiur suades ? ut vivam Maenius out sic 
Ut Nomentanus ? Pergis pugnantia secum. 
Frontibus adversis componere ? Non ego, avarum 
Ctuum veto te fieri, vappam jubeo ac nebulonern. 
Est inter Tanain quiddam socerumque Viselli : 105 

Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, 
duos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 

Eluc, unde abii, redeo. Nemon 1 ut avarus 
Se probet, ac potius laudet diversa sequentes % 
Cluodque aliena capella gerat distentius uber, 1 10 

Tabescat 1 neque se majori pauperiorum 
Turbae comparet 1 hunc atque hunc superare laboret ? 
Sic festinanti semper locupletior obstat : 
Ut, quum carceribus missos rapit ungula currus, 
Instat equis auriga suos vincentibus, ilium 1 1 5 

Praeteritum temnens extremes inter euntem. 
Inde fit, ut raro, qui se vixisse beatum 
Dicat, et exacto contentus tempore, vita 
Cedat, uti conviva satur, reperire queamus. 

Jam satis est. Ne me Crispini sorinia lippi 120 

Compilasse putes, verbum non amplius addam. 



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8BBMOHUM LIB. I. 2. J 43 

Satibjl II. 
IN MOECHOS. 

Ambubaiarum collegia, pharmacopolae, 

Mendici, mimae, balatrones, hoc genus omne 

Moestum ac solHcitum est cantoris morte Tigellt. 

Quippe benignus erat. Contra hie, ne prodigus esse 

Dicatur metuens, inopi dare nolit amico, 5 

Frigus quo duramque famem propellere possit. 

Hunc si perconteris, avi cur atque parentis 

Praeclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie rem, 

Omnia conductis coemens opsonia nummis : 

Sordidus atque animi parvi quod nolit haberi, 1 

Respondet. Laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis. 

Fufidhis vappae famam timet ac nebulonis : 

Dives agris, dives positis in fenore nummis, 

Quinas hie capiti mercedes exsecat, atque 

Quanto perditior quisque est, tanto acrius urguet ; 15 

Nomina sectatur, modo sumta veste virih, 

Sub patribus duris, tironum. Maxime, quis non, 

Jupiter, exclamat, simul atque audivit ? — Jit in se 

Pro quaestu maatumfacit hie. — Vix credere possis, 

Quam sdbi non sit amicus : ita ut pater ille, Terentt 20 

Fabula quern miserum nato vixisse fugato 

Ioducit, non se pejus cruciaverit atque hie. 

Si quis nunc quaerat, Ctuo res haec pertinet 1 Uluc . 
Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currant 
Malthinus tunicis demissis ambulat ; est qui 25 

Inguen ad ocscoenum subductis usque facetus : 
Pastillos RufiUus olet, Gargonius hircum : 
Nil medium est. Sunt qui nolint tetigisse nisi illas, 
Cluarum subsuta talos tegat instita veste : 
Contra alius nullam, nisi olento in fornico stantem. 30 

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114 O. HORATII FLACCI 

duidam notus homo quum exiret fomice, MacU 
Virtott esto, inquit sententia dia Catonis : 
Nam aimvl ac venas injlavit tetra libido, 
Hucjuvenes aequum est descendere, non alienas 
Permokre uxores. Nolim laudarier, inquit, 35 

Sic me, mirator cunni Cupiennius albi. 

Audire est operae pretium, procedere recte 
Clui moechos non vultis, ut omni parte laborent ; 
Utque illis multo comipta dolore volirptas, 
Atque haec rara cadat dura inter saepe pericla. -it) 

Hie se praecipitem tecto dedit : ille flagellis 
Ad mortem caesus : fugiens hie docidit acrem 
Praedonum in turbam : dedit hie pro ccrpore nummos : 
Uunc pcrminxerunt calones ; quin etiam illud 
Accidit, ut cuidam testes caudamque salacem 4n 

Demeterent ferro. Jure omnes : Galba negabat. 

Tutior at quanto merx est in classe secunda I 
Libertinarum dico, Sallustius in quas 
Non minus insanit, quam qui moechatur. At hie si, 
Glua res, qua ratio suaderet, quaque modeste ^ 

Munifico esse licet,, vellet bonus atque benignus 
Esse ; daret quantum satis esset, nee sibi damno 
Dedecorique foret : verum hoc se amplectitur uno ; 
Hoc amat, hoc laudat : Matronam nullam ego tango. 
Ut quondam Marsaeus, amator Originis ille, ftn 

Clui patrium mimae donat fundumque laremque, 
Nil fuerit ml, inquit, cum uxoribus unquam alienis 
Verum est cum mimis, est cum meretricibus, unde 
Fama malum gravius, quam res, trahit. An tibi abunde 
Personam satis est, non illud, quidquid ubique 60 

Officit, evitare 1 Bonam deperdere famam, 
Rem patris oblimare, malum est ubicunque. Q,uid inter- 
Est, in matrona, ancilla peccesne togata % 

YiUius in Fausta Sullae gener, hoc miser uno 

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8EBMOHUM LIB. I. 2. 146 

Nomine deceptus, poena* dedit usque superque 65 

Quam satis est ; pugnis caesus, feiroque petitus ; 

Exclusus fore, quum Longarenus foret intus. 

Huic si mutonis verbis mala tanta videntis 

Diceret haec animus : Quid vis tibi ? numqtrid ego a it 

Magna prognatum deposco Cotmde cunnum, 70 

VeUtiumque stola, mea quum conferbuit ira ? 

Quid responderet 1 Magno patre nata puella est. 

At quanto meliora monet, pugnantiaque istis, 

Dives opis natura suae, tu si modo recte 

Dispensare velis, ac non fugienda petendis 75 

Immiscere | Tuo vitio rerumnc labores, 

Nil referre putas ? Cluare, ne poeniteat te, 

Desine matronas sectarier, unde laboris 

Plus haurire mali est, quam ex re decerpere fructus. 

Nee magis huic, niveos inter viridesque lapillos 80 

Sit licet, hoc, Cerinthe, tuo tenerum est femur aut eras 

Rectius, atque etiam melius persaepe togatae est. 

Adde hue, quod mercem sine fucis gestat ; aperte, 

Quod venale habet, ostendit ; nee, si quid honesti est, 

Jactat habetque palam, quaerit quo turpia celet. 85 

Regibus hie mos est, ubi equos mercantur, opertos 
Inspiciunt ; ne, si facies, ut saepe, decora 
Molli fulta pede est, emtorem inducat hiantem, 
Quod pulchrae clunes, breve quod caput, ardua cervix 
Hoc illi recte : ne corporis optima Lyncei 90 

Contemplere oculis, Hypsaea caecior ilia 
Quae mala sunt spectes. — O a*u* ! O brachial — Yerum 
Depygis, nasuta, brevi latere ac pede longo est 
Matronae praeter faciem nil cernete possis, 
Cetera, ni Catia est, demissa veste tegentis. 95 

Si interdicta petes, vallo circumdata, (nam te 
Hoc facit insanum), multae tibi turn officient res : 
Custodes, lectica, ciniflones, parasitae, 



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146 4. HOEATII FLACC1 

Ad talos stola demissa, et circumdata palla ; 

Plurima, quae invideant pure apparere tibi rem. 100 

Altera nil obstat : Cob tibi paene videre est 
Ut nudam ; ne crure malo, ne sit pede turpi ; 
Metiri possis oculo latus. An tibi mavis 
Insidias fieri, pretiumque avellier, ante 
Ctuam mercem ostendi % Leporem venator ut aita 105 

In race sectetur, positwn sic tangere nolit, 
Cantat ; et appoint, Metis est amor huic similis ; nam 
Transvolat in medio posita, etfugientia capiat. 
Hiscine versiculis speras tibi posse dolores, 
Atque aestus, curasque graves e pectore tolli ? 110 

Nonne, cupidinibus statuat natura modum quern, 
Ctuid latura, sibi quid sit dolitura negatum, 
Gtuaerere plus prodest, et inane abscindere soldo % 
Num, tibi quum fauces urit sitis, aurea quaeris 
Pocula % num esuriens fastidis omnia praeter 115 

Pavonem rhombumque % tument tibi quum inguina, num, si 
Ancilla aut verna est praesto puer, impetus in quern 
Continuo fiat, malis tentigine rumpi % 
Non ego : namque parabilem amo V enerem facilemque. — 
Dlam, Post paulo : Sed pluris : Si exieret vir : 1 20 

Gallis ; hanc Philodemus ait sibi, quae neque magn 
Stet pretio, neque cunctetur, quum est jussa venire. 
Candida rectaque sit ; munda hactenus, ut neque longa 
Nee magis alba velit, quam det natura, videri. 
Haec ubi supposuit dextro corpus mini laevum, 125 

Ilia et Egeria est ; do nomen quodlibet ilH, 
Nee vereor, ne, dum futuo, vir rure recurrat, 
Janua ftangatur, latret canis, undique magno 
Pulsa domus strepitu resonet, vae ! pallida lecto 
Desiliat mulier, miseram se conscia clamet ; 130 

Cruribus haec metuat, doti deprensa, egomet ml. 
Discincta tunica fugiendum est ac pede nudo, 
Ne nummi pereant, aut pyga, aut denique fama. 
Deprendi miserum est ; Fabio vcl judice vincam. 

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8EBMOHUM LIB. I. 3. 117 



Satira III. 

IN OBTRECTATORES ET SUPERCILIUM 
STOICUM. 

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos 

Ut nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati, 

Injussi nunquam desislant. Sardus habebat 

Die Tigellius hoc. Caesar, qui cogere posset, 

Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam, non 5 

Quidquam proficeret : si collibuisset, ab ovo 

Usque ad mala citaret Io Bacche ! modo summa 

Voce, modo hac, resonat quae chordis quatuor ima. 

Nil aequale homini fuit illi. Saepe velut qui 

Currebat fugiens hostem, persaepe velut qui 10 

Junonis sacra ferret : alebat saepe ducentos, 

Saepe decern servos : modo reges atque tetrarchas, 

Omnia magna, loquens : modo, Sit miki mensa tripes et 

Concha salts puri et toga quae defendere frigus, 

Quamris crassa, queat. Decies centena dedisses 15 

Huic parco, paucis contento, quinque diebus 

Nil erat in loculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsum 

Mane ; diem totum stertebat. Nil fuit unquam 

Sic impar sibi. 

Nunc aliquis dicat mihi, Quid tu ? 
Muttane habes viiia ? Imo alia, et fortasse minora. 20 

Maenius absentem Novium quum carperet, Heus tu, 
Quidam ait, ignoras te ? an ut ignotum dare nobis 
Verba puias f Egomet ml ignosco, Maenius inquit. 
Stultus et improbu8 hie amor est dignusque notari. 
Cluum tua pervideas oculis male lippus inunctis, 25 

Cur in amicorum vitiis tarn cernis acutum, 
Cluam aut aquila aut serpens Epidaurius 1 At tibi contra 
Evenit, inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. 

1G 

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148 ft. HORim FLACCI 

Iracundior est paulo ; minus aptus acutis 

Naribus horum hominum ; rideri possit, eo quod 30 

Rusticius tonso toga defluit, et male laxus 

In pede calceus haeret : at est bonus, ut meiior vir 

Non alius quisquam ; at tibi amicus ; at ingtnium ingec* 

Inculto latet hoc sub corpore : denique te ipsum 

Concute, num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit olim 35 

Natura aut etiam consuetudo mala : namque 

Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. 

IUuc praevertamur : amatorem quod amicae 
Turpia decipiunt caecum vitia, aut etiam ipsa haec 
Delectant, veluti Balbinum polypus Hagnae. 40 

Vellem in amicitia sic erraremus, et isti 
Errori nomen virtus posuisset honestum. 
At pater ut gnati, sic nos debemus amici, 
Si quod sit vilium, non fastidire : strabonem 
Appellat Paetum pater ; et Pullum, male parvus 45 

Si cui filius est, ut abortivus fuit olim 
Sisyphus : hunc Varum, distortis cruribus ; ilium 
Balbutit Scaurum, pravis fultum male talis. 
Parcius hie vivit % frugi dicatur. Ineptus 
Et jactantior hie paulo est % concinnus amicis 60 

Postulat ut videatur. At est truculentior atque 
Plus aequo liber ? simplex fortisque habeatur. 

Caldior est ? acres inter numeretur. Opinor, 

Haec res et jungit, junctos et servat amicos. 
At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus atque 65 

Sincerum cupimus vas incrustare. Probus quis 

Nobiscum vivit ? multum est demissus homo ? Illi 

Tardo cognomen pingui et damus. Hie fugit omnes 

[nsidias, nullique malo latus obdit apertum % 

(Cluum genus hoc inter vitae versemur, ubi acris 60 

Invidia atque vigent ubi crimina :) pro bene sano 

Ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocamus. 

Simplicior quis, et est, qualem me saepe libenter 

Obtulerim tibi, Maecenas, ut forte legentem 

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8BRM02TUN LIB. I. 3. 149 

Aut taciturn impellat quovis sermone molestaB % 65 

Communi sensu plane caret, inquimus. Eheu, 

Quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam I 

Nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur : optimus ille est, 

Qui minimis urguetur. Amicus dulcis, ut aequum est, 

Quum mea compenset vitiis bona, pluribus hisce, 7C 

Si modo plura mini bona sunt, inclinet. Amari 

Si volet hac lege, in trutina ponetur eadem. 

Qui, ne tuberibus propriis offendat amicum, 

Postulat, ignoscet verrucis illius ; aequum est, 

Peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus. 75 

Denique, quatenus excidi penitus vitium irae, 
Cetera item nequeunt stultis haerentia : cur non 
Ponderibus modulisque suis ratio utitur ? ac res 
Ut quaeque est, ita suppliciis delicta coerce t % 
Si quis eum servum, patinam qui tollere jussus 60 

oemesoe pisces tepidumque ligurrierit jus, 
In cruce suffigat, Labeone insanior inter 
Sanoti dicatur. Quanto hoc ruriosius atque 
Majus peccatum est ? Paulum deliquit amicus ; 
Quod nisi concedas, habeare insuavis ; acerbus 85 

Odisti, et fugis, ut Rusonem debitor aeris, 
Qui nisi, quum tristes misero venere Kalendae 
Mercedem aut nummos unde unde extricat, amaxas 
Porrecto jugulo historias, captivus ut, audit. 
Comminxit lectum potus, mensave catillum 90 

Evandri manibus tritum dejecit : ob hanc rem, 
Aut positum ante mea quia pullum in parte catini 
Sustulit esuriens, minus hoc jucundus amicus 
Sit mini ? Cluid faciam, si furtum fecerit ? aut si 
Prodiderit commissa fide ? sponsumve negarit % Mb 

ftueis paria esse fere placuit peccata, laborant, 
Quum ventum ad verum est : sensus moresque repugnant . 
Atque ipsa utiKtas, justi prope mater et aequi. 
Quum prorepserunt primis animalia terris, 
Mutum et turpe pecus glandem atque cubilia propter 100 

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150 4. HORATII FLACC1 

Unguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus, atque ita porro 

Pugnabant armis, quae post fabricaverat usus ; 

Donee verba, quibus voces sensusque notarent, 

Nominaque invenere : dehinc absistere bello, 

Oppida coeperunt munire, et ponere leges, 105 

Nc quia fur esset, neu latro, neu quis adulter. 

Nam fuit ante Helenam cunnus teterrima belli 

Causa : sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi, 

Gluas, Venerem incertam rapientes, more ferarum, 

Viribus editior caedebat, ut in grege taurus. 1 lu 

Jura inventa metu injusti fateare necesse est, 

Tempora si fastosque velis evolvere mundi. 

Nee natura potest justo secernere iniquum, 

Dividit ut bona diversis, fugienda petendis : 

Nee vincet ratio hoc, tantundem ut peccet idemque, 115 

Qui teneros caules alieni fregerit horti, 

Et qui nocturnus sacra divtim legerit. Adsit 

Regula, peccatis quae poenas irroget aequas, 

Nee scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. 

Ne ferula caedas meritum majora subire 120 

Verbera, non vereor, quum dicas esse pares res 

Furta latrociniis, et magnis parva mineris 

Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 

Permittant homines. Si dives, qui sapiens est, 

Et sutor bonus, et solus formosus, et est rex ; 125 

Cur optas quod habes ? — Non nosti, quid pater, inquit, 

Chrysippus dicat. Sapiens crepidas sibi nunquam 

JVcc 8oleas fecit ; sutor tamen est sapiens. — Qui ? - 

Ut, quamvis tacet Hermogenes, cantor tamen atque 

Optimus est modulator ; ut Alfenus vafer, omni 130 

Abjecto instrument artis clausaque taberna, 

Tonsor erat : sapiens operis sic optimus omnia 

Est opifex solus, sic rex. — Vellunt tibi barbam 

Lascivi pueri, quos tu nisi fuste coSrces, 

Urgueris turba circum te stante, miserque 135 

Rumperis, et latras, magnorum maxim e rcgum. 

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SEAMONUM LIB. I. 4. 151 

Ne longum faciam, dum tu quadrante lavatum 

Rex ibis, neque te quisquam stipator, ineptum 

Praeter Crispinum, sectabitur ; et mihi dulces 

Ignoscent, si quid peccaro stultus, amici ; 140 

Inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter, 

Privatusque magis vivam te rege beatus. 

Satira IV. 

IN OBTRECTATORES SUOS. 

Eupolis atque Cratinus Aristophanesque, poetae, 

Atque alii, quorum Comoedia prisca virorum est, 

Si quis erat dignus describi, quod malus, aut fur, 

Quod moechus foret, aut sicarius, aut alioqui 

Famosus, multa cum libertate notabant. 5 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce secutus, 

Mutatis tantum pedibus numerisque, facetus, 

Emunctae naris, durus componere versus. 

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus, in hora saepe ducentos, 

Ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno. 10 

Quran flueret lutulentus, erat quod toilers velles - 

Garrulus, atque piger scribendi ferre laborem, 

Scribendi recte : nam ut multum ; nil moror. Ecce 

Crispinus rninimo me provocat. — Acdpe, si vis, 

Jkcipiam tabula* ; detur nobis locus, hora, 1 a 

Custodes ; videamus, uter plus scribere possit — 

Dl bene fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli 

Finxerunt animi, raro et perpauca loquentis : 

At tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras, 

Usque laborantes, dum ferrum emolliat ignis, 20 

Ut mavis, imitare. 

Beatus Fannius, ultro 
Delatis capsis et imagine ! quum mea nemo 
Scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis, ob hanc rem, 
Quod sunt quoe genus hoc minime juvat, utpote pluros 
16* 



1 52 Q, HORATII FLACCI 

Culpari dignos. Quemvis media elige turba ; 25 

Aut ab avaritia aut misera ambitione laborat. 

Hie nuptarum insanit amoribus, hie puerorum ; 

Hune capit argenti splendor ; stupet Albius aere ; 

Hie mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum, quo 

Vespertina tepet regio ; quin per mala praeceps 30 

Fertur, uti pulvis collectus turbine, ne quid 

Summa deperdat metuens, aut ampliet ut rem. 

Omnes hi metuunt versus, odere poetas. — 

Fenum habet in cornu, longejuge ; dummodo visum 

Excutiat sibi, non hie cuiquam parcet amico ; 35 

Et, quodcunque semel chartis ilUverit, omnes 

Gestiet afurno redeuntes scire laevque, 

Et pueros et anus, — Agedum, pauca accipe contra. 

Primum ego me illorum, dederim quibus esse poetis, 

Excerpam numero. Neque enim concludere versum 40 

Dixeris esse satis, neque, si qui scribat, uti nos, 

Sermoni propiora, putes hunc esse poGtam. 

Ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior, atque os 

Magna sonaturum, des nominis hujus honorem. 

Idcirco quidam, Comoedia necne poema 45 

Esset, quaesivere ; quod acer spiritus ac vis 

Nee verbis nee rebus inest, nisi quod pede certo 

Differt sermoni, sermo merus. — At pater ardens 

Sacvit, quod meretrice nepos insanus arnica 

Filius uxorem grandi cum dote recuse^ 50 

Ebrius et } magnum quod dedecus 1 ambulet ante 

Noctem cumfacibus. — Numquid Pomponius istis 

Audiret leviora, pater si viveret ? Ergo 

Non satis est puris versum perscribere verbis, 

Gtuem si dissolvas, quivis stomachetur eodem 55 

Quo personatus pacto pater. His, ego quae nunc, 

Olim quae scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

Tempora certa modosque, et quod prius ordine verbum est, 

Posterius facias, praeponens ultima primis : 

Non, ut td solvas, " Postquam discordia tetra 60 

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8EKMONUM LIB. I. 4. 158 

BdUferratos posies poriasquc refregit ;" 
Invenias etiam disjecti membra poe" tae ; 

Hactenus haec ; alias, justum sit necne pod ma ; 
Nunc illud tantum quaeram, meritone tibi sit 
Suspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcms acci 65 

Ambulat et Caprius, rauci male cumque libellis, 
Magnus uterque timor latronibus : at bene si quis 
Et rirat puris manibus, contemnat utnimque. 
Ut sis tu similis Caett Birrfque, latronum, 
Nod ego sum Capri neque Sulci : cur metuas me? 70 

Nulla tabema meos habeat neque pila libellos, 
Q'jeis manus insudet vulgi Hermogenisque Tigelll, 
Ncc recito cuiquam, nisi amicis, idque coactus, 
Ncn ubivis, coramve quibuslibet. — In medio qui 
Scriptaforo recitent, sunt nudti, quique lavantes ; 75 

Svare locus voci resonai concktsus. — Inanes 
Hx jnvat, baud illud quaerentes, num sine sensu, 
Tempore num iaciant abeno. — Laedere gaudes, 
Lq^it, et hoe studio prams foci*. — Unde petitum 
H x in me jacis % est auctor quis denique eorum, SO 

\ ic r rrrr. quibus 1 Abseutem qui rodit ^rr\\ccnm t 

(l z xl defendit alio culpante, somtos 

Ui c&icax rkus hominum famamque dicacis, 

T^^s* ry± nan visa potest, commissa tacere 

Ci~ z*xtzl\ : Lie niger est, nunc tu, Romane, caveto. 85 

Ss*?e tZis lectis Tideas coenare quatemos, 

E r3a ~L2* sjnei qua vis adspergere cunctos, 

rTbrter ezzz-. qzi praebet aquam : post, hunc quoque pot .?, 

r ^. -,.„ _ -__ Terax aperit praecordia liber ; 



Kj: ilu OGCZ25 et urbanus liberque Tidetur 90 

•lisZf zurr* : trzo si risi, quod ineptus 

ri^ZsM R-jfLZ-x otet Gargoriios tircum, 

l^ncrjB « r^rfax Tiieor tbi ? Mario si qua 

I* C»5ir.^=i f=r5s irrjecia Pe::Hi 

T» **wr" fatrr.. deiendaa, ut raus est mos : — 9b 

«Vs CMtf'4nvi cotsnctoTt ms otHBtooyse 

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164 <*• HORATII FLACC1 

A puero est, causaque mea permutta rogatus 

Fecit, et incolumis laetor quod vivit in urbe ; 

Sed tamen admiror, quo pacto judicium illud 

Fugerit. — Hie nigrae fucus loliginis, haec est ICO 

Aerugo mera, quod vitium procul afore chartis, 

Atque animo prius, ut si quid promittere de me 

Possum aliud vere, promitto. Iiberius si 

Dixero quid, si forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 

Cum venia dabis. Insuevit pater optimus hoc me, l*** 

Ut fugerem, exemplis vitiorum quaeque notando. 

Gtuum me hortaretur, parce, frugaliter, atque 

Viverem uti contentus eo, quod ml ipse parasset : 

Nonne vides, Mbi ut male vivatjilius ? utque 

Barms inops ? magnum documentum, ne patriam rem 1 10 

Perdere quis velit. A turpi meretricis amore 

Quum deterreret : Scetani dissimilis sis. 

Ne sequerer moechas, concessa quum Venere uti 

Possem : Deprensi non bella estfama Treboni, 

Aiebat. Sapiens, vitatu quidque petitu 115 

Sit melius, causas reddet tibi ; mi satis est, si 

Traditum ab antiquis morem servare, tuamque, 

Dum custodis eges, vitamfamamque tueri 

Incolumem possum ; simul ac duraverit aetas 

Membra animumque tuum, nobis sine cortice. - Sic me 120 

Formabat puerum dictis, et sive jubebat 

Ut facerem quid, Habes auctorem, quo facias hoc ; 

Unum ex judicibus selectis objiciebat : 

Sive vetabat, An hoc inhonestum et inutile factum 

Necne sit, addubites, flagret rumor e malo quum 1 25 

Hie atque Me ? Avidos vicinum forms ut aegros 

Exanimat, mortisque metu sibi parcere cogit ; 

Sic teneros animos aliena opprobria saepe 

Absterrent vitiis. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis, 

Perniciem quaecunque ferunt ; mediocribus, et queis 330 

Ignoscas, vitiis teneor. Fortassis et istinc 

Largiter abstulerit longa aetas, liber amicus, 

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SERMON UM LIB. 1. 5. 155 

Consilium proprium ; neque enim, quum lectulus aut mc 

Porticus ^x&epit, desum mihi. Rectius hoc est ; 

Hocfaciens vwam melius; sic dulcis emtio* 135 

Occmram ; hoc quidam non belle ; numquid ego illi 

Imprudent oUmfaciank simile ? Haec ego mecum 

Compressis agito labris ; ubi quid datur oti, 

IUudo chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis 

Ex vitiis unum, cui'si concedere nolis, 140 

Multa poetarum veniet manus, auxilio quae 

Sit mihi, nam multo plures sumus, ac veluti te 

Judaei cogemus in banc concedere turbam. 



Satira V. 
ITER BRUNDISINUM. 

EgresBum magna me excepit Aricia Roma 

Hospitio modico ; rhetor comes Heliodorus, 

Graecoram linguae doctissimus. Inde Forum Appt 

Differtum nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. 

Hoc iter ignavi divisimus, altius ac nos ft 

Praecincti^iinum : nimis est gravis Appia tardis. 

Hie ego propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, ventri 

Indico bellum, coenantes haud animo aequo 

Exspectans comites. Jam nox inducere terris 

Umbras et coelo diffundere signa parabat : 1 o 

Turn pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautae 

Ingerere. — Hue appelle. Trecentoa inserts ; ohe ! 

Jam salts est. — Dum aes exigitur, dum mula ligatur, 

Tota abit hora. Mali culices ranaeque palustres 

Avertunt somnos. Absentem ut cantat arnica m 15 

Multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 

Certatim : tandem fessus dormire viator 

Incipit, ac missae pastum retinacula mulae 

Nauta piger saxo religat, stertitque supinus. 

Jamque dies aderat, nil quum procedere lintrem 20 

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156 Q. HORATU FLACCI 

Sentimus, donee cerebrosus prosilit unus, 
Ac mulae nautaeque caput lumbosque saligno 
Fuste dolat. Cluarta vix demum exponimur hora, 
Ora manuaque tua lavimur, Feronia, lympha. 

Millia turn pransi tria repimus, atque subimus 25 

Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. 
Hue venturus erat Maecenas optimus, atque 
Cccceius, missi magnis de rebus uterque 
Legati, a versos soliti componere amicos. 
Hie oculis ego nigra meis collyria lippus 30 

Illinere. Intarea Maecenas advenit atque 
Cocceius Capitoque simul Fonteius, ad unguem 
Factus homo, Antont, non ut magis alter, amicus. 
Fundos Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 
Linquimus, insani ridentes praemia scribae, 35 

Praetextam et latum clavum prunaeque batillum. 
la Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus, 
Murena praebente domiun, Capitone culinam. 

Postera lux oritur multo gratissima, namque 
Plotius et Varius Sinuessae Virgili usque 40 

Occurrunt, animae, quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit, neque queis me sit devinctior alter. 
() qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. 

Proxima Campano ponti quae villula, tectum ^> 

Praebuit, et parochi, quae debent, ligna salemque. 
Hinc muli Capuae clitellas tempore ponunt. 
Lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego Virgiliusque : 
Namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 

Hinc nos Cocceii recipit plenissima villa, 50 

Gluae super est Caudt cauponas. Nunc mini paucis 
Sarmenti scurrae pugnam Messtque Cicirri, 
Musa, velim memores, et quo patre natus uterquo 
Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci ; 
tiarmenti domina exstat. Ab his majoribus orti 55 

Ad pugnam venere. Prior Sarmentus : Equi tt 

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SKRMOIfUM LIB. I. 5. 157 

E$$e feri shnilem dico. Ridemus; et ipse 

Meseius, JLccipio ; caput et movet. O, tua cornu 

Mforet ex$ecto front, inquit, quidfaccrcs, quum 

Sic mutikts ndnitaris ? At OH foeda cicatrix 60 

Setosam laevi frontem turpaverat oris. 

Campanum in morbum, in faciem permulta jocatus, 

Pastorem saltaret uti Cyclopa, rogabat ; 

Nil illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis. 

Multa Cicirrus ad haec : Donasset jamne catenam C>5 

Ex voto Laribus, quaerebat ; scriba quod esset, 

Nihilo detenus dominae jus esse. Rogabat 

Denique, cur unquam fugisset % cui satis una 

Farris libra foret, gracili sic tamque pusillo. 

Prorsus jucunde cocnam produximus illam. 70 

Tendimus hinc recta Beneventum, ubi sedulus hospcs 
Pacne macros arsit dum turdos versat in igne. 
Nam vaga per veterem dilapso flamma culinam 
Vulcano surnmum properabat lambere tectum. 
Convivas avidos coenam servosque timentes 7-5 

Turn rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle videres. 

Incipit ex fllo montes Appulia notos 
Ostentare mini, quos torret Atabulus, et quos 
Nunquam erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 
Villa recepisset, lacrimoso non sine fumo, BO 

Udos cum fobis ramos urente camino. 
llic ego mendacem stultissimus usque puellam 
Ad mediam noctem exspecto : soinnus tamen aufert 
Intentum Veneri ; turn immundo somnia visu 
Noctumam vestem maculant ventremque supinum. 65 

Ctuatuor bine rapimur viginti et millia rhedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicere non est, 
Signis perfacile est : venit vilissima rerum 
Hie aqua, sed panis longe pulcherrimus, ultra 
CalBdus ut soleat humeris portare viator ; 90 

Nam Canust lapidosus, aquae non ditior urna. 

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158 a* HORATII FLACCI 

[Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim.] 
Flentibus hie Varius discedit moestus amicis. 

Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 
Carpentes iter et factum corruptius imbri. 95 

Postera tempestas melior. via pejor ad usque 
Bart moenia piscosi. Dehinc Gnatia lymphis 
Iratis exstructa dedit risusque jocosque, 
Dum flamma sine thura liquescere limine sacro 
Persuadere cupit. Credat Judaeus Apella, 1W) 

Non ego j namque deos didici securum agere aevum, 
Nee, si quid miri faciat natura, deos id 
Tristes ex alto coeli demittere tecto. 
Brundisium longae finis chartaeque viucque. 

Satira vr. 
IN DER1SORES NATALIUM SUORUM. 

Non, quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etruscos 

Incoluit fines, nemo generosior est te, 

Nee, quod avus tibi matemus fuit atque paternue, 

Olim qui magnis legionibus imperitarent, 

Ut plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco - & 

Ignotos, ut me libertino patre natum. 

Gluum referre negas, quali sit quisque parent© 

Natus, dum ingenuus : persuades hoc tibi vere. 

Ante potestatem Tullt atque ignobile regnum 

Multos saepe viros nullis majoribus ortos 10 

Et vixisse probos, amplis et honoribus auctos : 

Contra Laevinum, Valert genus, unde Superbus 

Tarquinius regno pulsus fugit, unius assis 

Non unquam pretio pluris h'cuisse, notante 

Judice, quo nosti, populo, qui stultus honores * 15 

Saepe dat indignis, et famae servit ineptus, 

Qui stupet in u'tulis et imaginibus. Gtuid oportet 

Vos facere, a vulgo longe longeque femotos % 

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flSRMONUM LAtt. I. 6. 159 

Namque esto, populus Laevino mallet honorem 
Cluam Decio mandare novo, censorquc moveret 20 

^ppius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus ; 
Vel merito, quoniam in propria non pelle quiessem. 
Bed fulgente trahit constrictos gloria curru 
Non minus ignotos generosis. duo tibi, Tilli, 
Bumere depositum clavum, fierique tribuno ? 25 

Invidia accrevit, privato quae minor esset. 
Nam ut quisque insanus nigris medium impediit cms 
Pellibus et latum demisit pectore clavum, 
Audit continuo : Gluis homo hie 1 et quo patre natus % 
lit si qui aegrjgtet, quo"*}orbo Barrus, haberi 30 

Ut cupiat formosus ; eat quacunque, puellis 
Injiciat curam quaerendi singula, quali 
Sil facie, sura, quali pede, dente, capillo : 
Sic qui promittit, cives, Urbem sibi curae, 
Imperium fore, et Italiam.et delubra deorum ; 35 

0-uo patre sit natus, num ignota matre inhonestus, 
Omnes mortales curare et quaerere cogit. — 
l\me Syri, Damae } out Dionysi jUius, y audes y 
Dqicere e saxo cives, aut tradere Cadmo ? — 
At JVbvtti* collega gradu post me sedet uno : 4C 

Namque est tile, pater quod erat meus. — Hoc tibi Paulius 
Et Messala videris ? At hie, si plostra ducenta 
Concurrantque foro triafunera, magna sonabit 
Comma quod vincatque tubas : saltern tenet hoc nos. — 
Nunc ad me redeo, libertino patre natum, 45 

Quern rodunt omnes libertino patre natum ; 

Nunc quia sim tibi, Maecenas, convictor, at olim, 

Quod mini pareret legio Romana tribuno. 

Dissimile hoc illi est, quia non, ut forsit honorem 

Jure mihi invideat quivis, ita te quoque amicum, 50 

Praesertim cautum dignos assumere prava 

Ambitione procul. Felicem dicere non hoc 

Me possum, casu quod te sortitus amicum ; 

Nulla eterqm mihi te fors obtulit ; optimus olim 

17 

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160 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Yirgilius, post hunc Van us, dixere quid essem. 55 

Ut veni coram, singultim pauca locutus, 

Infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari, 

Non ego me claro natuiri patre, non ego circum 

Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 

Sed quod eram, narro : respondes, ut tuus est mos, CO 

Pauca : abeo : et revocas nono post mense, jubesque 

Esse in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego duco, 

Gtuod placui tibi, qui turpi secernis honestum, 

Non patre praeclaro, sed vita ct pectore puro. 

Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 0.1 

Mendosa est natura, alioqui recta, vtifat si 

Egregio inspersos reprendas corpore naevos, 

Si neque avaritiam neque sordes aut mala lustra 

Objiciet vere quisquam mini ; purus et insone, 

Ut me collaudem, si et vivo carus amicis : 70 

Causa fuit pater his, qui macro pauper agello 

Noluit in Flavt ludum me mittere, magni 

duo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti, 

Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto, 

Ibant octonis referentes Idibus aera ; "" 

Sed puerum est ausus Romam portare, docendum 

Artes, quas doceat quivis eques atque senator 

Semet prognatos. Vestem servosque sequentes, 

In magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, avita 

Ex re praeberi sumtus mini crederet illos. *•'} 

Ipse mini custos incorruptissimus omnes 

Circum doctores aderat. Cluid multa ? pudicum, 

Clui primus virtutis honos servavit ab omni 

Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque tr/pi, 

Noc timuit, sibi ne vitio quia verteret olim, S r » 

Si praeco parvas, aut, ut fuit ipse, enactor 

Mercedes sequerer ; neque ego essem questus. Ad hoc nm : 

Laua illi debetur et a me gratia major. 

Nil me poeniteat sanum patris hujus, eoque 

Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, 90 

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8ERMOHUM LIB. 1. 6. 161 

Quod non ingenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 

Sic me defendam. Longe mea discrepat istis 

Et vox et ratio. Nam si natura juberet 

A certis annis aevum remeare peractum, 

Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentea : 95 

Optaret sibi quisque j meis contentus honestos 

Fascibus et sellis nollem mihi sumere, demens 

Judicio vulgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 

Nollem onus haud unquam solitus portare molestum. 

Nam mihi continuo major quaerenda foret res, 100 

Atque salutandi plures : ducendus et unus 

Et comes alter, uti ne solus rusve peregreve 

Exirem ; plures calones atque caballi 

PasceDdi j ducenda petorrita. Nunc mihi curto 

Ire licet mulo vel, si libet, usque Tarentum, 105 

Mantica cui lumbos onere ulceret atque eques armos. 

Objiciet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tulli, 

Quum Tiburte via praetorem quinque sequuntur 

Te pueri, lasanum portantes oenophorumque. 

Hoc ego commodius quam tu, praeclare senator, 1 10 

Multia atque aliis vivo. Gluacunque libido est, 

Incedo solus : percontor, quanti olus ac for ; 

Fallacem circum vespertinumque pererro 

Saepe forum ; adeieto divinis ; inde domum me 

Ad porri et ciceris refero laganiquecatinum. 115 

Coena mmistratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 

Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet ; adstat echinus 

Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supellex. 

Oeinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus, mihi quod eras 

Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 1 20 

Vultum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. 

Ad quartam jaceo ; post hanc vagor, aut ego, lecto 

Aut scripto quod me taciturn juvet, ungor olivo, 

Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucemis. 

Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 125 

Admonuit, rugio campum lusumque trigonem. 

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102 Q. HORATU FLACCI 

Pransus non a vide, quantum interpellet inani 

Ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. Haec est 

Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique. 

His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si 130 

Quaestor avus, pater atque metis, patruusque fuisset 

Satira VIL 

IN MALEDICOS ET INHUMANOS. 

Proscripti Regis Rupilt pus atque venenum 

Hybrida quo pacto sit Persius ultus, opinor 

Omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse. 

Persius hie permagna negotia dives habebat 

Clazomenis, etiam lites cum Rege molestas ; 5 

Durus homo, atque odio qui posset vincere Regem, 

Confidens, tumidusque, adeo sermonis amari, 

Sisennas, Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. 

Ad Regem redeo. Postquam nihil inter utrumque 

Convenit : (hoc etenim sunt omnes jure molesti, I" 

duo fortes, quibus adversum bellum incidit : inter 

Hectora Priamiden, animosum atque inter Achillem 

Ira fuit capitalis, ut ultima divideret mors, 

Non aliam ob causam nisi quod virtus in utroque 

Summa fuit ; duo si discordia vexet inertes, 1* 

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi 

Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultro 

Muneribus missis.) Bruto Praetore tenente 

Ditem Asiam, Rupilt et Persl par pugnat, uti non 

Compositi melius cum Ritho Bacchius. In jus 20 

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 

Porsius exponit causam ; ridetur ab omni 

Conventu : laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem ; 

Solem Asiae Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres 

Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; canem ilium, 25 

Invisum agricolis sidus, venisse : ruebat, 

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8IR1IONUM LIB. I. 8. 163 

Flamen ut hibernum, fertur quo rara securis. 

Turn Praenestinua salso multoque fluenti 

Expressa arbusto regerit convicia, durus 

Vindemiator et invictus, cui saepe viator 30 

Cessisset, magna compellans voce cucullum 

At Graecus, postqtiam est Italo perfusus aceto, 

Persius exclamat : Per magrws, Brute, deos ie 

OrOj qui reges consucsii iollere ; cur non 

Hvne Regemjuguku ? operum hoc, mihi crede, tuorum est. 35 

Satira vin. 

IN SUPERSTITIOSOS ET VENEFICAS. 

Ofim tnincus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, 
Quum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum, 
Maluit esse deum. Deus inde ego, furum aviumque 
Maxima formido : nam fures dextra coercet 
Obscoenoque ruber porrectus ab inguine palus. 5 

Ast importunas volucres in vertice arundo 
Terret fixa, vetatque novis considere in hortis. 
Hue priiis angustis ejecta cadavera cellis 
Conservus vili portanda locabat in area. 
Hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 10 

Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti. 
Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 
Hie dabat ; heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 
Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 
Aggere in aprico spatiari, qua modo tristes 15 

Alois informem spectabant ossibus agrum, 
Quum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque, suetae 
Hunc vexare locum, curae sunt atque labori, 
Cluantum carminibus quae versant atque venenis 
Humanos animos. Has nullo perdere possum 20 

Nee prohibere modo, simul ac vaga Luna decorum 
Protulit os, quin ossa legant herbasque nocentes. 
17 



164 4. HOEATII FLACC1 

Vidi egomot nigra succinctam vadere palla 

Canidiam, pedibus nudis, passoque capillo, 

Cum Sagana majore ululantem. Pallor utrasque 25 

Fecerat horrendas adspectu. Scalpere terrain 

Unguibus, et pullam divellere mordicus agnam 

Coeperunt ; cruor in fossam confusus, ut inde 

Manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. 

Lanea et effigies erat, altera cerca ; major 3« 

Lanea, quae poenis compesceret inferiorem. 

Cerea suppliciter stabat, servilibus ut quae 

Jam peritura modis. Hecateu vocat altera, saevam 

Altera Tisiphonen : serpentes atque videres 

[nfernas errare canes, lunamque rubentem, 35 

Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcra. 

Mentior at si quid, merdis caput inquiner albis 

Oorvorum, atque in me veniat mictum atque cacatum 

Julius, et fragilis Pediatia, furque Voranus. 

Singula quid memorem ? quo pacto altema loquentes 40 

Umbrae cum Sagana resonarent triste et acutum ? 

Utque lupi barbam variae cum dente colubrae 

A.bdiderint furtum terris, et imagine cerea 

J^argior arserit ignis, et ut npn testis inultus 

Horruerim voces Furiarum et facta duarum % 45 

Nam, displosa sonat quantum vesica, pepedi 

Diffissa nate ficus : at illae currere in urbem. 

Canidiae dentes, altum Saganae caliendrum 

Excidere, atque herbas, atque incantata lacenis 

Vincula, cum magno risuque jocoque videres. 6u 



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8ERM0NUM LIB. I. 9. 165 



Satira IX. 

IN IMPUDENTES ET INEPTOS 
PARASITASTROS. 

Ibam forte via Sacra 7 sicut meus est mos, 

Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis : 

Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum, 

Arreplaque manu, Quid agis } dulcissime rerum ? 

Suaviter, ut nunc est, inquam, et cupio omnia quae via. 5 

Quum assectaretur, JVW quid vis ? occupo : at ille, 

Noris nos } inquit ; docti aumus. Hie ego, Pluris 

Hoc, inquam, mihi eris. Misere discedere quaerens. 

Ire modo ocius, interdum consistere, in aurem- 

Dicere nescio quid puero j quum sudor ad imos Id 

Manaret talos. O te, Bolane, cerebri 

Feficem ! aiebam tacitus, quum quidlibet ille 

Garriret, vicos, urbem laudaret. Ut illi 

Nil respondebam, Misere cupis, inquit, abire, 

Jamdudum video, sed nil agis, usque tenebo, 15 

Persequar. Hinc quo nunc iter est tibi ? — Nil opus est te 

Circumagi ; quendam volo visere non tibi noium ; 

Trans Tiberim longe cubat w, prope Caesaris hortos. — 

Ml kabeo quod agam y et non sum piger; usque sequar te. — 

Demitto auriculas ut iniquae mentis asellus, 20 

Quum gravius dorso subiit onus. Incipit ille : 

St bene me novi } non Viscum pluris amicum, 

Non Varium fades ; nam quis me scribere plures 

Aut eitius possit versus ? quis membra movere 

Mollius ? invideat quod ei Hermogenes } ego canto. 25 

Interpellandi locus hie erat. — Est tibi mater ? 

Cognati, queis te salvo est opus ? — Hand mihi quisquam ; 

Omnes composui. — Felices ! Nunc ego resto ; 



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16C 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Confice, namque instatfatum mihi triste, Sabella 

Quod puero cecinit tnota dwina anus urna : 30 

" Hunc neque dira venena nee hosiicus auferet ensis, 

" Nee laierum dolor out busts nee tarda podagra ; 

" Garrulus hone quando consumet cunque ; loquacts, 

" Si sapiat, vitet, simul atque adoleverit aetas" 

Ventum erat ad Vestae, quarta jam parte diei 35 

Praeterita, et casu tunc respondere vadato 
Debebat : quod ni fecisset, perdere litem. 
Si me amas, inquit, paulum hie odes. — Inteream, si 
Aut valeo stare, out novi civiliajura ; 
Et propero quo scis. — Dubius sum quidfaciam, inquit ; 40 
Tene relinquam an rem. — Me } sodes. — Non faciam^ ille, 
Et praecedere coepit. Ego, ut contendere durum est 
Cum victore, sequor. — Maecenas quomodo tecum ? 
Hie repetit. — Paucorum hominum et mentis bene sanae , 
Nemo dexterius for tuna est usus. — Haberes 45 

Magnum adjutorem, posset quiferre secundas, 
Hunc hominem velles si tradere ; dispeream, ni 
Summosses omnes. — Won isto vivitur illic. 
Quo tu rere t modo ; domus hoc nee purior ulla est % 
Nee magis his aliena malts ; nil mi officit inquam, 50 

Ditior hie out est quia doctior ; est locus uni 
Cuique suus. — Magnum narras, vix crtdibile. — Jltqui 
Sic habet. — Accendis, quare cupiam magis illi 
Proximus esse. — Velis tantummodo ; quae tua virtus, 
Ezpugnabis, et est qui vinci possit } toque bh 

Difficiles aditusprimos habet — Hand mihi deero ; 
Muneribus servos corrumpam ; non, hodie si 
Exclusus fuero, desistam ; tempora quaeram ; 
Occurram in triviis t deducam. Nil sine magno 
Vita labore dedit mortalibus. — Haec dum agit, ecce, 60 
Fuscus Aristius occunit, mihi cams et ilium 
Glui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. Unde venis 1 et, 
duo tendis ? rogat et respondet. Vellere coepi, 
Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans, 

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BIRMONUH LIB. I. 10. 167 

Distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet. Male sabus 65 

Bidens dissimulare. Meum jecur mere bilia 

Certs nescio quid secreto vette loqui te 

ditbas mecum. — MetrUni bene, $td meliori 

Tempore dUam ; kodie tricesima sabbata ; vin' tu 

Curtis Judaeis oppedere ? — Ntdla mihi, inquam, 70 

BdHgio est — At mi ; sum paulo injirmior, unus 

Multorum ; ignosces, alias loquar. — Hunccine solem 

Tarn nigrum surrexe mihi ! Fugit improbus ac me 

Sub cultro linquit. Casu venit obvius illi 

Adversarius, et, Quo tu turpissime ? magna 75 

Inclamat voce, et, IAcet antestari ? Ego vero 

Appono auriculam. Rapit in jns. Clamor utrinque, 

Undique concursus. Sic me servavit Apollo. 



Satira X. 
IN 1NEPTOS LUCILH FAUTORES. 

* • 



Lucili, quam sis mendosus, teste Catone 
Defensors too pervincam, qui malefactos 
Emendare parol versus. Hoc lenius Me, 
Quo mehor vir adest ; longe subtilior Mo, 
Qui mulium puer est loris et Junibus udis 
Exoratus, ut esset, opem quiferre pottis 
Jtntiquis posset contra fastidia nostra, 
Gratnmaticorum eqyitum doctissimus. Ut redeem ittue. 



Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus 

Lucilt. Q,uis tarn Lucill fautor inepte est, 

Ut non hoc fateatur 1 At idem, quod sale multo 



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168 Q,. HORATII FLACCI 

Urbem defhcuit, charta laudatur eadem. 

Nee tamen ly>c tribuena dederim quoque cetera j nam sic 5 

Et Labert mimos ut pulchra poemata mirer. 

Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum 

Auditoris : et est quaedam tamen hie quoque virtus : 

Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se 

Impediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures : 10 

Et sermone opus est modo tristi, saepe jocoso, 

Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 

Interdum urbani, parcentis viribus, atque 

Extenuantis eas consulto. Ridiculum acri 

Fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res. 15 

Illi, scripta quibus Comoedia prisca viris est, 
Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque pulchcr 
Hermogenes unquam legit, neque simius iste, 
Nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum. — 
At magnum fecit, quod verbis Graeca Latinis 20 

Miscuit — O sen studiorum ! qutne putetis 
Difficile et minim, Rhodio quod Pitholeonti 
Contigit ? — At sermo lingua concinnus utraque 
Suavior, ut Chio nota si commixta Falerni est 
Quum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, an et quum 25 
Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli 
Scilicet, oblitus patriaeque patrisque, Latine 
Q,uum Pedius causas exsudet Publicola, atque 
Corvinus ; patriis intermiscere petita 

Verba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis ? 30 

Atqui ego quum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, 
Versiculos, vetuit tali me voce Gtuirinus, 
Post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vera : 
In aiham non lignaferaa insonius, oc si 
Magnoa Groecorum moUa implere catenas. 35 

Turgidus Alpinus jugulat dum Memnona, dumque 
Defingit Rheni luteum caput : haec ego ludo, 
Cluac neque in aede sonent ccrtantui juHicc Tarpa, 
Ncc rcdcanl iterum ;it(]fi^ ikruui c|u ( liuub. thcatiis. 

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0ERMONUM LIB. I. 10. 109 

Arguta meretrice potes, Davoque Chremeta 40 

Eludente senem, comis garrire libellos, 
CJnus vivorum, Fundani : Pollio regum 
Facta canit pede ter percusso : forte epos acer, 
Ut nemo, Varius ducit : molle atque facetum 
Virgilio annuemnt gaudentes rure Camenae. 45 

Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 
Atque quibusdam afiis, melius quod scribere possem, 
Inventore minor j neque ego illi detrahere ausim 
Haerentem capiti cum multa laude coronam. 
Atdixi fluere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 50 

Plura quidem tollenda rehnquendis. Age, quaeso, 
Tu nihil in magno doctus reprendis Homero % 
Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Attt ? 
Non ridet versus Ennt gravitate minores ? 
Q,uum de se loquitur, non ut rnajore reprensis ? 55 

luid vetat et nosmet Lucilt scripta legentes 
^uaerere, num illius, num rerum dura negarit 
Vergiculos natura magis factos et euntes 
Mollius, ac si quis, pedibus quid claudere senis, 
Hoc tantum contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 60 

Ante cibum versus, totidem coenatus ? Etrusci 
Quale rait Casst rapido ferventius amni 
Ingenium, capsis quern fama est esse librisque 
Combustum propriis. Fuerit Lucilius, inquam, 
Comis et urbanus ; fuerit limatior idem, G5 

Quam rudis et Graecis intacti carminis auctor, 
duamque poetarum senior um turba : sed ille, 
Si foret hoc nostrum fato delatus in aevum, 
Detereret sibi multa, recideret omne, quod ultra 
Perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo 70 

Saepe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet ungues. 

Saepe stilum vertas, iterum quae digna legi sint, 
Scripturus ; neque, te ut miretur turba, labores, 
Contentus paucis lectoribus. An tua demens 
Vilibus in ludis dictari carmina malis 1 75 

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170 a- HORATII FLACCI 

Non ego ; nam satis est equitem mihi plaudere, ut audax, 

Contemtis aliis, explosa Arbuscula dixit. 

Men 1 moveat cimex Pantittus % aut cruciet, quod 

Vellicet absentem Demetrius ? aut quod ineptus 

Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigellt 1 SO 

Plotius et V alius, Maecenas Virgiliusque, 

Valgius, et probet haec Octavius optimus, atque 

Fuscus, et haec utinam Viscoium laudet uterquo ! 

A.mbitione relegata, te dicere possum, 

Pollio, te, Messala, tuo cum firatre, simulque S5 

Vos, Bibule et Servi ; simul his te ; candide Furni, 

Compluresque alios, doctos ego quos et amicos 

Prudens praetereo, quibus haec, sint qualiacunque, 

Arridere velim ; doliturus, si placeant spe 

Detenus nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli, 90 

Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedras. 

I, puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello. 



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Q. HORATn FLACCI 

SERMONUM 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Satira I. 

IN ttUENDAM, aUI ACTIONEM DE FAMOSI3 
UBELLIS HORATIO INTENTABAT. 

Horatius. 

tiuntquibus in Satira videor nimis acer, et ultra 
Legem lendere opus ; sine nervis altera, quidquid 
Composui, pars esse putat, similesque meorum 
Milk die versus deduci posse. Trebati, 
Quid faciam, praescribe. 

Trebatius. 

Quiescas. 

Horatius. 

Ne faciam, inquia, 



OmninoverBus? 



Trebatius. 
Aio. 



18 

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172 Q. HORAT1I FLACCI 

Horatius. 

Peream male, si non 
Optimum erat ; verum nequeo dormire. 

Trebatius. 

Ter uncti 
Transnanto Tiberim, somno quibus est opus alto, 
Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 
Aut si tantus amor scribendi te rapit, aude 10 

Caesaris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 
Praemia laturus. 

Horatius. 

Cupidum, pater optime, vires 
Deficiunt ; neque enim quivis horrentia pilis 
Agmina, nee fracta pereuntes cuspide Gallos, 
Aut labentis equo describat vulnera Parthi. 15 

Trebatius. 

Attamen et justum poteras et scribere fortem, 
Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucitius. 

Horatius. 

Haud mihi decro 
Gtuum res ipsa foret ; nisi dextro tempore Placci / ' ' : 
Verba per attentam non ibunt Caesaris aurem ; 
Cui male si palpere, recalcitret undique tutus. 20 

Trebatius. 

Gtuanto rectius hoc, quam tristi laedere versu 
Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotem ! 
Q,uum sibi quisque timet, quamquam est intactus, et odit. 

Horatius. 

Cluid faciam ? Saltat Milonius, ut semel icto 

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8EBMONUM LIB. II. 1. 173 

Accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis. 25 

Castor gaudet equis ; ovo prognatus eodem 

Pugnis ; quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum 

MilHa : me pedibus delectat claudere verba, 

Lucill ritu, nostrum melioris utroque. 

IUe velut fidis arcana sodalibus olim 30 

Credebat libris ; neque, si male cesserat, unquam 

Decurrens alio, neque, si bene : quo fit, ut omnia 

Youva-pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Appulus, anceps ; 

Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque, colonus 35 

Missus ad hoc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama, Sabellis, 

Cluo ne per vacuum Romano incurreret hostis, 

Sive quod Appula gens, seu quod Lucania bellum 

Incuteret violenta. Sed hie stilus haud petet ultro 

Quemquam animantem ; et me veluti custodiet ensis 40 

Vagina tectus, quern cur destringere coner, 

Tutus ab infestis latronibus ? O pater et rex 

Jupiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum, 

Nee quisquam noceat cupido mihi pads ! at ille, 

Qui me commdrit, (melius non tangere, clamo) 45 

Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 

Cervius iratus leges minikttur et urnam : 

Canidia, Albutt, quibus efet inimica, venenum 

Grande malum Turn is, si quid se judice certes. 

Ut, qu</quisque/valet, suspectos terreat, utque 50 

Imperet hoc natura potens, sic collige mecum 

Dente lupus, cornu taurus, petit ; unde, nisi intus 

Monstratum ? Scaevae vivacem crede nepoti 

Matrem : nil facie t sceleris pia dextera. (Mirum,. 

Ut neque calce lupus quemquam, neque dente petit bos.) 55 

Sed mala toilet anum vitiato melle cicuta. 

Ne longum faciam, seu me tranquilla senectus 

Exspectat, seu mors atris circumvolat alis, 

Dives, inops, Romae, sen, fors it a jusscrit, exsul, 

Quisquis erit vitae, scribam, color. 

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174 <fc. HORATII FLACCI 

Trebatius. 

O puer, ut sis 60 

Vitalis, metuo, et majonim ne quia amicus 
Frigore te feriat. 

Horatius. 

Quid 1 quum est Lucilius'ausus 
Primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem, 
Detrahere et pellem, nitidus qua quisquc per ora 
Cederet, introrsum turpis ; num Laelius, aut qui 65 

Duxit ab oppressa meritum Carthagine nomen, 
Ingenio offensi % aut laeso doluere Metello, 
Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus ? Atqui 
Primores populi arripuit, populumque tributim ; 
Scilicet uni aequus virtuti atque ejus amicis. 70 

Gluin ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remdrant 
Virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laelt, 
Nugari cum illo et discincti ludere, donee 
Decoqueretur olus, solid. Gluidquid sum ego, quamvis 
Infra Lucill censum ingeniumque, tamen me 75 

Cum magnis vixisse invita fatebitur usque 
Invidia, et fragili quaerens, illidere dentem 
Offendet solido ; nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 
Dissentis. 

Trebatius. 

Equidem nihil hinc diffindere possum ; 
Sed tamen ut monitus caveas, ne forte negott 80 

Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum : 
Si mala condiderit in quern quis carmina, jus est 
Judiciumque 

Horatius. 

Esto, si quis mala ; sed bona si quis 
Judice condiderit laudatus Caesare ? si quis 
Opprobriis dignum laceraverit, integer ipse ? 85 

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8ERMONUM LIB. II. ?. 175 

Trebatius. 
Solventur risu tabulae ; tu missus abibis. 

Satira II. 

IN VITAE URBANAE LUXURIAM ET INEPTIAS 

Quae virtus, et fauanta, bojii, sit/tdvere parvo, 

(Nee mfeus hie sermo est, sed quern praecepit Ofellus 

Rusticus, abnormis sapiens, crassaque Minerva) 

Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes, 

Quum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus, et quum 5 

Acclinis falsis animus meliora recusat ; 

Veram hie impransi mecum disquirite. — Cur hoc ? 

Dicam, si potero. Male verum examinat oranis 

Corruptus judex. 

Leporem sectatus, equove 
Lassus ab indomito, vel, si Romana fatigat Id 

Militia asstietum graecari, seu pila velox, 
MolHter austerum studio fallente laborem, 
Seu te discus agit ; pete cedentem aera disco : 
Q-aum labor extuderit fastidia, siccus, inanis, 
Sperne eibum vilem ; nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 1 5 

Ne biberis diluta. Foris est promus, et atrum 
Defendens pisces hiemat mare : cum sale panis 
Latrantem stomachum bene leniet. Unde putas ? aut 
Ctui partum ? Non in earo nidore voluptas 
Summa, sed in te ipso est. Tu pulmentaria quaere 20 

Sudando : pinguem vitiis albumque neque 06trea 
Nee scarus aut potent peregrina juvare lagois. 
Vix tamen eripiam, posito pavone, volis quin 
Hoc potius, quam gallina, tergere palatum, 
Corruptus vanis rerum, quia veneat auro 25 

Rara avis et picta pandat spectacula Cauda ; 
Tanquam ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vesccris isla, 
18* 

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176 0. HORATII FLACC1 

Gtuam laudas, pluma ? cocto num adest honor idem f 

Came tamen quamvis distat nihil hac magis ilia, 

Imparibus formis deceptum te patet : esto. 30 

Unde datum sentis, Jupus hie Tiberinus an alto "si- 

Captus hiet 1 pontesne inter jactatus an anuria it* 

Ostia sub Tusci ? laudas insane trilibrem 

Mullum, in singula quern minuas pulmenta necesse est 

Ducit te species, video : quo pertinet ergo 35 

Proceros odisse lupos % quia scilicet illis 

Majorem natura modum dedit, his breve pondus, 

[Jejunus raro stomachus vulgaria temnit.] 

Porrectum magno magnum spectare catino 

Vellem, ait Harpyiis gula digna rapacibus : at vos 40 

Praesentes Austri coquite horum opsonia. Gluamquam 

Putet aper rhombusque recens, mala copia quando 

Aegrum sollicitat stomachum, quum rapula plenus 

Atque acidas mavult inulas. Necdum omnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum : nam vilibus ovis 43 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus. Haud ita pridem 

Gallon! praeconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamis : quid ? turn rhombos minus aequora alcbant ? 

Tutus erat rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido, 

Donee vos auctor docuit praetorius. Ergo 50 

Si quis nunc mergos suaves edixerit assos, 

Parebit pravi docilis Romana ju vent us. 

Sordidus a tenui victu distabit, Ofello 
Judice ; nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud 
Si te alio pravum detorseris. Avidienus, oo 

Cui Canis ex vero ductum cognomen adhaeret, 
Gluinquennes oleas est et silvestria corna, 
Ac nisi mutatum parcit defundere vinum, et 
Cujus odorem olei nequeas perferre, (licebit 
Me repotia, natales, aliosve dierum 60 

Festos albatus celebret) cornu ipse bilibri 
Caulibus instillat, veteris non parcus aceti. 

Cluali igitur victu sapiens utetur ? et horum 

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SERMONUM LIB. II. 2. 177 

Utram inritabitur ? Hac urguet lupus, hac canis, aiunt. 
Mundus erit, qui non offendat sordidus, atque 65 

In neutram partem cultus miser. Hie neque servis, 
Albucl senis exemplo, dum munia didit, 
Saevus erit ; neque sic ut simplex Naevius unctam 
Convivis praebebit aquam ; vitium hoc quoque magnun . 

Accipe nunc, victus tenuis quae quantaque secum 70 

Afferat. Inprimis valeas bene : nam variae res 
Ut noceant homini, credas, memor illius escae, 
Quae simplex olim tibi sederit. At simul assis 
Miflcueris elixa, simul conchylia turdis : 
Dulcia se in bilem vertent, stomachoque tumultum . 75 

Lenta feret pituita. Vides, ut pallidus omnis 
Coena desurgat dubia ? Q,uin corpus onustum 
Hestemis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, 
Atque affigit humo divinae particulam aurae. 
Alter, ubi dicto citius curata sopori 80 

Membra dedit, vegetus praescripta ad munia surgit. 
Hie tamen ad melius poterit transcurrere quondam, 
Sire diem festum rediens advexerit annus, 
Seu recreare volet tenuatum corpus ; ubique 
Accedent anni, tractari mollius aetas 85 

Imbecilla volet. Tibi quidnam accedet ad istam, 
Quam puer et validus praesumis, mollitiem, seu 
Dura valetudo incident seu tarda senectus % 

Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant, non quia nasus 
Blis nullus erat, sed, credo, hac mente, quod hospes Vi 

Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius, quam 
Integrum edax dominus consumeret. Hos utinam inter 
Heroas natum tellus me prima tulisset I 

Das aliquid famae, quae carmine gratior aurem 
Occupat humanam % grandes rhombi patinaeque 95 

Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus. Adde 
Iratum patruum, vicinos, te tibi iniquum, 
Et rrustra mortis cupidum, quum deerit egenti 
As, laquei pretiiur. Jure, inquit, Trausius isiis 

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178 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Jurgatur verbis ; ego vectigalia magna 100 

Divitiasque habeo tribus amplas regions. Ergo, 

Quod superat, non est melius quo insumeie possis ? 

Cur eget indignus quisquam, te divite ? quare 

Templa ruunt antiqua detim ? cur, improbe, carae 

Non aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo 1 105 

Uni nimirum tibi recte semper erunt res I 

O magnus posthac inimicis risus ! Uterne 

Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius 1 )iic, qui 

Piuribus assuerit mentem corpusque Buperbum, 

An qui, contentus parvo metuensque futuri, 1 10 

In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello % 

duo magis his credas ; puer nunc ego parvus Ofellum 
Integris opibus novi non latius usum, 
Quam nunc accisis. Videas metato in agello 
Cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum, 115 

Non ego, narrantem, temere edi luce profesta 
Quidquam praeter olusfumosae cum pede pernae ; 
Ac mihi seu longum post tempus venerat hospes, 
Sive operum vacuo grains conviva per imbrem 
Vicinus, bene erat, non piscibus urbe petitis, 120 

Sedpuilo atque haedo : turn permits uva secundas 
Et nux ornabat memos cum duplice Jicu. 
Post hoc ludus erat, culpa potare magisira : 
Ac venerata Ceres, itaculmo surgeret alto, 
Explicuit vino contractor seria frontis. 125 

Saeviat atque novos moveat for tuna tumultus ; 
Quantum hinc imminuet ? quanto out ego parcius, out ros. 
O pueri, nituistis, ut hue novus incola venil ? 
Nam propriae telluris herum natura neque ilium, 
Nee me, nee quemquam statuit : nos expulii tile ; 130 

IUum aut nequities out vafri in*cilia juris, 
Po8tremum expellet certe vivattor heres. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli ' 
DictU8, erit nulli proprius, sed cedit in usum 



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SERMONUM LIB. II. 3. 179 

JVWnc m&t, nunc alii. Quocirca vivite fortes t 135 

Fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebus. 



Satira III. 

OMNES INSAMRE, ETIAM IPSOS STOICOS, 
DUM HOC DOCENT. 



raro serjtas, ut i 



Damasippus. 



Sic rato scrpis, ut toto/non quater anno 

Membranam poseis, scriptorum quaeque retexens, 

Iratus tibi, quod vini somnique benignus 

Nil dignum sermone canaa. Quid fiet ? Ab ipsis 

Satumalibus hue fugisti. Sobrius ergo 5 

Die aliquid dignum promissia : incipe. Nil est. 

Culpantui rrustra calami, immeritusque laborat 

Iratia natus paries dis atque poetis. 

Atqui vultus erat multa et praeclara minantis, 

Si vacuum tepido cepisset villula tecto. i u 

Quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro ? 

EupoKn, Archilocho, comites educere tantos ? 

Invidiam placare paras, virtute relicta 1 

Conlemnere miser. Vitanda est improba Siren 

Desidia ; aut quidquid vita meliore parasti, 1 5 

Poaendum aequo animo. 

Horatius. 

Dt te, Damasippe, deaeque 
Verum ob consilium donent tonsore. Sed unde 
Tam bene me nosti 1 

Damasippus. 

Postquam omnis res mea Janum 
Ad medium firacta est, aliena negotia euro, 
Excusbus propriis. Olim nam quaerereamabam, 20 

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ISO Q. HORATII FLACC1 

duo vafer ille pedes lavisset Sisyphus aere, 

€luid sculptum infabre, quid fusum durius esset : 

Callidus huic signo ponebam millia centum : 

Hortos egregiasque domos mercarier unus 

Cum lucro nftram ; unde frequentia Mercuriale 25 

Imposuere mihi cognomen compita. 

Horatius. 

Novi, 
Et miror morbi purgatum te illius. 

Damasippus. 

Atqui 
Emovit veterem mire novus, ut solet, in cor 
Trajecto lateris miseri capitisque dolore, 
Ut lethargicus hie, quum fit pugil, et medicum urguet. 3»» 

Horatius 

Dum ne quid simile huic, esto ut libeU 

Damasippus. 

O bone, ne te 
Frustrere ; insanis et tu stultique prope omnes, 
Si quid Stertinius veri crepat ; unde ego mira 
Descripsi docilis praecepta haec, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 35 

Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 
Nam male re gesta quum vellem mittere operto 
Me capite in flumen, dexter stetit, et, Cave faxis 
Te quidquam indignum : pudor, inquit, te malus angit, 
Insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi. 40 

Primum nam inquiram, quid sit furere : hoc si erii in te 
Solo, nil verbi, pereas quin for titer, addam. 
Ctuem mala stultitia, et quemcunque inscitia veri 
Caecum agit, insanum Chrysippi porticus et grex 

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SERMONUM LIB. II. 3. 181 

autumat Haec populos, haec magnos formula reges, 45 

Excepto sapiente, tenet. Nunc accipe, quare 

Desipiant omnes aeque ac tu, qui tibi nomen 

Insano posuere. Velut silvis, ubi passim 

Palantes error certo de tramite pellit, 

IUe ainistrorsum, hie dextrorsum abit ; unus utrisque 50 

Error, sed variis illudit partibus ; hoc te 

Crede modo insanum ; nihilo sapientior ille, 

iui te deridct, caudam trahat. Est genus unum 

Stultitiae nihilum metuenda timentis, ut ignes, 

Ut rapes, fluviosque in campo obstare queratur : 55 

Alteram et huic varum et nihilo sapientius, ignes 

Per medios fluviosque mentis ; clamet arnica, 

Mater, honesta soror, cum cognatis pater, uxor : 

Hie fossa est ingens hie rupes maxima, serva ! 

Non magis audierit, quam Fufius ebrius olim, 60 

duum Ilionam edormit, Catienis mille ducentis, 

Mater, te appello, clamantibus. Huic ego vulgus 

Errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. 

Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo : 

Integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? esto. 65 

Accipe quod nunquam reddas mihi, si tibi dicam, 

Tune insanus eris, si acceperis, an magis excors, 

Rejecta praeda, quam praesens Mercurius fert % 

Scribe decern a Nerio : non est satis : adde Cicutae 

Nodosi tabulas centum ; mille adde catenas : 70 

EfFugiet tamen haec sceleratus vincula Proteus. 

QrUum rapies in jus malis ridentem alienis, 

Fiet aper, modo avis, modo saxum, et, quum volet, arbor 

Si male rem gerere insani, contra bene sani est, 

Putidius multo cerebrum est, mihi crede, Perillt 75 

Diciantifl, quod tu nunquam rescribere possis. 
Audire atque togam jubeo componere, quisquis 

Ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore ; 

Quiaquis luxuria tristique superstition e, 

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182 0. HORAT1I VLi.CC! 

Aut alio mentis morbo calet ; hue propius me, 80 

Dum doceo insanire omnes vos, ordine adite. 

Danda est ellebori multo pars maxima avaris : 
Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destinet omnem. 
Heredes Stabert summam incidere sepulcro ; 
Ni sic fecissent, gladiatorum dare centum 85 

Damnati populo paria, atque epulum arbitrio Air! et 
Frumenti quantum metit Africa. Sive ego prove 
Sen recte hoc volui, tie sis patruus mihi. Credo 
Hoc Stabert prudentem animum vidisse. Quid ergo 
Sensit, quum summam patrimonl inscalpere saxo 90 

Heredes voluit ? Quoad vixit, credidit ingens 
Pauperiem vitium, et cavit nihil acrius ; ut si 
Forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset, 
Ipse videretur sibi nequior. Omnis enim res, 
Virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque pulchris 95 

Divitiis parent ; quas qui construxerit, ille 
Claras erit, fortis, Justus. Sapiensne ? Etiam ; et rex, 
Et quidquid volet. Hoc, veluti virtute paratum, 
Speravit magnae laudi fore. Quid simile isti 
Qraecus Aristippus, qui servos projicere aurum 100 

In mediajussit Libya, quia tardius irent 
Propter onus segnes % Uter est insanior horum % 
Nil agit exemplum, litem quod lite resolvit. 

Si quia emat citharas, emtas comportet in unum, 
Nee studio citharae nee Musae deditus ulli ; 105 

Si scalpra et formas non sutor ; nautica vela 
Aversus mercaturis ; delirus et amens 
Undique dicatur merito. dut discrepat istis, 
duitiummos aurumque recondit, nescius uti 
Compositis, metuensque velut contingere sacrum % 110 

Si quia ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum 
Projectus vigilet cum longo fuste, neque illinc 
Audeat esuriens dominus contingere granum, 
Ac potius foliis parous vescatur amaris ; 
&i positis intus Chii veterisquo Falerni 115 

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81BMONUM LIB. II. 3. 183 

MDle cadis, nihil est, tercentum mOKbus, acre 

Potet acetum ; age, si et stramentis incubet unde- 

Octoginta annoe natus, cui stragula Testis, 

Blattarum ac tinearum epulae, putrescat in area : 

Niimrum insanus paucis videatur, eo quod 120 

Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem. 

Filius aut etiam haec libertus ut ebibat heres, 
Ois inimice senex, custodis ? ne tibi desit ? 
Quantulum enim summae curtabit quisque dierum, 
Unguere si caules oleo meliore, caputque 125 

Coeperis impexa foedum porrigine ? Quare, 
Si quidvia satis est, perjuras, surripis, aufers 
Undique % tun* sanus ? Populum si caedere sazis 
Incipias, servosve tuo quos aere pararis, 
Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque puellae : 130 

Quum laqueo uxorem interimis, matremque veneno, 
Incohuni capite es % Quid enim ? Neque tu hoc facia Argis, 
Nee ferro, ut demens genitricem occidit Orestes 
An tu reris eum occisa insanisse, parente, 
Ac non ante malis dementem actum Furiis, quam . 135 

In matris jugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum 1 
Ctuin ex quo habitus male tutae mentis Orestes, 
Nil sane fecit, quod tu reprendere possia : 
Non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem est 
Electram : tantum malecScit utrique, vocando 140 

Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud, jussit quod splendida bills. 

Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 
Clui Veientanum festis polare diebus 
Campana solitus trulla, vappamque profestis, 
Quondam lethargo grandi est oppressus, ut heres 145 

Jam circum loculoe et claves laetus ovansque 
Curreret. Hunc medicus multum celer atque fidelia 
Excitat hoc pacto : mensam poni jubet, atque 
Effundi saccos nummorum, accedere plures 
Ad numerandum : hominem sic erigit j addit et illud, 150 
Ni tua custodis, arid us jam haec auferet heres. 

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184 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Men' vivo?— - Ut vivas igitur, vigila : hoc age: Quid vis 1 — 

Deficient inopem venae te, ni cibus atque 

Ingenua accedit stomacho fultura ruenti 

Tu cessas 1 agedum, sume hoc ptisanarium oryzae. 155 

QuanH emioe?— Parvo. — Quanti ergo f — Octussibus. — Eheu! 

Quid refert, morbo anfurtis pereamque rapinis ? 

Quisnam igitur sanus?— dui non stultus.— Quid a varus? — 
Stultus et insanus. — Quid ? si quia non sit avarus, 
Continuo sanus % — Minime. — Cur, Stoice ? — Dicam. 160 
Non est cardiacus, Craterum dbrisse putato, 
Hie aeger. Recte est igitur surgetque % Negabit, 
Quod latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto. 
Non est perjurus neque sordidus : immolet aequis 
Hie porcum Laribus ; verum ambitiosus et audax : 165 

Naviget Anticvram. Cluid enim differt, barathrone 
Dones quidquid habes, an nunquam utare paratis 1 
Bervius Oppidius Canust duo praedia, dives 
Antiquo censu, gnatis divtese duobus 
Fertur, et haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis 170 

Ad lectum : Postquam te tales, Jlule, nucesque 
Ferre sinu laxo, donare et ludere vidi, 
Te, Tiberi, numerare, cavis absconders tristem : 
Extimuij ne vos ageret vesania discors, 
Tu Nomentanwn, tu ne sequerere Cicutam. 175 

Quare per ddvos oratus uterque Penates, 
Tu ewe ne minuas, tu, ne majus facias id, 
Quod satis esse putat pater, et natura cotrcei 
Praeterea ne vos HHUet gloria, jure- 

Jurando obstringam anibo : uter Aedilis fuerUoe 1-0 

Vestrum Praetor, is intestabUis et sacer estp. 
In cicere atque f aba bona tu perdasque lupinis, 
Latus ut in circo spatiere, et atneus ut stes, 
Nudus agris, nudus nummis, insane, paternis t 
Scilicet ut plausus, quos fert Agrippa, feras tu, 1 85 

Astuta ingenuum wipes imitata leontm ? 

Ne quis humasse velit Ajacem, Atrida, vetas cur 1 - 

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8KSMONUM LIB. II. 3. 185 

Rex mm. — Nil ultra quaero plebeius. — Et aequam 

Rem imperito ; at, si cut videor non Justus, imdio 

Dieere, quod senUt, permitto. — Maxime regum, 1 90 

Dl dbi dent capta classem reducere Troja. 

Ergo consulere et mox respondere licebit % — 

Console. — Cur Ajax, heroe ab Achille secundus, 

Putescit, toties servatis clarus Achivis % 

Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque inhumato, 195 

Per quern tot juvenes patrio caruere sepulcro % — 

Mule avium insanus morti dedU, inclytum Ulixen 

Et Menelaum una mecum se ocddere clamans. — 

Tu quum pro vitularstatuis dulcem Aulide natam 

Ante aras, spargisque mola caput, improbe, salsa, 200 

Rectum animi serves 1 (luorsum insanus ? Quid enim Ajax 

Fecit ? Quum stravit ferro pecus, abstinuit vim 

Uxore et gnato j mala multa precatus Atridis 

Non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum viola vit Ulixen. — 

Verum ego, ut kaerentes adverso litore naves 205 

Eriperem, prudens placavi sanguine divos. — 

Nempe tuo, furiose. — Meo, sed nonfuriosus. — 

Qriu species alias veri scelerisque, tumultu 

Permixtas, capiet, commotus habebitur ; atque 

Stultitiane erret, nihilum distabit, an ira. 210 

Ajax quum immeritos occidit, desdpit, agnos ; 

Quum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanes, 

Stas animo 1 et purum est vitio tibi, quum tumidum est, cor 

Si qais lectica nitidam gestare amet agnam, 

Hide vestem ut gnatae pater, ancillas paret, aurum, 215 

Rufam aut Puedllam appellet, fortique marito 

Destinet uxorem : interdicto huic omne adimat jus 

Praetor, et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. 

Cttrid 1 si qui gnatam pro muta devovet agna, 

Integer est animi 1 Ne dixeris. Ergo ibi parva 220 

Stultitia, haec summa est insania : qui sceleratus, 

Et furiosus erit ; quern cepit vitrea fama, 

Hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona cruentis. 

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186 0. HORATII IXACCI 

Nunc age, luxuriam et Nomentanam arripe mecum. 
Vincet enim stultos ratio insanire nepotes. 225 

Hie simul accepit patrimon? milie talenta, 
Edicit, piscator uti, pomarius, auceps, 
Unguentarius ac Tusci turba impia vici, 
Cum scurris fartor, cum Velabro omne macellum 
Mane domum veniant. Quid turn ? Venere frequentes. 230 
Verba facit leno : Quidquid mihi, quidquid et horum 
Cuique domi est, id erede tuum et vel nunc pete, vel eras. 
Accipe, quid contra juvenis respondent aequus : 
In nice Lucana dormis ocreatus, ut aprutn 
Coenem ego ; tu pieces hiberno ex aequore vellis ; 235 

Segnis ego, indignus qui tantum possideam : aufer : 
Sume tibi decies : tibi tantundem ; tibi triplex, 
Unde uxor media currit de node vocata. 

Filius Aesopi detractam ex aure Metellae, 
Scilicet ut decies solidOm obsorberet, aceto 240 

Diluit insignem baccam ; qui sanior, ac si 
IUud idem in rapidum flumen jaceretve cloacam % 
Cluinti progenies Arrt, par nobile fratrum, 
Nequitia et nugis, piavorum et amore gemelltim, 
Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemtas. 245 

duorsum abeant 1 Sani ut creta, an carbone notandi % 

Aedificare casas, plostello adjungere mures, 
Ludere par impar, equitare in arundine longa, 
Si quern delectet barbatum, amentia verset. 
Si puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare, 250 

Nee quidquam differre, utrumne in pulvere, trimus 
Uuale prius, ludas opus, an meretricis amore 
Sollicitus plores : quaero, faciasne quod olim 
Mutatus Polemon 1 ponas insignia morbi, 
Fasciolas, cubital, fbcalia, potus ut ille 255 

Dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas, 
Postquam est impransi correptus voce magistri 7 
Porrigis irato puero quum poma, recusat : 
fifunte, CaieUe : negat ; si non des, optat. Amator 

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SERMOlfUM LIB. II. 3. 18? 

Exclusus qui distat, agit ubi secum, eat, an non, 260 

Quo rediturug erat non arcessUus, et haeret 

Invisis fbribus 1 JVe nunc, quum me voeai trttro, 

Acctdam ? anpoiiut mediter Jinire dolore$ t 

Exehmt, revocat : redeam f JWm, si obsecret Ecce 

Servus, non paullo sapientior : O here, quae res 265 

Jtoe mcdutn habei neque consilium, ration* modoque 

Traeiari non vult. In a/more hate sunt mala ; beUum, 

Pax rursum. Haee si quis tempestatis prope ritu 

MobiUa, et caeca fluiiantia sorte, laboret 

Rtddere certa sibi t nihilo plus explicet, at si 270 

Intantreparet certa ratione modoque. 

Quid 1 quum Picenis excerpens semina pomis 

Gaudes, si camaram percusti forte, penes te es ? 

Quid 1 quum balba feris annoso verba palato, 

Aedificante casas qui sanior % Adde cruorem 275 

Stultitiae, atque ignem gladio scrutare modo, inquam. 

HeDade percussa, Marius quum praecipitat se, 

Centals fait ? an commotae crimine mentis 

Absolves hominem, et sceleris damnabis eundem, 

£x more imponens cognata vocabula rebus 1 280 

Libertinus erat, qui circum compita siccus 
Lauds mane senex manibus currebat, et, Unum, 
(Quiddam magnum addens,) unum me surpite morti, 
Die etenim factle est, orabat ; sanus utrisque 
Auribus atque oculis ; mentem, nisi litigiosus, 285 

Exciperet dominus, quum venderet. Hoc quoque vulgus 
Chrysippus ponit fecunda in gente Menent. 
Jvpiter, ingentes qui das adimisque dolores, 
Mater ait pueri menses jam quinque cubantis, 
Frigida si puenm quartana reliquerit, illo 290 

Vane die, quo tu indicts jejunia, nudus 
h Tiberi stabit. Casus medicuave levarit 
aegrum ex praecipiti, mater delira, necabit 
in gefida fixum ripa, febrimque reducet. 
Quone malo mentem concussa % timore de#rum. 295 

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188 4. HORATII VLACCI 

Haec mihi Stertinius, sapientum octavus, amico 
Anna dedit, posthac ne compellarer inultus. 
Dixerit insanum qui me, totidem audiet, atque 
Respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo. 

Horatius. 

Stoice, poet damnum sic vendas omnia pluris : 300 

Ctuam me stultitiam, quoniam non est genus unum, 
Insanire putas % ego nam videor mihi sanus. 

Damasippus. 

Quid ? caput abscissum manibus quum portat Agaue 
Gnati infelicis, sibi turn furiosa videtur % 

Horatius. 

Stultum me fateor, liceat concedere veris, 305 

Atque etiam insanum : tantum hoc edissere, quo me 
Aegrotare putes animi vitio. 

Damasippus. 

Accipe : primum 
Aedificas, hoc est, longos imitaris, ab imo 
Ad summum totus moduli bipedalis ; et idem 
Corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis 310 

Spiritum et incessum : qut ridiculus minus illo % 
An quodcunque fecit Maecenas, te quoque verum est, 
Tantum dissimilem et tanto certare minorem ? 
Aosentis ranae pullis vituli pede pressis, 
Unus ubi effugit, matri denarrat, ut ingens 315 

Bellua cognatos eliserit. Ilia rogare, 
Cluantane ? num tantum, se inflans, sic magna fuisset % — 
Major dimidio. — Num tantum 1 — Quum magis atque 
Se magis inflaret ; Non, si te ruperts, inquit, 
Par eris. Haec a te non multum abludit imago. 320 

Adde poemata nunc, hoc est, oleum adde camino ; 

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8KRMON UM LIB. II. 4. 189 



Quae si quia sanus fecit, sanus facis et tu. 
Non dico horrendam rabiem. 

Horatius. 

Jam desine. 

Damasippus. 

Cultum 
Majorem ceosu. 

Horatius. 
Teneas, Damasippe, tuis te 

Damasippus. 
Mille puellarum, puerorum mille furores. *$5 

Horatius. 
major tandem parcas, insane, minorl 

Satira IV. 

LEVES CATILLONES EP1CUREAE SECTAU 
DERIDET. 

Horatius. 
Uode et ftuo Catius ? 

Catius. 

Non est mihi tempus aventi 
Ponere signa novis praeceptis, qualia vincunt 
Pythagoran Anytique reum doctumque Platona. 

Horatius. 

Peccatum fateor, quum te sic tempore laevo 
Iuterpellarini : sed des veniam bonus, oro. 



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100 d. HOIUTII FLACCI 

Quod si interciderit tibi nunc aliquid, repetes mox, 
Sive est naturae hoc, sive artis, minis utroque. 

Catius. 

Quin id erat curae, quo pacto cuncta tenerem, 
Utpote res tenues, tenui sermone peractas. 

Horatius. 

Ede hominis nomen ; simul et, Romanus an hospes 10 

Catius. 

Ipsa mernor praecepta canam, celabitur auctor. 

Longa quibus fades ovis erit, ilia memento 
Ut succi melioris et ut magis alma rotundis 
Ponere ; namque marem cobibent callosa vitellum. 

Caule suburbano, qui siccis crevit in agris, 15 

Dulcior ; irriguo nihil est elutius horto. 

Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes, 
Ne gallina malum responset dura palato, 
Doctus eris vivam musto meisare Falerno ; 
Hoc teneram faciet. 

Pratensibus optima fungis 20 

Nature est ; aliis male creditur. 

Die salubres 
Aestates peraget, qui nigris prandia moris 
Fiiiiet, ante gravem quae legerit arbore solem. 

Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno, 
Mendose, quoniam vacuis comraittere venis 2A 

Nil nisi lene decet ; leni praecordia mulso 
Prolueris melius. 

Si dura morabitur alvtu, 
Mitulus et viles pellent obstantia conchae, 
Et lapathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo. 

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8ULMONUM LIB. II. 4. 191 

Lobrica nascentes implent conchyKa lunae ; 80 

Bed non omne mare est generosae fertile testae. 
Murice Boiano melior Lucrina peloris ; 
Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini ; 
Pectinibus petulis jactat se molle Tarentum. 

Nee aibi coenarum quivis temere arroget artem, 35 

Non prius exacta tenui ratione saporum. 
Nee satis est cara pisces averrere mensa, 
IgDarum quibus est jus aptius, et quibua assis 
Unguidus in cubitum jam se conviva reponet. 

Umber et iligna nutritus glande rotundas 40 

Curvet aper lances carnem vitantis inertem : 
Nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguis. 
Tinea summittit capreas non semper edules. 
Fecundae leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 

Piscibus atque avibus quae natura et foret aetas, 45 

Ante meum nulli patuit quaesita palatum. 

Sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit 
Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam ; 
Ut a quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 
Quali perfundat pisces securus olivo. 50 

Massica si coelo suppones vino sereno, 
Nocturna, si quid crassi est, tenuabitur aura, 
Etdecedet odor nervis inimicus ; at ilia 
Integrum perdunt lino yitiata saporem. 
Surrentina vafer qui miscet faece. Falerna _ 55 

Vina, columbino limum bene colligit ovo, 
Quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. 

Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 
Potorem cochlea ; nam lactuca innatat acri 
Post vinum stomacho ; pema magis ac magis hillis 60 

Flagitat immorsus refici : quin omnia malit, 
QrUaecunque immundis fervent allata popinis. 

Est operae pretium duplicis pernoscere juris 
Naturam. Simplex e dulci constat olivo, 
Quod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit, 65 

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192 Q. HORATII Tl.kCCl 

Non alia quam qua Byzantia putuit orca. 
Hoc ubi confusum seeds inferboit herbis, 
Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insuper addes 
Pressa Venafranae quod bacca remisit olivae. 

Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia succo ; 70 

Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit ollis ; 
Rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. 
Hanc ego cum malis, ego faecem primus et halec, 
Primus et invenior piper album, cum sale nigro 
Incretum, puris circumpoeuisse catillis. 75 

Immane est vitium, dare millia tenia macello, 
Angustoque vagos pisces urguere catino. 

Magna movet stomacho fastidia, seu puer unctis 
Tractavit calicem manibus, dum furta ligurrit, 
Sive gravis veteri craterae limus adhaesit. 80 

Vilibus in scopis, in mappis, in scobe, quantus 
Oonsistit sumtus 1 neglectis, flagitium ingens. 
Ten' lapides varios lutulenta radere palma, 
£t Tyrias dare circum illota toralia vestes, 
Oblitum, quanto curam sumtumque minorem So 

Haec habeant, tanto reprendi justius iilis, 
Q,uae nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis % 

Horatius. 

Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 

Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 

Nam quamvis memori referas mini pectore cuncta, Oii 

Non tamen interpres tantundem javeri^. Adde 

Vultum habitumque hominis ; quem tu vidisse beatus 

Non magni pendis, quia contigit ; at mini cura 

Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotos, 

Atque haurire queam vitae praecepta beatae. 95 



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SUtMOfflJM LIB. U. 6 198 

Satiba V. 
Hf CAPTATORES ET HEREDIPETAS. 

Ulysses. 

Hoc quoque, Tiresia, praeter narrata petenti 
Responde, quibus amiseas reparare queam res 
Artibus atque modis. Quid rides ? 

Tiresias. 

Jamne doloeo 
Non satis est Ithacam revehi, patriosque penates 
Adspicere? 

Ulysses. 

O nulli quidquam mentite, vides ut 6 

Nudus inopeque domum redeam, te vate, neque Olio 
Autapotheca procis intacta est, aut pecus. Atqui 
Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est 

Tiresias. 

Quando pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres, 

Accipe, qua ratione queas ditescere. Turdus 10 

Sive aliud privum dabitur tibi, devolet illuc, 

Res ubi magna nitet, domino sene ; dulcia poma, 

Et quoscunque feret cultus tibi fundus honores, 

Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives ; 

Qui quamvis perjurus erit, sine gente, cruentus 15 

Sanguine fraterno, fugitivus ; ne tamen illi 

Tu comes exterior, si postulet, ire recuses. 



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1M *. Houru whAoci 

Ulysses. 

Utne tegam spurco Damae latus % haud ita Trojae 
Me gessi, certans semper melioribos. 

Tiresias. 

Ergo 
Pauper eris. 

Ulysses. 

Fortem hoc animum tolerare jnbebo ; 20 

Et quondam majora tuli. Tu protinus, v<*le 
Divitias aerisque ruam, die augur, acervoe. 

Tiresias. 

Dixi equidem et dico. Captes astutus ubiqut 

Testamenta senum, neu, si vafer unus et alter 

Insidiatorem praeroso fugerit hamo, 2f» 

Aut spem deponas aut artem illusus omittas. 

Magna minorve foro si res certabitur olim, 

Vivet uter locuples sine gnatis, improbus, ultro 

Qui meliorem audax vocet in jus, illius esto 

Defensor: fama civem causaque priorem *i 

Sperne, domi si gnatus erit fecundave conjux. 

Quinte, puta, aut Pubii (gaudent praenomine molles 

Auriculae) ttiri me virtus tua fecit amicum ; 

Jus anceps novi, eausas defenders possum ; 

Eripiet quwris oculos citius mihi, quam te 35 

Contemtum cassa nuce pauperet : haec mea cura est, 

Jto quid tu perdas, neu sisjocus. Ire domum atque 

Pelliculam curare jube : fi cognitor ipse. 

Persta atque obdura, seu rubra Canicula findet 

Infantes statuas, seu pingui tentus omaso 40 

Furius hibemas cana nive conspuet Alpes. 

Nowne vide*, aliquis cubito stantem prope tangens 

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0EBMO1TOM LIB. II. 5. 195 

bqwet, ut pattens ! utamcuaptnt! utacerl 

Piuies annabunt thunni, et oetaria crescent. 

Si cui praeterea validus male filius in re 45 

Praeclara sublatus aletur ; ne manifestum 

CaeKbis obsequium nudet te, leniter in spem 

Arrepe officiosus, tit et scribare secundus 

Heres, et, si quia casus puerum egerit Orco > 

In vacuum Teniae : perraro haec alea fallit. 50 

Qui testamentum tradet tibi cunque legendum, 

Abouere et tabulas a te removere memento, 

Sictamen ut limis rapias, quid prima secundo 

Cera velit versu ; solus multisne coheres, 

Velod percurre oculo. Plerumque recoctus 55 

Scriba ex duinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem, 

Oaptatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano. 

Ulysses. 

Num furis an prudens ludis me, obscura canendo % 

Tiresias. 

Laertiade, quidquid dicam, aut erit aut non : 

Dmnaxe etenim magnus mini donat Apollo. 60 

Ulysses. 

Quid tamen ista velit sibi fabula, si licet, ede. 

Tiresias. 

Tempore quo juvenis Parthis horrendus, ab alto 

Demissum genus Aenea, tellure marique 

Magnus erit, forti nubet procera Corano 

FOia Nasicae, metuentis reddere soldum." 65 

Turn gener hoc faciet ; tabulas socero dabit, atque 

Ut legat orabit. Multum Nasica negatas 

Accipiet tandem, et tacitus leget, invenietque 

Nil sibi lega'um praeter plorare suisque. 

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196 q. HORATII FLAGCI 

Dlud ad haec juoeo : muKer si forte dolosa 70 

Ldbertusve senem deHnim temperet, illis 
Accedas socius ; laudes, lauderis ut absens. 
Adjuvat hoc quoque, sed vincit longe prius, ipeum 
Expugnare caput. Scribet mala carmina vecora ? 
Laudato. Scortator erit % cave to roget ; ultro 75 

Penelopam facilis potion trade. 

Ulysses. 

Putasne, 
Perduci potent tarn frugi tamque pudica, 
Gluam nequiere proci recto depellere cursu % 

Tiresiaa, 

Venit enim magno : donandi parca juventus ; 

Nee tantum Veneris, quantum studiosa culinae ^0 

Sic tibi Penelope frugi est : quae si semel uno 

De sene gustarit, tecum partita lucellum, 

Ut cards a corio nunquam absterrebitur uncto. 

Me sene, quod dicam, factum est. Anus improba Thebis 

Ex testamento sic est elata : cadaver 85 

Unctum oleo largo nudis humeris tulit hares : 

Scilicet elabi si posset mortua : credo, 

Cluod nimium institerat viventi. Cautus adito, 

Neu desis operae neve immoderatus abundes. 

Difficilem et morosum offendes garrulus : ultro 90 

Non etiam sileas. Davus sis comicus ; atque 

Stes capite obstipo, multum similis metuenti. 

Obsequio grassare : mone, si increbuit aura, 

Cautus uti velet carum caput : extrahe turba 

Oppositis humeris : aurem substringe loquacL 95 

Importunus amat laudari ? donee, Ohe jam ! 

Ad coelum manibus sublatis dixerit, urgue ; et 

Crescentem tumidis infla sermonibus ulrem. 

Cluum te servitio longo curaque levant, 

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8ERMONUM LIB. II. 6. 197 

Et cerium vigfians, Quartae esto partis UUxes^ 100 

Audieris, here* : Ergo nunc Dama sodalis 
Nusquam est ? unde mihi iamfortem tamque fidelem t 

Sparge subinde, et, si paulum potes illacrimare. Est 

Gaudia prodentem vultum celare. Sepulcrum 

Permissum arbitrio sine sordibus exstrue : funus 105 

Egregie factum laudet vicinia. Si quia 

Forte coheredum senior male tussiet, huic tu 

Die, ex parte tua, seu fundi sive domus sit 

Emtor, gaudentem nummo te addicere. Sed me 

Imperiosa trahit Proserpina : vive valeque. 110 

Satiba VI. 

HORATII VOTUM, 

Hoc erat in votis : modus agri non ita magnus, 

Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aquae fbns, 

Et paulum silvae super his foret. Auctius atque 

Dl melius fecere : bene est : nil amplius oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. 5 

Si neque majorem feci ratione mala rem, 

Nee sum facturus vitio culpave minorem ; 

Si veneror stultus horum nihil, O si angulus itte 

Proximus accedat, qui nunc denormat agettum ! 

si urnam argeniifors quae mihi monstret, ut ttft, ] 

Thesauro invento qui mercenarius agrum 

Bhanipsum mercatus aravit, dives amico 

EercuU ! Si, quod adest, gratum juvat : hac prece te oro, 

Pingue pecus domino facias et cetera praeter 

Ingenium ; utque soles, custos mihi maximus aderis. 15 

Ergo ubi me in montes et in arcem ex Urbe removi, 
(Quid prius illustrem Satiris Musaque pedestri ?) 
Nee mala me ambitio perdit, nee plumbeus Auster, 
Auctumnusque gravis, Libitinae quaestus acerbae 

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198 Q. HORATIl FLACOI 

Matutine pater, seu Jane Kbentius audi*, 20 

Unde homines operum primos vitaeque laboreg 
Instituunt, (sic dts placiturn,) tu carminis esto 
Principium. Romae sponsorem me rapis. — Eia, 
Ne prior officio quisquam respondeat, urgue I 
Sive Aquik) radit terras, seu bruma nivalem 25 

Interiors diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est. — 
Postmodo, quod ml obsit, clare certumque locuto, 
Luctandum in turba et facienda injuria tardis. — 
Quid tibi vis, insane ? et quam rem agis improbus ? urguet 
Iratis precibus ; tu pulses omne quod obstat, 30 

Jld Maecenatem memori si mente recurras. — 
Hoc juvat et melli est, non mentiar. At simul atras 
"V jntum est Esquilias, aliena negotia centum 
Per caput et circa saliunt latus. Ante secundam 
Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal eras. 35 

De re communi scribae magna atque nova te 
Orabant hodie meminisses, Cluinte, revertL 
lmprimat his, cura, Maecenas signa tabellis. 
Dixeris, Experiar : Si vis, potes, addit et instat. 
Septimus octavo propior jam fugerit annus, 40 

Ex quo Maecenas me coepit habere suorum 
In numero, duntaxat ad hoc, quern tollere rheda 
Vellet iter faciens, et cui concredere nugas 
Hoc genus, Hora quota est 1 Threx est Gallina Sjro par ? 
Matutina parum cautos jam nigora mordent : 4f> 

Et quae rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. 
Per totum hoc tempus subjectior in diem et horam 
Invidiae noster. Ludos spectaverit una, 
Luserit in campo : Fortunae filius ! omnes. 
Frigidus a Rostris manat per compita rumor : 50 

Cluicunque obvius est, me consulit : O bone, nam te 
Scire, deos quoniam propius contingis, oportet, 
Num quid de Dacis audisti % — Nil equidem. — Ut tu 
Semper eris derisor . — At omnes dl exagitent me, 
Si quidquam. — Quid 1 militibus promissa Triquetra &5 

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8KRM02VUM LIB. II. 0. 190 

Pracdia Caesar an est Itala tenure daturas 1 

Jurantem me scire nihil mirantur ut unum 

Scilicet egregii mortalem altique silent). 

Perditur haec inter misero lux, non sine votis : 

rna, quando ego te adspiciam ? quandoque licebit, 60 

Nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis 

Ducere sollicitae jucunda oblivia vitae ? 

quando faba Pythagorae cognata, simulque 

Uncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo 1 

noctes coenaeque detim ! quibus ipse meique 65 

Ante larem proprium vescor, vernasque procaces 

Pasco libatis dapibus. Prout cuique libido est, 

Siccat inaequales calices conviva solutus 

Legibus insanis, seu quia capit acria fortis 

Pocula, seu modicis uvescit laetius. Ergo 70 

Sermo oritur non de villia domibusve alienis, 

Nee, male necne Lepos saltet ; eed, quod magis ad nos 

Pertinet et nescire malum est, agitamus : utrumne 

Divitiis homines an sint virtute beati : 

Q-uidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos : 75 

Et quae sit natura boni summumque quid ejus. 

Cervius haec inter vicinus garrit aniles 
Ex re fabellas. Si quia nam laudat Arellt 
SoDicitas ignarus opes, sic incipit : Olim 
Rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur BO 

Accepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum ; 
Asper et attentus quaesilis, ut tamen arctum 
Solveret hospitiis animum. Quid multa ? neque lUe 
Sepositi ciceris nee longae invidit avenae ; 
Aridum et ore ferens acinum semesaque lardi 85 

Frusta dedit, cupiens varia fastidia cocna 
Vincere tangentis male singula dente superbo. 
Q^um pater ipse domus, palea porrectus in horna, 
Esset ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens ; . 
Tandem urbanus ad hunc : Quid te juvat, inquit, amice, 90 
Praerupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso % 

20* 

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200 4. HORATII FLAGCI 

Vis tu homines urbemque feris praeponere silvis % 

Carpe viam, mini crede, comes, terrestiia quando 

Mortales animas vivunt sortita, ncque ulla est 

A lit magno aut parvo led fuga ; quo, bone, circa, 95 

Dum licet, in rebus jucundis vive beatus ; 

Vive memor, quam sis aevi brevis. Haec ubi dicta 

Agrestem pepulere, domo levis exsilit ; inde 

Ambo propositum peragunt iter, urbis aventes 

Moenia nocturni subrepere. Jamque tenebat 100 

Nox medium coeli spatium, quum ponit uterque 

In locuplete domo vestigia, rubro ubi cocco 

Tincta super lectos canderet vestis eburnos, 

Multaque de magna superessent fercula coena, 

Quae procul exstructis inerant hesterna canistris. 105 

Ergo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit 

Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospes, 

Continuatque dapes ; nee non verniliter ipsis 

Fungitur officiis, praelibans omne quod affert 

Ille Cubans gaudet mutata sorte, bonisque 110 

Rebus agit laetum convivam, quum subito ingens 

Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 

Currere per totum pavidi conclave, magisque 

Exanimes trepidare, simul domus alta Molossis 

Personuit canibus. Turn rusticus, Haud mini vita 1 15 

Est opus hac, ait, et valeas : me silva cavusque 

Tutus ab insidiis tenui eolabitur ervo. 



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MUtMOKVM LIB. II. 7. 201 



Satira VIL 



LEP1DE SE IPSE CARPIT EX PERSONA SERVI ET OS- 
TENDIT, LIBERUM SOLUM ESSE SAPIENTEM. 

Davus. 

Jamdudum ausculto et cupiens tibi dicere servus 
Pauca reformido. 

Horatius. 

Davusne? 

Davus. 

Ita. Davus, amicum 
Mancipium domino, et frugi quod sit satis, hoc est, 
Ut vitale putes. 

Horatius. 

Age, libertate Decembri, 
Quando ita majores voluerunt, utere ; nana. - 5 

Davus. 

Pars hominum vitiis gaudet constanter, et urguet 

Propositum ; pan multa natat, modo recta capessens, 

Interdum pravis obnoxia. Saepe notatus 

Cum tribus anellis, modo laeva Priscus inani. 

Vbdt inaequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas ; iO 

Aedibus ex magnis subito se conderet, unde 

Mundior exiret vix libertinus honeste : 

Janr, moechus Romae, jam mallet doctor Athenis 

Vivure ; Vertumnis, quotquot sunt, natus iniquis. 

Scurra Volanerius, postquam illi justa cheragra Id 

Contudit articulos, qui pro se tolleret atque 

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203 *. HORATU FLACCI 

Mitteret in phimum taloe, mercede diurna 

Conductum pavit : quanto constantior idem 

In vitiis, tanto levius miser ac prior illo, 

€lui jam contento, jam laxo rune laborat 20 

Horatius. 

Non dices hodie, quorsum haec tarn putida fondant, 
Furcifer ? 

Davus. 

Ad te, inquam. 

Horatius. 

duo pacto, pessime 1 

Davus. 

Laudas 

Fortunam et mores antiquae plebis, etidem, 

Si quis ad ilia deus subito te agat, usque recuses ; 

Aut quia non sentis, quod clamas, rectius esse, 25 

Aut quia non firmus rectum defendis, et haeres, 

Nequidquam coeno cupiens evellere plantam. 

Romae rus optas, absentem rusticus Urbem 

Tollis ad astra levis. Si nusquam es forte vocatus 

Ad coenam, laudas securum olus ; ac, velut usquam 30 

Vinctus eas, ita te felicem dicis amasque, 

Quod nusquam tibi sit potandum. Jusserit ad se 

Maecenas serum sub lumina prima venire 

Convivam : Nemon' oleum fert ocius ? ecquis 

Audit ? cum magno blateras clamore, fugisque. 35 

Mulvius et scurrae tibi non referenda precati 

Discedunt. Etenim, fateor me, dixerit ille, 

Duci ventre levem ; nasum nidore supinor : 

Imbecillus, iners ; 6i quid vis, adde, popino. 

Tu, quum sis quod ego, et fortassis nequior, ultro 40 

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SIRMOHUM LIB. 11. 7. 203 

fnsectere velut metier % verbisque decoris 

Obvolvas vitium ? Quid, si me stultior ipso 

duingentis emlo drachmis deprenderis % Aufer 

Me vultu terrere ; manum stomachumque teneto, 

Dum, quae Cnspini docuit me janitor, edo. 45 

Te coujux aliena capit, meretricula Davuia : ' 
Peccat uter nostrum cruce dignius ? Acris ubi me N k 
Natura incendit, sub clara nuda lucerna 
duaecunque excepit turgentis verbera caudae 
Clunibus, aut agitavit equum lasciva supinum : (^ . / $0 
Dimittit neque famoeum, neque sollicitum, ne 
Ditior aut formae metioris meiat eodem. 
Tu, quum projectis insignibus, annulo equesGt 
Romanoque habitu, prodis ex judice Dama 
Turpis, odoratum caput obscurante lacerna, 55 

Non es quod edmulas ? Metuens induceris, atque 
Altercante libidinibus tremis ossa pavore. 
Cluid refert, uri, virgis ferroque necari 
Auctoratus eas ; an turpi clausus in area, 
duo te demisit peccati conscia herilis, 60 

Contractum genibus tangas caput % Estne marito 
Matronae peccantis in ambo justa potestas, 
In corruptarem vel justior % Ilia tamen se 
Non habitu mutatve loco, peccatve superne, 
duum te fbrmidet mulier, neque credat amanti. 65 

Ibis sub furcam prudens, dominoque furenti 
Committes rem omnem et vitam et cum corpora famam. 
Evaau* % metues, credo, doctusque cavebis. 
duaeres, quando iterum paveas iterumque perire 
Poesis, O toties servus ! Gtuae bellua ruptis, 70 

duum semel effugit, reddit se prava catenis % 

Non sum moechus, ais. Neque ego hercule fur, ubi vasa 
Praetereo sapiens argentea. Tolle periclum : 
Jam vaga prosiliet frenis natura remotis. 
Tune mihi dominus, rerum imperiis hominumque 75 

Tot tantisque minor, quern ter vindicta quaterque 

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204 Q. HORAT1I FLACCI 

Impoeita haud unquam misera formidine privet t 

Adde super, dictis quod non levius valeat : nam 

Sive vicarius est qui servo paret, uti mos 

Vester ait, seu conservus : tibi quid sum ego ? Nempe 80 

Tu, mihi qui imperitas, aliis servis miser j atque 

Duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

Gluisnam igitur liber ? Sapiens, sibi qui imperiosus ; 
Cluem neque pauperies neque mors neque vincula terrent ; 
Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 85 

Fortis ; et in se ipso totus, teres atque rotundus, 
Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari, 
In quern manca ruit semper Fortuna. Potesne 
Ex his ut proprium quid noscere ? Quinque talenta 
Poscit te mutier, vexat, foribusque repulsum 90 

Perfundit gelida ; rursus vocat : eripe turpi 
Colla jugo : liber, liber sum, die age. Non quis : 
Urguet enim dominus mentem non lenis, et acres 
Subjectat lasso stimulos, versatque negantem. 

Vel quum Pausiaca torpes, insane, tabella, 95 

Q,ui peccas minus atque ego, quum Fulvt Rutubaeque 
Aut Placideiani contento poplite miror 
Proelia, rubrica picta autxarbone ; velut si 
Re vera pugnent, feriant, vitentque moventes 
Anna viri % Nequam et cessator Davus ; at ipse 100 

Subtilis veterum judex et callidus audis. 
Nil ego, si ducor libo fumante : tibi ingens 
Virtus atque animus coenis responsat opimis ? 
Obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius est : cur % 
Tergo plector enim ; qut tu impunitior ilia, 105 

3,uae parvo sumi nequeunt, obsonia captas % 
Nempe inamarescunt epulae sine fine petitae, 
Dlusique pedes vitiosum ferre recusant 
Corpus. An hie peccat, sub noctem qui puer uvom 
Furtiva mutat strigili ? qui praedia vendit, 110 

Nil servile, gulae parens, habet ? Adde, quod idem 
Non horam tecum esse potes, non otia recte 

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8IRMONUM LIB. II. 8. 205 

Pooere ; teque ipsum vitas fugitivus et erro, 

Jam vino quaercns, jam somno fallere curam * 

Frastra : nam comes atra premit sequiturque fugacem. 115 

Horatius. 
Unde mihi lapidem % 

Davus. 

Quorsum est opus 9 
Horatius. 

Unde sagittas ? 
Davus. 
Ant insanit homo, aut versus facit. 
Horatius. 

Ocius nine te 
Ni rapifl, accedes opera agro noua Sabino. 

Satika VIII. 

IN NASIDIENUM RUFUM CONVIVATOREM VA- 
PIDE GARRULUM. 

Horatius. 

Ut Naaidieni juvit te coena beati 9 

Nam mihi convivam quaerenti dictus heri ilHc 

De medio potare die. 

Fundanius. 

Sic ut mihi nunquam 
la vita merit melius. 

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M6 4. HOEAT1I FULCCI 

Horatius. 

Da, si grave non eat, 
Quae prima iratum ventrem placaverit esca. 

Fundanius. 

In primis Lucanus aper : leni fuit Austro 

Captus, ut aiebat coenae pater ; acria circom 

Rapula, lactucae, radices, qualia lassum 

Pervellunt stomachum, siser, halec, faecula Coa. 

His ubi eublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 10 

Gausape purpureo mensam perteredt, et alter ' 

Sublegii quodcunque jaceret inutile, quodque 

Posset coenantes offendere ; ut Attica virgo 

Cum sacris Cereris, procedit fuscus Hydaspes 

Caecuba vina ferens, Alcon Chium maris expers. 15 

Hie hems, Albanum, Maecenas, sive Falemum 

Te magis, appositis delectat, habemus utrumque. 

Horatius. 

Divitias miseras 1 Sed queis coenantibus una, 
Fundani, pulchre fuerit tibi, nosse laboro. 

Fundanius. 

Summus ego, et prope me Viscus Thurinus, et mfia, 80 

8i memini, Varius ; cum Serrilio Balatrone 

Vibidius, quos Maecenas adduxerat umbras. 

Nomentanus erat super ipsum, Porcius intra, 

Ridiculus tolas simul obsorbere placentas. 

Nomentanus ad hoc, qui, si quid forte lateret, 25 

lndice monstraret digito : nam cetera turba, 

Nos, inquam, coenamus, aves, conchylia, pisces, 

Longe dissimilem noto celantia succum ; 

Ut vel continuo patuit, quum posseris assi et 

Ingustata mini porrexerat ilia rhombi. 80 

Post hoc me docuit, melimela rubere minorem 

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SERMONUM LIB. II. 8. 207 

Ad lunam delecta. Quid hoc intersit, ab ipso 

Audieris melius. Turn Vibidius Balatroni : 

Nos nisi damnose bibimus, moriemur inulli ; 

£: calices poscit majores. Vertere pallor 35 

Turn parochi faciem, nil sic metuentis ut acres 

Potores, vel quod maledicunt liberius, vel 

Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum. 

Invertunt Allifanis vinaria tota 

Vibidius Balatroque, secutis omnibus : imi 40 

Convivae lecti nihil nm nocuere lagenis. 

Affertur squillas inter muraena natantes 

In patina porrecta. Sub hoc hems, Hate gravida^ inquit, 

Capta est, deteriorpost partum carnefuiura. 

Hu mixtumjus est : oho, quod prima Venafri 45 

Pressit ceUa ; garo de succis piscis Iberi ; 

Vino quinquenni, verum eitra mare nolo, 

Dum coquUur ; cocto Chium sic conoenit, ut non 

Hoc magi* ulium aliud ; pipere albo, non tine aceto, 

Quod Methymnaeam vitio mutaverit warn. 50 

Eneas virides, inula* ego primus amaras 

Monstravi incoquere ; iUolos CurtUlus eckinos t 

Ut melius muria, quam testa marina remitHt. 

Interea suspensa graves aulaea ruinas 

In patinam fecere, trahentia pulveris atri 55 

Quantum non Aquilo Campank excitat agris. 

Nos majus veriti, postquam nihil esse pericti 

Sensimus, erigimur. Rufus poerito capite, ut si 

Filiue immatuxus obisset, flere. Gtuis esset 

Finis, ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 60 

Tolleret ? Heu, Fortuna, quia est crudelior in nos 

Te deua ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 

Humanis 1 Varius raappa compescere risum 

Vix poterat. Balatro suspendens omnia naso, 

Hate est conditio vivendi, aiebat, eoque 65 

Responsura tuo nunquam est parfama labori. 

Tens, ut ego accipiar laute, torquerier omni 

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208 *. HORATII FLACCI 

SolUciiudine districtwn ? ne pants adushts, 

JVe male condUumjus apponatur ? ut omnes 

Praecincti recte pueri comtique ministrent t 70 

Jidde hos praeterea casus, atdaea want si } 

Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus frangat agaso. 

Sed convivatoris, uti ducts, ingenhtmres 

JLdversae nudare sclent, celare secundae. 

Nasidienus ad haec ; Tiki di, quaecunque preceris 75 

Commoda dent ; itavir bonus es convivaque comis. 

Et soleas poscit. Turn in lecto quoque videres 

Stridere secreta divisos aure susurros. 

Horatius. 

Nullos his mallem ludos spectasse ; sed ilia 
Redde, age, quae deinceps risisti. 

Fundanius. 

Vibidius dum SO 

ttuaerit de pueris, num sit quoque fracta lagena, 
Quod sibi poscenti non dantur pocula, dumque 
Ridetur fictis rerum, Balatrone secundo : 
Nasidiene, redis mutatae firontis, ut arte 
Emendaturus fortunam ; deinde secuti 85 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 
Membra gruis, spared sale multo non sine farre, 
Pinguibus et ficis pastum jecur anseris albae, 
Et leporum avulsos, ut multo suavius, armos, 
Ctuam si cum lumbis quia edit. Turn pectore adusto W 
Vidimus et merulas poni, et sine dune palumbes ; 
Suaves res, si non causas narraret earum et 
Naturae dominus, quern nos sic fugimus ulti, 
Ut nihil omnino gustaremus, velut illis 
Oanidia afflasset pejor serpentibus Aftis. 95 



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Q. HORATH. FLACCJ 

EPISTOLARUM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 



Epistola I 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Prima dicte mihi, summa dicende Camena, 

Spectatum satis, et donatum jam rude, quaeris, 

Maecenas, iterum antiquo me includere ludo ? 

Non eadem est aetas, non mens. Veianius, armis 

HercuHs ad postern fixis, latet abditus agro, 5 

Ne populum extrema toties exoret arena. 

Est mini ptirgatam crebro qui personet aurem : 

Soke senescenlem mature sarins equum, ne 

Peeeet ad extremum ridendus, et ilia ducat. 

Nunc itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono ; 10 

Quid verum atque decens euro et rogo, et omnia in hoc sum ; 

Condo et compono, quae mox depromere possim. 

Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter ; 
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri, 
Quo me cunque rapit tempestas, deferor hospes. 15 

Nunc agilis fio et mersor civilibus undis, 
TTrtutis verae custos rigidusque satelles ; 
Nunc in Aristippi furtim praecepta relabor, 
Et mihi res, non me rebus subjungere coner. 
tit nox longa, quibus mentitur arnica, diesque 20 

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210 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Lenta videtur opus debentibus ; ut piger annus 

PupftJis, quos dura premit custodia matrum : 

Sic mini tarda fluurit ingrataque tempora, quae spem 

Consiliumque morantur agendi gnaviter id, quod 

Aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque, 25 

Aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit. 

Restat, ut his ego me ipse regam solerque elementis : 
Non possis oculo quantum contendere Lynceus, 
Non tamen idcirco contemnas lippus inungi ; 
Nee, quia desperes invicti membra Glyconis, 30 

Nodosa corpus nolis prohibere cheragra. 
Est quadam prodire tenus, si non datur ultra. 
Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus 1 
Sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem 
Possis, et magnam morbi deponere partem. 3o 

Laudis amore tumes 1 sunt certa piacula, quae te 
Ter pure lecto poterunt recreare libello. 
Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator 1 
Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit, 
Si modo culturae patientem commodet aurem. 4C 

Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima 
Stultitia caruisse. Vides, quae maxima credis 
Esse mala, exiguum censum turpemque repulsam, 
Quanto devites animo capitisque labore. 
Impiger extremos curris mercator ad Indos, 4* 

Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per ignes : 
Ne cures ea, quae stulte miraris et optas, 
Discere et audire et meliori credere non vis 1 
Gluis circum pagos et circum compita pugnax 
Magna coronari contemnat Olympia, cui spes, 50 

Cui sit conditio dulcis sine pulvere palmae 7 

Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum. 
O cives^ cive8 t quaerenda pecunia primwn est, 
Virtiu post nummos. Haec Janus summus ab imo 
Prodocet ; haec recinunt juvenes dictata senesqua, 5- 

Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. 

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BN8TOLAKUM LIB. 1. 1. 211 

Est animus tibi, sunt mores, est lingua fidesque ; 

Sed quadringentis sex septem millia desint : 

Plebe eris. At pueri ludentes, Rex eris, aiunt, 

Si recte facte*. Hie mums aeneus esto, 60 

Nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. 

Roscia, die sodes, melior lex, an puerorum est 

Naenia, quae regnum recte facientibus offert, 

Et maribus Curiis et decantata Camillis ? 

Isne tibi melius suadet, qui, rem facias ; rem, 65 

Si possis, recte ; si non, quocunque modo rem, 

Ut propius spectes lacrimosa poemata Pupt : 

An qui, fortunae te responsare superbae 

liberum et erectum, praesens hortatur et aptat % 

Gtuod si me populus Romanus forte roget, cur 7C 

Non, ut porticibus, sic judiciis fruar Isdem, 
Nee sequar aut fugiam, quae diligit ipse vel odit ; 
Olim quod vulpes aegroto cauta leoni 
Respondit , referam : Quia me vestigia ierrent 
Omnia te adverstm spectantia, nulla retrorsum. 75 

Bellua multorum est capitum. Nam quid sequar ? aut quern 1 
Pars hominum gestit conducere publica ; sunt qui 
Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras, 
Excipiantque senes, quos in vivaria mittant ; 
Multis occulto crescit res fenore. Verum 80 

Esto, aliis alios rebus studiisque teneri : 
Iidem eadem possunt horam durare probantes % 
NuUus in orbe sinus Baits praelucet amoenis 
Si dixit dives, lacus et mare sentit amorem 
Festinantis heri ; cui si vitiosa libido 85 

Fecerit auspicium, eras ferramenta Teanum 
Tolletis, fabri. Lectus geniahs in aula est : 
Nil ait esse prius, melius nil caelibe vita ; 
Si non est, jurat bene solis esse maritis. 
Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo % 00 

Quid pauper ? ride, ut mutat coenacula, lectos, 
21* 



212 <l. HORATII FLACCI 

Balnea, tonsores ; conducto navigio aeque 
Nauaeat ac locuples, quern ducit priva triremis. 

Si curatus inaequali tonsore capillos 
Occurro, rides : si forte subucula pexae 95 

Trila subest tunicae, vel si toga dissidet impar, 
Rides. Quid 1 mea quum pugnat sententia secum ; 
Quod petiit, spernit ; repetit quod nuper omisit ; 
Aestuat et vitae disconvenit ordine toto ; 
Diruit, aedificat, mutat quadrata rotundis : 100 

Insanire putaa solennia me ? neque rides ? 
Nee medici credis nee curatoris egere 
A praetore dati, rerum tutela mearum 
Quum sis, et prave sectum stomacheris ob unguem 
De te pendentis, te respicientis amici ? 105 

Ad summam, sapiens uno minor est Jove, dives, 
Liber, honoratus, pulcher, rex denique regum ; 
Praecipue sanus, nisi quum pituita molesta est 

Epistola II. 
AD LOLLIUM. 

Trojani belli scriptorem, maxhne Lolli, 

Dum tu declamas Romae, Praeneste relegi ; 

Ctui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe f quid utile, quid non, 

Planius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit. 

Ciir ita crediderim, nisi quid te detinet, audi. 5 

Fabula, qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 
Oraecia Barbariae lento collisa duello, 
Stultorum regum et populorum continet aestus. 
Antcnor censet belli praecidere causam : 
duod Paris, ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus, 10 

Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 
Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden : 
Ilunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. 
Qliiidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. 

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EPISTOLARUM LIB. I. 2. 218 

8editione, dol&B, scelere, atque libidine et ira 15 

Uiacos intra muros peccatur et extra. 

Rursum, quid virtus et quid sapientia possit, 
Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen ; 
Q,ui domitor Trojae multorum providus urbes 
Et mores hominum inspexit, latumque per aequor, 20 

Dam sdbi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 
Pertulit, adversis rerum immersabilis undis. 
Sirenum voces et Circae pocula nosti ; 
Cluae si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibisset, 
Sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excore, 25 

Vixisset canis immundus, vel arnica luto sub. 
Noe numerus sumus, et fruges consumere nati, 
Sponsi Penelopae, nebulones Alcinoique, 
In cute curanda plus aequo operata juventus ; 
Cui pulchrum fait in medios dormire dies, et 30 

Ad strepitum citharae cessatum ducere curam. 

Ut jugulent hominem, suxgunt de nocte latrones « 
Ut te ipeum serves, non expergisceris ? atqui 
Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus ; et ni 
Posces ante diem librum cum lumine, si non 36 

Intendes animum studiis et rebus honestis, 
Invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur, 
Quae laedunt oculum, festinas demere ; si quid 
Est animum, differs curandi temp us in annum 1 
Dimidium fecti, qui coepit, habet ; sapere aude, 40 

Inripe. Qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 
Rusticus exspectat, dum defluat amnis ; at ille 
Ubitur et labetur in omne volubilis aevum. 

Quaentur argentum, puerisque beata creandis 
Uxor, et incultae pacantur vomere silvae. 45 

Uaod satis est cui contigit, hie nihil amplius optet 
Non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri 
Aegroto domini deduxit corpore febres, 
^'on animo curas. Valeat possessor oportet, 
8i comportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. 50 

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114 <*. HORATII FLACCI 

Ctui cupit aut metuit, juvat ilium sic domus et res, 
Ct lippum pictae tabulae, (omenta podagrum, 
Auriculas citharae collecta sorde dolentes. 
Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis, acescit. 

Sperae voluptates ; nocet emta dolore voluptas. 05 

Semper avarus eget ; certum voto pete finem. 
Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis : 
Invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 
Majus tormentum. Qui non moderabitur irae, 
Infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit amens, 60 

Dum poenas odio per vim festinat inulto. 
Ira furor brevis est j animum rege ; qui, nisi paret, 
Imperat ; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena. 
Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister 
Ire, viam qua monstret eques. Venaticus, ex quo 65 

Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula, 
Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adbibe puro 
Pectore verba, puer, nunc te melioribus offer, 
duo semel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 
Testa diu. Quod si cessas aut strenuus anteis, 70 

Nee tardum opperior nee praecedenubus insto. 

Epistola III. 

AD JUL1UM FLORUM. 

Juli Flore, quibus tenarum militet oris 

Claudius Augusti privignus, scire laboro. 

Thracane vos, Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus, 

An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 

An pingues Asiae campi coUesque morantur ? 5 

Quid studiosa cohors operum struit ? Hoc quoque euro 

Quis sibi res gestae Augusti scribere sumit ? 

Bella quis et paces longum diffundit in aevum % 

Quid Titiue, Romana brevi venturus in OTa, 

Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustus, 10 

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KP18TOULRUM LIB. I. 4. 215 

Fastidire focus et rivoe ausus apertos % 

Ut valet ? ut meminit nostri ? fidibusne Latiius 

ThebanoB aptare modos studet, auspice Musa % 

An tragica desaevit et ampullatur in arte % 

Quid mini Celsus agit ? monitus multumque monendus, 15 

Privatas ut quaerat opes, et tangere vitet 

Scripta, Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo ; 

Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 

Grex avium plumas, moveat comicula risum 

Furtivis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes % /0 

Quae circumvolitas agiba thyma ? non tibi parvum 

Ingenium, non incultum est et turpiter hirtum. 

Seu linguam causis acuis, seu civica jura 

Respondere paras, seu condis amabile carmen : 

Prima feres ederae victricia praemia. Quod si 25 

Frigida curarum fomenta relinquere posses, 

Quo te coelestis sapientia duceret, ires. 

Hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis vivere can. 

Debeg hoc etiam rescribere, si tibi curae, 30 

Quantae conveniat, Munatius ; an male sarta 

Gratia nequidquam coit et rescinditur ? At, voe 

Seu calidus sanguis seu rerum inscitia vexat 

Indomita cervice feros, ujricunque locorum 

vlvitis, indigni fratemum rumpere foedus, 35 

Pascitur in vestrum reditum votiva juvenca. 

Epistola IV. 

AD ALBIUM TIBTJLLUM. 

Albi, nostrorum sermonum candide judex, 

Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana % 

Scribere quod Cassl Parmensis opuscula vincat, 

An taciturn sUvas inter reptare salubres, 

Curantem quidquid dignum sapiente bonoque est 1 5 

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216 d. HORATIl FLACCI 

Non tu corpus eras sine pectore. Di tibi formam, 

Di tibi divitias dederant, artemque fruendi. 

Q,uid voveat dulci nutricula majus alumno, 

Qui sapere et fan possit quae sentiat, et cui 

Gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, 10 

Et domus et victus, non deficiente crumena % 

Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras, 

Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 

Grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur, hora. 

Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises, 1 s 

duum xidere voles Epicuri de grege porcum. 

Epistola V. 

AD TORQUATUM. 

Si potes Archiacis convive recumbere lectis, 

Nee modica coenare times olus omne patella, 

Supremo te sole domi, Torquate, manebo. 

Vina bibes iterum Tauro diffusa, palustres 

Inter Minturnas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. 5 

Sin melius quid habes, arcesse, vel imperium fer. 

Jamdudum splendet focus, et tibi munda supellex. 

Mitte leves spes, et certamina divitiajrum, 

Et Moscbi causam. Cras nato Caesare festus 

Dat veniam somnumque dies ; impune licebit 10 

Aestivam sermone benigno tendere noctem. 

duo mini, fortuna si non conceditur uti 1 

Parcus ob heredis curam nimiumque scverus 

Assidet insano. Potare et spargere flores 

Incipiam, patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. 1 5 

Quid non ebrietas designat ? operta recludit, 

Spes jubet esse ratas, in proelia trudit inertem, 

Sollicitis animis onus eximit, addocet artes. 

Fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum % 

Contracta quem non in paupertate solu*um ? 20 

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1FI8VOI.ABUM LIB. I. 6 217 

Haec ego procurers et idoneus imperor, et noa 

Invitas ; ne tnrpe toral, ne sordida mappa 

Corruget nares ; ne non et cantharus et lanx 

Qstendat tibi te ; ne fidoa inter amices 

Sit, qui dicta foras eliminet ; ut coeat par 25 

Jungaturque pari. Butram tibi Septiciumque, 

Et nisi coena prior potiorque puella Sabinum 

Detinet, assumam. Locus est et pluribus umbris ; 

Sed nimis arcta premunt olidae convivia caprae. 

Tu, quotus esse velis, rescribe ; et rebus omissis 30 

Atria senrantem poetico felle cfientem. 

Epistola VI. 

AD NUMIOIUM. 

Nil admirari prope res est una, Numici, 

Solaque, quae possit facere et servare beatum. 

Hunc solem, et Stellas, et decedentia certis 

Tempora momentis, sunt qui formidine nulla 

Imbuti spectent. Quid censes munera terrae 1 5 

Quid maris extremos Arabas ditantis et Indos % 

Ludicra quid, plausus, et amici dona Quiritis % 

Quo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore % 

Qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem 

Quo cupiens pacto ; payor est utrobique molestus ; 10 

Improvisa simul species exterret utrumque. 

Gaudeat an doleat, cupiat metuatne, quid ad rem, 

Si, quidquid vidit melius pejusve sua spe, 

Defixis oculis, animoque et corpore torpet % 

Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui, 16 

Ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsam. 
I nunc, argentum et marmor vetus aeraque et artes 
Suspice, cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colores, 
Gaude quod spectant oculi te mille loquentem, 
Gtaavus mane forum, et vespertimis pete tectum, 90 

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SIS q. HORATII fLacci 

Ne plus frumenti-dotalilras emetat agris 

Mutus, et (indignum, quod sit pejoribus ortus) 

Hie tibi sit potius, quam tu mirabiHs illi. 

ftuidquid sub terra est, in apricum proferet aetas, 

Defodiet condetque nitentia. Quum bene notum ?* 

Porticus Agrippae et via te conspexerit Appl, 

Ire tamen restat, Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

Si latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto, 
Quaere fugam morbi. Vis recte vivere % quis non 1 
Bi virtus hoc una potest dare, fortis omissis 30 

Hoc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putas, et 
Lucum ligna ? cave ne portus occupet alter ; 
Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna negotia perdas. 
Mille talenta rotundentur ; totidem altera porro, et 
Tertia succedant, et quae para quadret acervum. 35 

Scilicet uxorem cum dote, fidemque, et amicos, 
Et genus et formam regina Pecunia donat, 
Ac bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque. 
Mancipiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex : 
Ne rueris hie tu. Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt, 40 

Si posset centum scenae praebere rogatus, 
Qui possum tot f ait ; tamen et quaeram, et quot habebo 
Mittam. Post paulo scribit, sibi millia quinque 
Esse domi chlamydum ; partem, vel tolleret omnes. 
Exilis domus est, ubi non et multa supersunt, 45 

Et dominum fallunt, et prosunt furibus. Ergo 
Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum, 
Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittas. 

Si fortunatum species et gratia praestat, 
Mercemur servum, qui dictet nomina, laevum 50 

Qui fbdicet latus, et cogat trans pondera dextram 
Porrigere. Hie multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina ; 
Cui libet is iasces dabit, eripietque curule 
Cui volet importunus ebur ; Prater, Pater, adde ; 
Ut cuique est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta. 55 

Si, bene qui coenat, bene vivit : lucet, eamus 

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KPISTOLAftUM LIB. I. 7. 21* 

ttno ducit gula ; piscemur, venemur ; ut oKm 

GargiKus, qui mane plagas, venabula, servos 

Differtum transire forum populumque jubebat, 

Unas ut e multis populo spectante referfet 60 

Emtum mulus aprum. Crudi tumidique lavemur, 

Cluid deceat, quid non, obliti, Caerite cera 

LKgni, remigium vitiosum Ithacensis Ulixei, 

Cui potior patria fuk interdicta voluptas. 

Si, Mimnermus uti cenaet ; sine amore jocisque 65 

Nil est jucundum : vivas in amore jocisque. 

Vive, vale ; si quid novisti rectius istis, 
Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum. 

Epistola VII. 
AD MAECENATEM. 

duinque dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurufn, 

Sexulem totum mendax desideror. Atqui 

Si me vivere vis, recteque videre valentem, 

Quam mitii das aegro, dabis aegrotare timenti, 

Maecenas, veniam ; dum ficus prima calorque 6 

Designatorem decorat hctoribus atris, 

Dum pueris omnis pater et matercula pallet, 

Officiosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 

Adducit febres et testamenta resignat. 

Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, 10 

Ad mare descendet vates tirus, et sibi parcet, 

Cbntractusque leget ; te, dulcis amice, reviset 
Cum Zephyris, si concedes, et hirundine prima. 

Non, quo more pins vesci Calaber jubet hospes, 
Tu me fecisti locupletem. — Vescere sodes. — 15 

Jam satis est. — Jittu quantumtis totte. — Benign*. 
•V<m insrisa feres pueris munuscula parvis. — 
Tarn tensor dono, quam si tUmUtar owustus. — 
Ul Ubet, hate porcis hodie comedtnda relinquie. 
22 

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920 O. HORA.TII FLACCI 

prodigus et stultus donat, quae spernit et odit 20 

Haec seges ingratos tulit, et feret omnibus annis. 

Vir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus, 

Nee tamen ignorat, quid distent aera lupinis. 

Dignum praestabo me etiam pro laude merentis. 

Quod si me noles usquam discedere, reddes 25 

Forte latus, nigros angusta fronte capillos, 

Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum, et - 

[nter vina fugam Cinarae mocrere protervae. 

Forte per angustam tenuis nitedula rimam 
Repserat in cumeram frumenti, paataque rursus 30 

Ire foras pieno tendebat corpore frustra. 
Cui mustela procul, Si vis, ait, efFugere istinc, 
Macra cavum repetes arctum, quern macra subisti. 
Hac ego si compellor imagine, cuncta resigno. 
Nee somnum plebis laudo, satur altilium, nee 35 

Otia divitiis Arabum liberrima muto. 
Saepe yerecundumWaudasti ; Rexque Paterque 
Audisti coram ; nee verbo parcius absens. 
Inspice, si possum donata reponere laetus. 
Haud male Telemachus, proles patientis Ulixei : m 40 

Won est aptus equis Ithace locus ; ut neque plants 
Porrectus spatiis, neque multae prodigus herbae : 
Jltride, magis apta tibi tua donareUnquam. 
Parvum parva decent. Mini jam non regia Roma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet, aut imbelle Tarentum. 45 

Strenuus et fortis, causisque Philippus agendis 
Clams, ab officiis octavam circiter horam 
Dum redit, atque Foro nimium dislare Carinas 
Jam grandis natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt, 
Adrasum quendam vacua tonsoris in umbra, 50 

Cultello proprios purgantem leniter ungues. 
Demetri, (puer hie non laeve jussa Philippi 
Accipiebat,) abi, quaere et refer, unde domo ; quis ; 
Cujus fortunae ; quo sit poire quove pairono. 
ft, redit, enarrat : Vulteium, nomine Menam, 66 

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XFI8TOLARUM LIB. I. 7. 231 

Praeconem, tenui censu, sine crimine natum ; 

Et properare loco et cessare, et quaerere et uti, 

Gaudentem parvisque sodalibus, et lare certo, 

Et ludis, et post decisa negotia Campo. 

Scitari Ubet ex ipso quaecunque refer9 9 die GO 

M coenam venial. Non sane credere Mena ; 

Mirari secum tacitos. Quid multa ? Benigne, 

Respondet. — Neget tile mihi ? — Negat improbus, et it 

NegHgit out horret. — Vulteium mane Philippus 

Vilia vendentem tunicato scruta popello 65 

Occupat, et salvere jubet prior. Die Philippo 

Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, 

Quod non mane domum venisset ; denique, quod non 

Providisset eum. — Sic ignovisse putato 

Me Ubi } si coenas hodie mecum. — Ut Ubet — Ergo '"O 

Poetnonamvenies ; nunc t, rem strenuus auge. 

Ut ventum ad coenam est, dicenda tacenda locutus, 

Tandem dormitum dimittitur. Hie, ubi saepe 

Occultum visus decurrere piscis ad hamum, 

Mane cliens et jam certus conviva, jubetur 76 

Rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis. 

Impositus mannis arvum coelumque Sabinum 

Non cessat laudare. Videt ridetque Philippus, 

Et sibi dum requiem, dum risus undique quaerit, 

Dum septem donat sestertia, mutua septem 80 

Promittit, persuadet, uti mercetur agellum. 

Mercatur. Ne te longis ambagibue ultra 

Quam satis est morer, ex nitido fit rusticus, atque 

Sulcos et vineta crepat mora, praeparat ulmos, 

Immoritur studiis, et amore senescit habendi. 86 

Verum ubi oves furto, morbo periere capellae, 

Spem mentita seges, bos est enectus arando : 

Offeneus damnis, media de nocte caballum 

Arripit, iratusque Philippi tendit ad aedes. 

Quern simul adspexit scabrum intonsumque Philippus, 90 

Dunu, ait, Vultei, nimie atteniueque videris 

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222 <l. HORATII FLACC1 

Esse mihi. — Pot, me miscrum, pot rone, vooareg 

Si velles, inquit, i>erwn mihi ponere nomen. 

Quod te per Genivm dexlramque deosque Penate* 

Obsecro et obiestor, vitae me redde priori. !>5 

Qui semel adspexit, quantum dimissa petite 
Praestent, mature redeat repetatque relicta. 
Metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede varum est 



Epibtola Vm 
AD CELSUM ALBINOVANUM. 

Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano, 

Musa rogata refer, comiti scribaeque Neronis. 

Si quaeret quid agam, die, nrulta et pulchra minantem, 

Vivere nee recte nee suaviter ; haud quia grando 

Contuderit vites, oleamve momorderit aestus, 5 

Nee quia longinquis armentum aegrotet in agris ; 

Sed quia mente minus validus quam corpora toto 

Nil audire velim, nil discere, quod levet aegrum ; 

Fidis offendar medicis, irascar amicis, 

Cur me funesto properent arcere veterno ; 10 

Quae nocuere sequar, fugiam quae proforecredam, 

Romae Tibur amem, ventosus Tibure Romam. 

Post haec, ut valeat, quo pacto rem gerat et se, 

Ut placeat Juveni, percontare, utque cohorti. 

Si dicet, Recte : primum gaudere, subinde 15 

Praeceptum auriculis hoc instillare memento : 

Ut tu fortunam, sic nos te, Celse, feremus 



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KF1STOLABUM LIB. I. 9. 10. 

Epistola IX. 

AD CLAUDIUM NERONEM. 

Septimius, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus, 

Quanti me facias. Nam quum rogat et prece cogit, 

Scilicet ut tibi se laudare et tradere coner, 

EHgnum menu domoque legends honesta Neronis, 

Munere quum fungi propioris censet amici, 5 

Quid possim videt ac novit me valdius ipso. 

Multa quidem dixi, cur excusatus abirem : 

Sed timui, mea ne finxisse minora putarer ; 

Dissimulator opis propriae, mihi commodus um 

Sic ego, majoris fugiens opprobria culpae, 10 

Frontis ad urbanae descendi praemia. &uod si 

Depositum laudas ob amici jussa pudorem, 

Scribe tui gregis hunc, et foitem crede bonumque. 

Epistola X. 

AD FUSCUM ARISTIUM. 

Urbis amatorem Fuscum solvere jubemua 
Runs amatores, hac in re scilicet una 
Multum dissimiles, at cetera paene gemelli, 
Fmternis animis, quidquid negat alter, et alter ; 
Annuimus pariter vetuH notique columbi. 5 

Tu nidum servas, ego laudo ruris amoeni 
Rivos, et musco circumlita saxa, nemusque. 
Quid quaeris ? vivo et regno, simul ista reliqui 
Quae voe ad coelum fertis rumore secundo ; 
Ctque sacerdotis fugitivus, liba recuso ; 

Pane egeo jam mellitis potiore placentis. 
Vivere naturae si convementer oportet, 
Ponendaeque domo quaerenda est area primum, 
22* 

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224 4. HORAT1I FLACC1 

Novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? 

Est ubi plus tepeant hiemes 1 ubi gratior aura 1ft 

Leniat et rabiein Canis, et momenta Leonis, 

Cluum semel accepit solem furibundus acutum % 

Est ubi divellat somnos minus invida cura % 

Detenus Libycis olet aut nitet herba lapillis % 

Purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum, l?u 

Q,uam quae per pronum trepidat cum murmure nvum % 

Nempe inter varias nutritur silva columnas, 

Laudaturque domus, longos quae prospicit agros. 

Naturam expellee furca, tamen usque recurret, 

Et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. 2ft 

Non, qui Sidonio contendere callidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum, 
Certius accrpiet damnum propiusve medullis, 
Quam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsun* 
Quern res plus nimio delectavere secundae, 30 

Mutatae quatient. Si quid mirabere, pones 
Invitus. Fuge magna ; licet sub paupere tecto 
Reges et regum vita praecurrere amicos. 

Cervus equumpugna melior communibus tTbis 
Pellebat, donee minor in certamine longo 35 

Imploravit opes hominis, frenumquo recepit. 
Sed postquam victor violens discessit ab hoste, 
Non equitem dorso, non frenum depulit ore. 
Sic, qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis 
Iibertate caret, dominum vehet improbus, atque 40 

Serviet aetemum, quia parvo nesciet u^. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede major erit, subvertet ; si minor, uret 

Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi j 
Nee me dimittes incastigatum, ubi plura 45 

Cogere, quam satis est, ac non cessare videbor. 
Imperat, haud servit, collecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. 

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EPISTOLARUM LIB. I. 11 225 

Haec tibi dictabam post fanum putre Vacunae, 
Excepto quod non simul esses, cetera lactus. 50 

Epistola XL 

AD BULLATIUM. 

Uuid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos % 

Quid concinna Samos ? quid Croesi regia Sardis ? 

Smjma quid, et Colophon ? majora minora ve fema ? 

Cunctane prae Campo et Tiberino flumine sordent ? 

An venit in votum Attalicis ex urbibus una ? 5 

An Lebedum laudas odio maris atque viarum ? 

Scis, Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atque 

Rdenis vicus : tamen illic vivere vellem, 

Oblitusque meorum, obliviscendus et illis, 

Neptunum procul e terra spectare furentem. 10 

Sed neque qui Capua Romam petit, imbre lutoque 

Adspersus, volet in caupona vivere, nee qui 

Frigus collegit, furnos et balnea laudat, 

Ut fortunatam plene praestantia vitam. 

Nee, si te validus jactaverit Auster in alto, 15 

Idcirco, navem trans Aegaeum mare vendas. 

Incolumi Rhodos et Mitylene pulchra facit, quod 
Paenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 
Per brumam Tiberis, Sextili mense caminus. 
Dum licet, ac vultum servat Fortuna benignum, 20 

Romao laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodos absens. 
Tu, quaincunque deus tibi fortunaverit horam, 
Grata sume manu, neu dulcia differ in annum ; 
Ut, quocunque loco rueris, vixisse libenter 
Te dicas. Nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 25 

Non locus effusi late maris arbiter, aufert : 
Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt. 
Strenua nos exercet inertia ; navibus atque 
^uadrigia pe imus bene vivere. Quod petis, hie est, 
Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus. 30 

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226 Q. HORATH PLACCI 

Epistola X1L 

AD ICCIUM. 

Fructibus Agrippae Siculis, quoe colligis, Icci, 

Si recte frueris, non est ut copia major 

Ab Jove donari possit tibi. Tolle querelas ; 

Pauper enim non est, cui rerum suppetit usus. 

Si ventri bene, si lateri est pedibusque tuis, nil 5 

Divitiae poterunt regales addere majus. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbis 

Vivis et urtica, sic vives protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus Fortunae rivus inauret ; 

Yel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit, 10 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora 

Miramur, si Democriti pecus edit agellos 
Cultaque, dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox ; 
Gluum tu inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucri 
Nil parvum sapias, et adhuc sublimia cures ; 15 

Quae mare compescant causae ; quid temperet annum ; 
Stellae sponte sua, jussaene vagentur et errent ; 
Quid premat obscurum Lunae, quid proferat orbem ; 
Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors j 
Empedocles, an Stertinium deliret acumen. 20 

Verum seu pisces, seu porrum et caepe trucidas, 
Utere Pompeio Grospho : et, si quid petet, ultro 
Defer ; nil Grosphus nisi veruir wabit et aequum. 
Vilis amicorum est annona, >onis ubi quid deest. 

Ne tamen ignores, quo sit Romana loco res : 25 

Cantaber, Agrippae, Claudt virtute Neronis 
Armenius cecidit ; jus imperiuraque Phrahatea 
Caesaris accepit genibus minor ; aurea fruges 
Jialiae pleno defudit Copia cornu. 

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IFISTOULBUM LIB. I. 13. 14. 2?7 



Efistola XTTI. 

AD VINIUM ASELLAM. 

Ut proficiscentem docui te saepe diuque, 

Augusto reddes signata volumina, Vini, 

Si vaEdus, si laetus erit, si denique poscet ; 

Ne studio noetri pecces, odiumque libellis 

Sedulus importes opera vehemente minister. 5 

Si te forte meae gravis uret sarcina chartae, 

Abjicitopodus, quam quo perferre juberis 

Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinaeque paternum 

Cognomen vertas in risum, et fabula fias. 

riiibos uteris per clivoe, flumina, lamas : 10 

Victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc, 

Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 

Fasciculum portes librorum, ut rusticus agnum ; 

Ut vinosa glomus furtivae Pyrrhia lanae ; 

CJt cum pileolo soleas conviva tribulis. 1 5 

Neu vulgo narres te sudavisse ferendo 

Carmina, quae possint oculos auresque morari 

Cacsarig ; oratus multa prece, nitere porro. 

Vade, vale, cave, ne titubes mandataque frangas. 

Efistola XTV. 

AD VILLICUM SUUM. 

VSfice sQvarum et mihi me reddentis agelli, 

Quern tu fastidis, habitatum quinque focis, et 

Qtrinque bonos solitum Variam diraittere patres ; 

CertemuB, spinas animone ego fortius an tu 

Evellas agro, et melior sit Horatjus an res. 5 

Me quamvis Lamiae pietas et cura moratur, 



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228 <t HORATII PLACCI 

Fratrem moerentis, rapto de fratre dolentis 

Insolabiliter ; tamen istuc mens animusque 

Fert, et amat spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra. 

Rure ego viventem, tu dicis in urbe beatum. 10 

Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sore. 

Stultus uterque locum immeritum causatur inique ; 

In culpa est animus, qui se non effugit unquam. 

Tu mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas, 

Nunc urbem et ludos et balnea villicus optas. 15 

Me constare mini scis, et discedere tristem, 

Quandocunque trahunt invisa negotia Romam. 

Non eadem miramur ; eo disconvenit inter 

Meque et te ; nam, quae deserta et inhospita tesqua 

Credis, amoena vocat mecum qui sentit, et odit 20 

Quae tu pulchra putas. Fornix tibi et uncta popina 

Incutiunt urbis desiderium, video ; et quod 

Angulus iste feret piper et thus ocius uva ; 

Nee vicina subest vinum praebere taberna 

Quae possit tibi ; nee meretrix tibicina, cujus 25 

Ad strepitum salias terrae gravis : et tamen urgues 

Jampridem non tacta ligonibus arva, bovemque 

Disjunctum curas, et strictis frondibus exples. 

Addit opus pigro rivus, si decidit imber, 

Multa mole docendus aprico parcere prato. 30 

Nunc, age, quid nostrum concentum dividat, audi. 
Quern tenues decuere togae nitidique capilli, 
Quern scis immunem Cinarae placuisse rapaci, 
Quern bibulum liquidi media de luce Falerni, 
Coena brevis juvat, et prope rivum somnus in herba ' 3o 
Nee lusisse pudet, sed non incidere ludum. 
Non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam 
Limat ; non odio obscuro morsuque venenat : 
Rident vicini glebas et saxa moventem. 
Cum servis urbana diaria rodere mavis ? 40 

Horum tu in numerum voto ruis ? Invidet usum 
Lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus, et horti. 

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E PISTOL A RUM LIB. I. 15. 229 

Optat ephippia bos piger ; optat aiare caballus. 
Quam scit uterque, libens, censebo, exerceat artem. 



Epistola XV. 
AD NUMONIUM VALAM. 

Quae sit hiems Yeliae quod coelum, Vala, Salemi, 

Quorum hominum regio, et qualis via ; (nam mihi Baias 

Musa supervacuas Antonius, et tamen illis 

Me fecit invisum, gelida quum perluor unda 

Per medium frigus. Sane myrteta relinqui, 6 

Dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum 

Sulfura contemni, vicus gemit, invidus aegris, 

Qui caput et stomachum supponere fontibus audent 

Clusinis, Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura. 

Mutandus locus est, et deversoria nota 10 

Praeteragendus equus. Quo tendia ? non mihi Cumas 

Est iter out Baku, laeva stomachosus habena 

Dicet eques : sed equis frenato est auris in ore ;) 

Major utrum populum frumenti copia pascat ; 

Collectosne bibant imbres, puteosne perennes 15 

Jugis aquae ; (nam vina nihil moror illius orae. 

Rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique : 

Ad mare quum veni, generosum et lene requiro, 

Quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet 

In venas animumque meum, quod verba ministret, 20 

Quod me Lucanae juvenem commendet amicae ;) 

Tractus uter plures lepores, uter educet apros ; 

Utra magis pisces et echinos aequora celent, 

Pinguia ut inde domum possim Phaeaxque reverti : 

Scribere te nobis, tibi nos accredere, par est. 26 

Maenius, ut rebus maternis atque paternis 
Fortiter absumtis urbanus coepit haberi, 
Scurra vagus, non qui certum praesepe teneret, 
Impransus non qui civem dignosceret hoste ; 

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330 4. HORATII PLACCI 

Gtuaelibet in quemvis opprobria fingere saevus ; 30 

Pernicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, 

duidquid quaesierat, ventri donabat avaro. 

Hie, ubi nequitiae fautoribus et timidis nil 

Aut pauium abstulerat, patinas coenabat omasi, 

Vilis et agninae, tribus ursis quod satis esset ; 35 

Scilicet ut ventres lamna candente nepotum 

Diceret urendos, corrector Bestius. Idem 

duidquid erat nactus praedae majoris, ubi omne 

Yerterat in fumum et cinerem, Won hercule miror 

Aiebat, si qui eomedunt 6<mo, quum sttobuo 40 

At/ melius turdo, nil vulva pulchrius ampla. 

Nimirum hie ego sum : nam tuta et parvula laudo, 

Ctuum res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis ; 

Verum, ubi quid melius contingit et uncuus, idem 

Vos sapere et solos aio bene vivere, quorum 45 

Conspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia villis. 



Epistola XVI. 

AD dUINCTIUM. 

Ne perconteris, fundus meus, optime Gluincti, 
Arvo pascat herum, an baccis opulentet olivae, 
Pomisne, an pratis, an amicta vitibus ulmo : 
Scribetur tibi forma loquaciter, et situs agri. 
Continui montes, nisi cfissocientur opaca 
Valle ; sed ut veniens dextrum latus adspiciat Sol, 
Laevum decedens curru fugiente vaporet. 
Temperiem laudes. Ctuid, si rubicunda benigni 
Coma vepres et prima ferunt ? si quercus et ilex 
Multa fruge pecus, multa dominum juvat umbra f 
Dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 
Fons etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nee 
Frigidior Thracam nee purior ambiat Hebrus, 
Infirmo capiti fluit utilis, utilis alvo. 



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BFI8TOLARUM LID. 1. 16. 231 

Hae latebrae dulces, et jam, si credis, amoenae, 15 

facolumem tibi me praestant Septembribus horis. 
Tu recte vivis, si curas esse quod audis ; 

Jactamus jampridem omnia te Roma beatum. 

Sed ?ereor, ne cui de te plus, quam tibi credas ; 

Neve putee alium sapiente bonoque beatum ; 20 

Neu, sitepopulus sanum recteque valentem 

Dictitet, occultam febrem sub tempus edendi 

Diaaimules, donee manibus tremor incidat unctis. 

Stultorum incurata pudor malus ulcera celat 

Si quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 25 

Dicat, et his verbis vacuas permulceat aures ; 

Tene magi* saivum populus velit } an populum tu, 

Servtt in ambiguo, qui consulit et tibi et urbi, 

Jupiier : Augusti laudes agnoscere possis. 

Quum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 30 

fiespondesne too, die sodes, nomine ? — Nempe 

Vir bonus et prudens did delector ego ac tu. 

Qui dedit hoc hodie, eras, si volet, auferet ; ut si 

Detulerit fasces indigno, detrahet idem. 

Pone, meum est, inquit ; pono, tristisque recedo. 35 

Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicum, 

Contendat laqueo collum pressisse patemum ; 

Mordear opprobriis felsis, mutemque colores ? 

Fafeus honor juvat et mendax infamia terret 

^uem,nisimendo6umetmedicandum? Vir bonus est quis? — 40 

Qttt consuUa patrum, qui leges juraque servat ; 

Quo mutiae magnaeque secantur judice lites ; 

Quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur.— 

Sed videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota 

Incrorsus turpem, speciosum pelle decora. 4ft 

Mecjurtumfeci, necfugi, a mihi dicat 
Servus : Habes pretiwn, toris non ureris % aio. — 
Abn hormnem occidi. — Non pasces in cruet corvos. — 
Sum bonus etfrugi. — Renuit negitatque SabeHus. 
Cautus enim metuit foveam lupus, accipiterque 50 

23 

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232 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Suspectos laqueos, et opertum miluus hamum. 

Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore : 

Tu nihil admittes in te formidine poenae. 

Sit spes fallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. 

Nam de mille fabae modiis quum surripis unum, 55 

Damnum est, non facinus mihi pacto lenius isto. 

Vir bonus, omne forum quern spectat et omne tribunal, 

duandocunque deos vel porco vel bove placat, 

Jane pater, clare, clare quum dixit Apollo, 

Labra movet metuens audiri : Pulchra Laverna, 60 

Da mihifaUere } dajueto sanctoque videri ; 

JNoctem peccatis ) ctfraudibus objice nubem. 

Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avarus, 
In triviis fixum quum se demit tit ob assem, 
Non video. Nam qui cupiet, metuet quoque ; porro 65 
Qui metuens vivet, liber mihi non erit unquam. 
Perdidit anna, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 
Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 
Vendere quum possis captivum, occidere noli ; 
Serviet utiliter ; sine pascat durus, aretque ; 70 

Naviget ac mcdiis hiemet mercator in undis ; 
Annonae prosit ; portet frumenta penusque. 

Vir bonus et sapiens audebit dicere : PentheUj 
Rector Tkebarum, quid me perferre patique 
Indignum coges ? — JLdimam bona. — wVempe pecti*, r«rt, 7c 
Lectos, argentom ; tollaa licet. — In manicis et 
Compedibus saevo te sub custode tenebo. — 
Ipse deu$ t sitnul atque volam, me solvet. — Opinor, 
Hoc sentit : Moriar ; mora ultima linea rerum eat. 



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BFISTOLARUM LIB. L 17. 235 

Epistola XYDL 

AD SCAEVAM. 

Uuamvis, Scaeva, satis per te tibi consulis, et scis, 

Quo tandem pacto deceat majoribus uti, 

Disce, docendus adhuc quae cenaet amiculus ; ut si 

Caecus iter monstrare velit : tamen aspice, si quid 

Et nos, quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. 5 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam 

Delectat ; si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, 

Si laedit caupona : Ferentinum ire jubebo. 

Nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia sobs, 

Nee vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit. 10 

Si prodesse tuis pauloque benignius ipsum 

Te tractare voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 
Sipranderet olus patienter, rt gibus uti 

Nollet Aristippus. — Sisciret regibusuH, 

FastuUret olus, qui me notat. — Utrius horum 15 

Verba probes et facta, doce ; vel junior audi, 

Cur sit Aristippi potior sententia. Namque 

Mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat, ut aiunt : 

Scurror ego ipse mihi, poptdo tu : rectius hoc et 

Splendidius multo est. Equus ut meportet, alat rex, 2U 

Officiumfacio : tu poscis vilia rerum 

Dante minor, quamvisfers te nullius egentem. 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 
Tentantem majora, fere praesentibus aequum. 
Contra, quern duplici panno patientia velat, 25 

Mirabor, vitae via si conversa decebit. 
Alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum, 
Quidlibet indutus celeberrima per loca vadet, 
Personamque feret non inconcinnus utramque : 
Ahei Mileti textam cane peju* et angui 30 

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234 Q. HORATII FLACC! 

Vitabit chlamydem ; morietur frigore, si non 
Retuleris pannum : refer, et sine vivat ineptus. 

Res gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostes 
Attingit solium Jovis et coelestia tentat. 
Principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est. 
Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum. 
Sedit, qui timuit ne non succederet : esto : 
Quid ? qui pervenit, fecitne viriliter ? Atqui 
Hie est aut nusquam, quod quaerimus : hie onus horret, 
Ut parvis animis et parvo corpore majus ; 
Hie subit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 
Aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens vir. 

Coram rege suo de paupertate tacentes 
Plus poscente ferent. Distat, sumasne pudenter, 
An rapias : atqui rerum caput hoc erat, hie fons. 
Indotata mihi aoror est , pauper cula mater, 
Etjundus nee vendibUU nee pascere firmus, 
Qui dicit, clamat : Victum date. Succinit alter, 
Et mihi dividuo findetur munere quadra. 
Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, haberet 
Plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiacque. 
Brundisium comes aut Surrentum ductus amoenum, 
Ctui queritur salebras et acerbum frigus et imbres, 
Aut cistam effractam aut subducta viatica plorat, 
Nota refert meretricis acumina, saepe catellam, 
Saepe periscelidem raptam sibi flentis : uti mox 
Nulla fides damnis verisque doloribus adsit. 
Nee semel irrisus triviis attollere curat 
Fracto crure planum ; licet illi plurima manet 
Lacrima ; per sanctum juratus dicat Osirm, 
Credite, non ludo ; crudeles tollite claudum ! — 
Quaere peregrinum, vicinia rauca reclamat 



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BFJ8TOLAJLUM LIB. I. 18. 235 

Epistola XVIII. 

AD LOLLIUM. 

Si bene te novi, metues, liberrime Lolli, 
Scurrantis speciem praebere, profeasus amicum. 
(It matrona meretrici dispar erit atque 
Discolor, infido scurrae distabit amicus. 

Est huic diversum vitio vitium prope majus, 5 

Asperitas agrestis et inconcinna gravisque, 
Quae se commendat tonsa cute, dentibus atris, 
Dum vult libertas dici mera, veraque virtus. 
Virtus est medium vitiorum, et utrinque reductum. 
Alter in obsequium plus aequo pronus, et imi 10 

Derisor lecti, sic nutum divitis horret, 
Sic iterat voces, et verba cadentia tollit, 
Ut puerum saevo credas dictata magistro 
Reddere, vel partes mimum tractare secundas : 
Alter rixatur de lana saepe caprina, et 15 

Propugnat nugis armatus ; scilicet, ut non 
Sit miki prima fides , et vere quod placet ut non 
Acritcr elatrem^ pretium aetas altera sordet. 
Ambigitur quid enim % "Castor sciat an Dolichos plus ; 
Brundisium Minuet melius via ducat, an Appt. fcO 

Q-uem danmosa Venus, quern praeceps alea nudat, 
Gloria quern supra vires et vestit et ungit, 
Quem tenet argenti sitis importuna famesque, 
Quern paupertatis pudor et fuga, dives amicus, 
Saepe decern vitiis instructior, edit et horret : 25 

Am, si non odit, regit ; ac, veluti pia mater, 
Plus quam se sapere et virtutibus esse priorem 
Vult : et ait probe vera : M.eae {contendere noli) 
Shdtiliampatiuntur opes ; tibi parvula res est : 
drcta decet sanum comUem toga ; desine mecum 30 

23* 

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286 Q. BOJfcATIi FLACCI 

Certar*. Eutrapelus, cuicunque nocere volebat 
Vestimenta dabat pretiosa : beatus enim jam 
Cum pulchris tunicis sumet nova consilia et spes ; 
Dormiet in lucem ; scorto postponet honestum 
Officium ; nummos alienos pascet ; ad imum 
Threx erit, aut olitoris aget mercede caballum. 

Arcanum neque tu Bcrutaberis illius unquam, 
Commiflsumque teges, et vina tortus et ira. 
Nee tua laudabis studia, aut aliena reprendes ; 
Nee, quum venari volet ille, poemata panges. 
Gratia sic fratrum geminorum, Amphionis atque 
Zethi, dissiluit, donee suspecta severo 
Conticuit lyra. Fraternis cessisse putatur 
M oribus Amphion : tu cede potentis amici 
Lenibus imperils ; quotiesque ediicet in agros 
Aetolis onerata plagis jumenta canesque, 
Surge, et inhumanae senium depone Camenae, 
Ck>enes ut pariter pulmenta laboribus emta ; 
Romanis solenne viris opus, utile famae, 
Yitaeque et membris ; praesertim quum valeas, et 
Yel cursu superare canem vel viribus aprum 
Possis : adde, virilia quod speciosius arma 
Non est qui tractet ; scis, quo clamore coronae 
Proelia sustineas campestria : denique saevam 
Militiam puer et Cantabrica bella tulilti 
Sub duce, qui templis Parthorum signa refigit 
Nunc, et si quid abest, Italia adjudicat armis. 
Ac, ne te retrahas, et inexcusabilis abstes, 
Cluamvis nil extra numerum fecisse modumque 
Curas, interdum nugaris rure patemo : 
Partitur lintres exercitus ; Actia pugna 
Te duce per pueros hostili more refertur ; 
Adversarius est frater ; lacus Hadria ; donee 
Aberutrum velox Victoria fronde cv^ronet. 
Consenure suis studiis qui crediderit te, 
Fautor utroque tuum laudabit polbce ludum. 

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KF1STOLARUM LIB. I. 18. 937 

Protinus ut moneam (si quid monitoris eges tu) 
Q-uid, de quoque viro, et cui dicas, saepe videto. 
Percontatorem fugito : nam garrulus idem est ; 
Nee retinent patulae commiasa fideliter aures ; 70 

Et semel emissum volat inevocabile verbum. 
Non ancilla tuum jecur ulceret ulla puerve 
Intra marmoreum venerandi limen amici ; 
Ne dominus pueri pulchri. caraeve puellae 
Munere te parvo beet, aut incommodus angat. ^ 75 

Qualem commendes, etiam atque etiam adspice ; ne mox 
lncutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. 
Fallimur, et quondam non dignum tradimus : ergo 
Quern sua culpa premet, deceptus omitte tueri ; 
At penitus notum, si tentent crimina, serves, 80 

Tuterisque tuo fidentem praesidio : qui 
Dente Theonino quum circumroditur, ecquid 
Ad te post paulo ventura pericula sentis % 
Nam tua res agitur, paries quum proximus arde* • 
Et neglecta solent incendia sumere vires. 85 

Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici, 
Expertus metuit. Tu, dum tua navis in alto est, 
Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura. 
Oderunt hilarem tristes, tristemque jocosi ; 
Sedatum eeleres, agilem gnavumque remissi ; 90 

Potores bibuli media de nocte Falerni 
Oderunt porrecta negantem pocula, quamvis 
Nocturnos jures te formidare vapores. 
Demesupercilio nubem : plerumque modestus , 
Occupat obscuri speciem, taciturnus acerbi. 96 

Inter cuncta leges et percontabere doctos, 
Qua ratione queas traducere leniter aevum, 
Ne te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido, 
Ne paTor, et rerum mediocriter utilium spes ; 
Yirtutem doctrina paret, naturane donet ; 100 

Quid mmuat curas, quid te tibi reddat amicum ; 

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10f> 



238 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Quid pure tranquipet, honos, an dulce lucellum, 
An secretum iter, et fallenlis semila vitae. 

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, 
Quern Mandela bibit, rugosus fiigore pagus, 
Quid sentire putas ? quid credis, amice, precari ? 
Sit mihi, quod nunc est ; etiam minus : et miki vivam 
Quod superest am, si quid superesse volunt di : 
Sit bona Hbrorum et provisos frugis in annum 
Copia ; neufluUem dubiae spe pendulus korae. 1 10 

Ssd satis est orare Jovem, quae donat et auferi : 
Dei vitam^det opes ; aequum mi animum ipse parabo. 

Epistola XIX. 

AD MAECENATEM. 

Prisco en credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino, 

Nulla placere diu nee vivere carmina possunt 

Quae scribuntur aquae potoribus. Ut male sanos 

Adscripeit liber Satyris Faunisque poetas, 

Vina fere dulces oluerunt mane Camenae. 8 

Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Homerus ; 

Ennius ipse pater nunquam nisi potua ad arma 

Prosiluit dicenda. Forum putealque Libonis 

Mandabo siccis, adimam cantare severis. 

Hoc simul edixi, non cessavere poetae 10 

Nocturno certare mero, putere diurno. 

Quid % si quia vultu torvo ferus, et pede nudo, 
Exiguaque toga, simuletque ex ore Catonem, 
Virtutemne repraesentet moresque Catonis ? 
Rupit Iarbitam Timagenis aemula lingua, io 

Dum studet urbanus, tenditque disertus haberL 
Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile : quod si 
Pallerem casu, biberent exsangue cumin una. 
() imitatores, servum pacus, ut mihi saepe 
Bilem, saepe joe urn vestri movere tumultus ! 20 

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BPI3TOLA.RUM LIB. I. 19. 239 

Libera per vacuum posui vestigia princeps ; 

Non aliena meo pressi pede. Giui sibi fidit 

Dux regit examen. Parios ego primus iambos 

Ostendi Latio, numeros animosque secutus 

Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycamben. 25 

Ac, ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes, 

Quod timui mutare modos et carminis artem : 

Temperat Archilochi musam pede mascula Sappho, 

Temperat Alcaeus ; sed rebus et ordine dispar, 

Nee socerum quaerit, quern versibus oblinat atris, 30 

Nee sponsae laqueum famoso carmine nectit. 

Hunc ego, non afio dictum prius ore, Latinus 

Vulgavi fidicen : juvat immemorata ferentem 

Ingenuis oculisque legi manibusque teneri. 

Scire velis, mea cur ingratus opuscula lector 35 

Laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniquus % 
Non ego ventosae plebis suffragia venor 
Impensis coenarum et tritae munere vestis ; 
Non ego, nobilium scriptorum auditor et ultor, 
Grammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita dignor : 40 

Hinc illae lacrimae ! Spissis indigna theatris 
Scripta pudet recitare, et nugis addere pondus, 
Si dbri : Rides, ait, et Jovis auribus ista 
Servos ; fidis emm manare poitica nulla 
Te solum, Hbi pulcher. Ad haec ego naribus uti 45 

Formido ; et, luctantis acuto ne secer ungui, 
DispUcct isU locus, clamo, et diludia posco. 
Ludus enim genuit trepidum certamen et iram, 
Ira truces inimicitias et funebre bellunou 



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240 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Epistola XX. 

AD UBRUM SUUM. 

Vertumnum Janumque, liber, spectare videris ; 

Scilicet ut prostes Soeiorum pumice mundus. 

Odisti claves, et grata sigilla pudico ; 

Paucis ostendi gemis, et communia laudas ; 

Non ila nutritus I Fuge quo descendere gestis, 5 

Non erit emisso reditus tibL Quid miter egi ? 

Quid volui ? dices, ubi quid te laeserit ; et scia 

In breve te cogi, plenus quum languet amator. 

Quod si non odio peccantis desipit augur, 

Carua eri8 Romae, donee te deserat aetas. 10 

Contrectatus ubi manibus sordescere vulgi 

Coeperis, aut tineas pasces taciturnus inertes, 

Aut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus mittens Uerdam. 

Ridebit monitor non exauditus ; ut ille, 

did male parentem in rupes protrusit asellum 15 

Iratus : quis enim invitum servare laboret % 

Hoc quoque te manet, ut pueros elementa docentem 

Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus. 

Cluum tibi sol tepidus phires admoverit aures, 

Me libertino natum patre, et in tenui re 20 

Majores pennas nido extendisse loqueris : 

Ut, quantum generi demas,' virtutibus addas. 

Me primis Urbis belli placuisse domique, 

Corporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptum, 

Irasci celerem, tamen ut placabilis essem. 25 

Forte meum si quis te percontabitur aevum, 

Me quater undenos sciat implevisse Decembres, 

Collegam Lepidum quo duxit Lollius anno. 



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Q* HORATU FJLACCI 

EP1STOLARUM 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Epistola I. 
AD AUGUSTUM. 



Quum tot sustineas et tanta negotia solus, 

Res Italas armis tuteris, moribus oraes, 

Legibus emendes ; in publica commoda peccem, 

Si longo sermone morer tua tempora, Caesar. 

Romulus, et liber pater, et cum Castore Pollux, 6 

Post ingentia facta deorum in templa recepti, 

Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera bella 

Componunt, agros assignant, oppida condunt, 

PloraFere suis non respondere favorem 

Speratum mentis. Diram qui contudit hydram, 10 

Notaque fatali portenta labore subegit, 

Comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 

Urit enim fulgore suo, qui praegravat artes 

Infra se positas : exstinctus amabitur idem. 

Praesenti tibi matures largimur honores, 15 

Jurahdasque tuum per numen ponimus aras, 

Nil oriturum alias, nil ortum tale fatentes. 

Sed tuus hie populus, sapiens et Justus in uno, * 
Te noetris ducibus, te Graiis anteferendo, 
Cetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque 90 

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30 



249 t* HORATII FLACCI 

Aestimat, et, nisi quae terns semota suisque 
Temporibus defuncta videt, fastidit et edit : 
Sic fautor veterum, ut tabulas peccare vetantes, 
Quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt, foedera reguxn 
Vel Gabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabinis, 
Pontificum libroe, annosa volumina vatum, 
Dictitet Albano Musas in monte locutas. 

Si, quia Graiorum sunt antiquissima quaeque 
Scripta vel optima, Romani pensantur eadem 
Scriptores trutina, non est quod multa loquamur : 
Nil intra est olea, nil extra est in nuce duri. 
Venimus ad summum fortunae : pingimus atque 
Psallimus, et luctamur Achivis doctius unctis. 

Si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit, 
Scire velim, pretium chartis quotus arroget annus. 35 

Scriptor abhinc annos centum qui decidit, inter 
Perfectos veteresque referri debet ? an inter 
Viles atque novos ? excludat jurgia finis. — 
Est veins atque profau, centum qui perficit annos. — 
Quid ? qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno, 40 

Intor quos referendus erit 1 veteresne poetas ? 
An quos et praesens et postera respuat aetas ? — 
hit qtridem veteres inter ponetur honeste, 
Qui vel mense brevi vel Mo est junior anno. — 
Utor permisso, caudaeque pilos ut equinae, 45 

Paulatim vello, et demo unum, demo et item unum, 
Dum cadat elusus ratione ruentis acervi, 
Clui redit in fastoe, et virtutem aestimat annis, 
Miraturque nihil, nisi quod Libitina sacra vit 

Ennius, et sapiens et fortis, et alter Homerus, 50 

Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur, 
Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pjthagorea. 
Naevius imnanibus non est, et mentibus haeret 
Paene recens ? adeo sanctum est vetus omne poema. 
Ambigitur quoties uter utro sit priot ; aufert 55 

Pacuvius dooti famam senis, Accius alti : 

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BP18TOLARUM LIB. II. I. 249 

Dicitur Afranl toga convenisse Menandro ; 

Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi ; 

Vincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. 

Hoe ediscit, et has arcto stipata theatro 60 

Spectat Roma potens, habet hos numeratque pofitaa 

Ad nostrum tempus Livl scriptoris ab aevo. 

Interdum vulgus rectum videt ; est ubi peccat 
Si veteres ita miratur laudatque poetas, 
Ut nihil anteferat, nihil illis comparet, errat : 05 

Si quaedam nimis antique, si pleraque dure 
Dicere cedit eos, ignave multa fatetur, 
Et sapit, et mecum fecit, et Jove judicat aequo. 

Non equidem insector delendave carmina Livl 
Esse reor, memim' quae plagosum mihi parvo 70 

Orbilium dictare \ sed emendata videri 
Pulchraque et exactis minimum distantia miror. 
Inter quae verbum emicuit si forte decorum^ 
8i versus paulo concinnior unus et alter, 
Injuste totum ducit venditque poema. 75 

Indignor quidquam repfehendi, non quia crasse 
Compositum illepideve putetur, sed quia nuper ; 
Nee veniam antiquis, sed hondrem et praemia posci. 
Rectenecne crocum floresque perambulet Attae 
Fabula si dubitem, clament periisse pudorem 80 

Cuncti paene patres, ea quum reprehendere coner, 
Quae gravis Aesopus, quae doctus Roscius egit : 
Vel quia nil rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, due ant ; 
Vel quia turpe putant parere minoribus, et, quae 
Imberbi didicere, senes perdenda feteri. 85 

Jam Saliare Numae carmen qui laudat, et illud, 
Quod mecum ignorat, solus vult scire videri : 
tngeniis non ille favet plauditque sepultis, 
Nostra sed impugnat, nos nostraque lividus odit. 
Quod si tarn Graiis novitas invisa fuisset, 90 

Quam nobis, quid nunc esset vetus ? aut quid haberet, 
Quod legeret tereretque viritim publicus usus ! 
34 



244 4. HORATII FLACCI 

Ut primum positis nugari Qraecia bellis 
Coepit, et in vitium fortuna labier aequa, 
Nunc athletanim studiis, nunc arsit equorum ; 95 

Marmoris aut eboris fabros aut aeris amavit j 
Suspendit picta vultum mentemque tabella ; 
Nunc tibicinibus, nunc est gavisa tragoedis : 
Bub nutrice puella velut si hideret infans, 
Quod cupide petiit, mature plena reliquit. 100 

Q,qid placet aut odio est, quod non mutabile credas % 
Hoc paces habuere bonae ventique secundi. 

Romae dulce diu fuit et solenne, reclusa 
Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura, 
Cautos nominibus rectis expendere nummoe, 105 

Majores audire, minori dicere, per quae 
Crescere res posset, minui damnosa libido. 
Mutavit mentem populus levis, et calet uno 
Scribendi studio : puerique patresque seven 
Fronde comas vincti coenant, et carmina dictant 1 10 

Ipse ego, qui nullos me affirmo schbere versus, 
Invenior Parthis mendacior ; et, prius orto 
Sole vigil, calamum et chartas et scrinia posco. 
Navim agere ignarus navis timti ; abrotonum aegro 
Non audet, nisi qui didicit, dare : quod medicorum est 115 
Promittunt medici ; tractant fabrilia fabri : 
Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 

Hie error tamen, et levis haec insania, quanta* 
Virtutes habeat, sic collige : vatis a varus 
Non temere est animus ; versus amat, hoc studet unum ; 120 
Detrimenta, iugas servorum, incendia ridet ; 
Non fraudem socio, puerove incogitat ullam 
Pupillo ; vivit siliquis et pane secundo. 
Militiae quamquam piger et malus, utilis urbi ; 
Si das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna juvari. 125 

Ob tenerum pueri balbumque poeta flgurat ; 
Torquet ab obscoenis jam nunc sermonibus aurem, 
Mox etiam pectus praeceptis format amicis, 

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BPISTOLARUM LIB. II. 1. 245 

Asperitatis et invidiae corrector et irae ; 

Recte facta refert ; orientia tempora notis 130 

Instruit exemplis ; inopem solatur et aegmm. 

Castis cum pueris ignara puella mariti 

Disceret unde preces, vatem ni Musa dedisset 1 

Poscit opem chorus, et praesentia numina sentit ; 

Coelestes implorat aquas, docta prece blandus 135 

Avertit morbos, metuenda pericula pellit ; 

Impetrat et pacem, et locupletem frugibus annum. 

Carmine dt superi placantur, carmine manes. 
Agricolae prisci, fortes, parvoque bead, 

Condita post thimenta, levantes tempore festo 140 

Corpus, et ipsum animum spe finis dura ferentem, 

Cum sociis operum, pueris, et conjuge fida, 

Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, 

Fbribus et vino Genium, memorem brevis aevi 

Fescennina per hunc invecta licentia morem 145 

Versibus altcrnis opprobria rustica fudit ; 

Libertasque recurrentes accepta per annos 

Lusit amabiKter, donee jam saevus apertam 

In rabiem verti coepit jocus, et per honestas 

Ire domos impune rninax. Doluere cruento 150 

Dente lacessiti ; fuit intactis quoque Cura 

Conditione super communi ; quin etiam lex 

Poenaque lata, malo quae nollet carmine quemquam 

Describi. Vertere modum, formidine fustis 

Ad bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. 155 

Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes 
Intulit agresti Latio : sic horridus ille 
Defluxit numerus Saturnius ; et grave virus 
Munditiae pepulere : sed in longum tamen aevum 
Manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruris. 160 

Serus enim Graecis admovit acumina chartis ; 
Et post Punica bella quietus quaerere coepit, 
Quid Sophocles et Thespis et Aeschylus utile ferrent 
Tentavit quoque rem, si digne vertere posset ; 

* 



246 <l HOR1TII FL1CCI 

Et placuit sibi, natura eublimis et acer ; 165 

Nam spirat tragicum satis, et feliciter audet ; 
Sed turpem putat inscite metuitque lituram. 

Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere 
Sudoris minimum, sed habet Comoedia lanto 
Plus oneris, quanto veniae minus. Adspice, Plautus 170 
Quo pacto partes tutetur amautis ephebi ; 
Ut patris attenti ; lenonis ut insidiosi : 
Quantus sit Dossennus edacibus in parasitis ; 
Q,uam non adstricto percurrat pulpita socco. 
Gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere, post hoc 175 
Securus, cadat an recto stet tabula talo. 
Q,uem tulit ad scenam ventoso Gloria curru, 
Exanimat lentus spectator, sedulus inflat. 
Sic leve, sic parvum est, animum quod laudis avarum 
Submit ac reficit. Valeat res ludicra, si me ISO 

Palma negata macrum, donata reducit opimum. 

Saepe etiam audacem fugat hoc terretque poetam. 
Quod numero plures, virtute et honore minores, 
Indocti stolidique, et depugnare parati, 
Si discordet eques, media inter carmina poscunt 1S5 

Aut ursum aut pugiles : his nam plebecula gaudet. 
Verum equitis quoque jam migravit ab aure voluptaa 
Omnia ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. 
Quatuor aut plures aulaea premuntur in horas, 
Dum rugiunt equitum turmae peditumque catervae ; 190 
Mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis ; 
Esseda festinant, pilenta, petorrita, naves ; 
CapuVum portatur ebur, captiva Corinthus. 

Si foret in terris, rideret Democritus ; seu 
Diversum confusa gerus panthera camelo, 1 95 

Sive elephas albus vulgi converteret ora : 
Spectaret populum ludis attentius ipsis, 
Ut sibi praebentem mimo spectacula plura. 
Scriptores autem narrare putaret asello 
Fabellam surdo. Nam quae pervincere voces 200 

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BPISTOLARUM LIB. II. 1. 247 

Evaluere sonum, referunt quern nostra theatra 1 

Garganum mugire putes nemus, ant mare Tuscum : 

Tanto cum strepitu ludi spectantur, et artes, 

Divitiaeque peregrinae ; quibus oblitus actor 

Quum stetit in scena, concurrit dextera laevae. 205 

Dixit adhuc aliquid ? — Nil sane. — Quid placet ergo ? — 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Ac ne forte putes, me, quae facere ipse recusem, 
Cluum recte tractent alii, laudare maligne ; 
Hie per externum funem mihi posse videtur 210 

Ire poeta : meum qui pectus inaniter angit, 
Irritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus implet," 
Ut magus, et modo me Thebis, modo ponit Athenis. 
Yerum age, et his, qui se lectori credere malunt, 
Quam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi, 215 

Curam redde brevem, si munus Apolline dignum 
Vis complere libris, et vatibus addere calcar, 
* Ut studio majore petant Helicona virentem. 

Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saepe poetae, 
(Ut vineta egomet caedam mea) quum tibi librum 220 

SoDicito damus aut fesso ; quum laedimur, unum 
Si quia amicorum est ausus reprendere versum ; 
Cluum loca jam recitata revolvimus irrevocati ; 
Quum lamentamur, non apparere labores 
Nostros, et tenui deducta poemata filo ; 225 

Quum speramus eo rem venturam, ut simul atque 
Carmina rescieris nos fingere, commodus ultro 
Arcessas, et egere vetes, et scribere cog as. 
Sed tamen est operae pretium cognoscere, quales 
Aedituos habeat belli spectata domique 230 

Virtus, indigno non committenda poetae. 
Gratus Alexandra regi Magno fuit ille 
Choerilus, incultis qui vereibus et male natis 
Retulit acceptos, regale numisma, Philippos. 
Sed veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt 235 

Atramenta, fere scriptores carmine foedo 
24* 



248 <i. HORATII FLAOCI 

Splendida facta linunt. Idem rex ille, poema 

Qui tarn ridiculum tarn care prodigus emit, 

Edicto vetuit, ne quia se, praeter Apellem, 

Pingeret, aut alius Lysippo duceret aera 240 

Fortis Alexandri vultum simulantia. Quod si 

Judicium subtiJe videndis artibus illucl 

Ad libros et ad haec Musarum dona vocares, 

Boeottlm in crasso jurares aere natum. 

At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia, atque 245 

Munera, quae multa dantis cum laude tulerunt, 
Dilecti tibi Virgilius Variusque poetae ; 
Nee magis expressi vultus per aenea signa, 
Quam per vatis opus mores animique virorum 
Glarorum apparent Nee sermones ego raallem 250 

Repentes per humum, quam res componere gestas ; 
Terrarumque situs et flumina dicere, et arces 
Montibus impositas, et barbara regna, tuisqua 
Auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem, 
Claustraque custodem paci3 cohibentia Janum, 255 

Et formidatam Parthis te principe Romam ; 
Si, quantum cuperem, possem quoque. Sed neque parvuai 
Carmen majestas recipit tua, nee meus audet 
Rem tentare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. 
Sedulitas autem stulte, quern diligit, urguet, '260 

Praecipue quum se numeris commendat et arte : 
Discit enim citius meminitque libentius illud, 
Quod quis deridet, quam quod probat et veneratur. 
.Nil moror omcium quod me gravat, ac neque ficto 
In pejus vultu proponi cereus usquam, 265 

Nee prave factis decorari versibus opto : 
Ne rubeam pingui donatus munere, et una 
Cum scriptore meo, capsa porrectus aperta, 
Deferar in vicum vendentem thus et ordores 
Et piper et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis. 270 



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EPI3TOLARUM LIB. II. 2. 249 

Epistola II. 

AD JULIUM FLORUM. 

Flore, bono claroque fidelis amice Neroni, 

Si quis forte velit puerum tibi vendere, natum 

Tibure vel Gabiis, et tecum sic agat : Hie et 

Candidas, et tcdos a vertice pulcher ad imos } 

Fiet eritque tuus nwnmorum millibus octo, 5 

Verna ministeriis ad nutus aptus heriles, 

IMeruUs Graecis imbutus, idoneus arti 

CtsMbct, argiUa quidvis imitaberis uda ; 

Qtttn eiiam canet indoctum, sed duke tribenti. 

Muttajidem promissa levant, ubi plenius aequo 10 

Laudat venales, qui vult extrudere, merces. 

Res urguet me nulla ; meo sum pauper in aere : 

Nemo hoc mangonum facer et tibi ; non tenure a me 

Qukis ferret idem : semel hie cessavit, et, utjit, 

In scalis latuit metuens pendentis habenae. 15 

Dts nummos, excepta nihil te sifuga laediL 

Me ferat pretium, poenae securus, opinor. 

Prudens emisti vitiosum ; dicta tibi est lex : 

tosequeris tamen hunc, et lite moraris iniqua. 

Dixi me pigrura proficiscenti tibi, dixi 20 

Talibus officiis prope mancum ; ne mea saevus 
Jurgares ad te quod epistola nulla veniret. 
Quid turn profeci, mecum facientia jura 
Si tamen attentas 1 Q,uereris super hoc etiam, quod 
Exspectata tibi non mittam carmina mendax. 25 

Luculli miles collecta viatica multis 
Aerumnis, lassus dam noctu stertit, ad assem 
Perdiderat : post hoc vehemens lupus, et sibi et hosti 
Iiatus pariter, jejunis dentibus acer, 
Praesddium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt, 30 

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250 a. HOR1TII PLACC1 

Summe munito et multarum divite rerutn. 

Claras ob id factum, donis ornatur honestis ; 

Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum. 

Forte sub hoc temp us castellum evertere praetor 

Nescio quod cupiens, hortari coepit eundem 35 

Verbis, quae timido quoque possent addere mentem '. 

/, bone, quo virtus tua it vocat. I ptde fausto, 

Grandia laturus meriiorurn praemia ! Quid stcu ? 

Post haec ille catus, quantum vis rusticus, Ibit, 

[bit to quo vis, qui zonam perdidit, inquit. 40 

Romae nutriri mihi contigit atque doceri 
Iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Achilles : 
Adjecere bonae paulo plus artis Athenae ; 
Scilicet ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum, 
Atque inter silvas Academi quaerere verum. 45 

Dura sed emovere loco me tempore, grato, 
Civilisque rudem belli tulit aestus in arma, 
Caesaris Augusti non responsura lacertis. 
Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi, 
Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque paterni 50 

Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax 
Ut versus facerem : sed, quod non desit, habentem 
Quae poterunt unquam satis expurgare cicutae, 
Ni melius dormire putem quam scribere versus 1 

Singula de nobis anni praedantur euntes ; 55 

Eripuere jocos, Venerem, convivia, ludum ; 
Tendunt extorquore pofcmata : quid faciam vis % 
Denique non omnes eadem mirantur amantque : 
Carmine tu gaudes ; hie delectatur iambis ; 
llle Bioneis sormonibus et sale nigro. 60 

TVas mihi convivae prope dissentire videntur, 
Poscentes vario multum di versa palato. 
Quid dem 7 quid non dem ? Renuis quod tu, jubet alter ; 
Quod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobus. 

Praeter cetera, me Romaene poemata censes 65 

Scribere posse, inter tot curas totque labores ? 

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E PISTOL ARUM LIB. II. 2. 251 

Ilic sponsum vocat, hie auditum scripta relictis 
Omnibus officiis ; cubat hie in colle Quirini, 
Hie extremo in Aventino ; visendus uterque : 
Intervalla vides humane commoda. — Verum 70 

Purae sunl platcae, nihil ut medilantibw obstet. — 
Festinat calidus mulis gerulisque redemtor ; 
Torquet nunc lapidem, nunc ingens machina tignum : 
Tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustria ; 
Hac rabiosa fugit canis, hac lutulenta ruit sua : 75 

I nunc, et versus tecum meditare canoros. 
Scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus, et fugit urbes, 
Kite cliens Bacchi, somno gaudentis et umbra. 
Tu me inter strepitus nocturnos atque diurnos 
Vis canere, et contacta sequi vestigia vatum % 80 

Ingenium, sibi quod vacuas desumsit Athenas, 
Et studiis annos septem dedit, insenuitque 
Libris et curis, statua tacitumius exit 
Plerumque, et risu populum quatit : hie ego rerum 
Fluctibus in mediis, et tempestatibus urbis, 85 

Verba lyrae motura sonum connectere digner % 
Auctor erat Romae consulto rhetor, ut alter 
Alterius sermone meros audiret honores ; 
Gracchus ut hie illi foret, huic ut Mucius ille. 
Clul minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas % 90 

Carmina compono, hie elegos ; mirabile visu 
Caelatumque novem Musis opus ! Adspice primum, 
Q-uanto cum fastu, quanto molimine circum- 
Spectemus vacuam Romanis vatibus aedem ! 
Mox etiam, si forte vacas, sequere, et procul audi, 95 

Q.uid ferat et quare sibi nectat uterque coronam. 
Caedimur, et totidem plagis consumimus hostem, 
Lento Samnites ad lumina prima duello. 
Discedo Alcaeus puncto Qlius : ille meo quis % 
Q,uis, nisi Callimachus ? si plus adpoacere visus, 100 

Fit Mimnermus, et optivo cognomine crescit. 
Multa fero, ut placem genus irritabile vatum, 

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252 Q. HORATIl FLACCI 

Quum scribo, et supplex populi suffragia capto : 

Idem, finitis studiis et mente recepta, 

Obturem patulas impune legentibus aures. 10* 

Ridentur mala qui coraponunt carmina : verum 

Gaudent scribentes, et se venerantur, et ultro, 

Si taceas, laudant quidquid scripsere, beati. 

At qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poe'ma, 
Cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honesti ; 1 10 

Audebit quaecunque parum splendoris habebunt, 
Et sine pondere erunt, et honore indigna ferentur, 
Verba movere loco, quamvis invita recedant, 
Et versentur adhuc intra penetralia Vestae. 
Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet, atque 1 15 

Proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum, 
Quae, priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegis, 
Nunc situs informis premit et deserta vetustas : 
Adsciscet nova, quae genitor produxerit usus. 
Vehemens et liquidus, puroque simillimus amni, 120 

Fundet opes, Latiuraque beabit divite lingua. 
Luxuriantia compescct, nimis aspera sano 
Levabit cultu, virtute carentia toilet : 
Ludentis speciem dabit, et torquebitur, ut qui 
Nunc Satyrum nunc agrestem Cjclopa movelur. 125 

Praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, 
Dum mea delectent mala me, vel denique fallant, 
Quam sapere et ringi. Fuit haud ignobilis Argia, 
Qui se credebat miros audire tragoedos, 
In vacuo laetus sessor plausorque theatro ; 130 

Cetera qui vitae servaret munia recto 
More ; bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 
Comis in uxorcm, posset qui ignoscere servia, 
Et signo laeso non insanire lagenae ; 
Posset qui rupem et puteum vitare pa ten tern. 135 

Hie ubi cognatorum opibus curisque refectus 
Expulit elleboro morbum bilemque ineraco, 
Et redit ad sese : Pol, me occidistis, amici, 

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EPISTOLARUM LIB. II. 2. 253 

Non servastis, ait, ciri sic extorta voluntas, 

£t demtus pretium mentis gratissimus error. 140 

Nimirum sapere est abjectis utile nugis, 
Et tempestivum pueris concedere ludum ; 
Ac non verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latinis, 
Sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae. 
Quocirca raecum loquor haec, tacitusque recordor : 145 

Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphae, 
Narrares medicis : quod, quanto plura parasti, 
Tanto plura cupis, nulline faterier audes ? 
Si vulnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba 
Nan fieret levius, fugeres radice vel herba 150 

Proficiente nihil curarier. Audieras, cui 
Rem dl donarent, illi decedere pravam 
Stultttiam ; et, quum sis nihilo aapientior, ex quo 
Pleniores, tamen uteris monitoribus tsdem % 
At si divitiae prudentem reddere possent, 9 155 

Si cupidum timidumque minus te ; nempe ruberes, 
Viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. 

Si proprium est, quod quis libra mercatus et aere est, 
Quaedam, si credis consultis, mancipat usus : 
Qari te pascit ager, tuus est ; et villicus Orbt ICO 

Quum segetes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas, 
Te dominum sentit : das nummos, aceipis uvam, 
Pullos, ova, cadum temeti : nempe modo isto 
Paulatim mercaris:agrum, fortasse treoentis, 
Aut etiam supra, nummorum millibus emtum. 165 

Quid refert, vivas numerate nuper an ofim ? 
Emtor Aricini quondam Veientis et arvi 
Emtum coenat olus, quamvis aliter putat ] emtis 
Sub noctem gelidam lignis calefactat aenum ; 
Sed vocat usque suum, qua populus adsita certis 170 

Limitibus vicina refugit jurgia ; tanquam 
Sit proprium quidquam, puncto quod mobilis home, 
Nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc morte supremo, 
Permutet dominoe et cedat in altera jura. 

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254 ^. HORATII FLACC1 

Sic, quia perpetuus nulli datur usus, et heres 175 

Heredem alterius velut unda supervenit undam, 
Quid vici prosunt aut horrea 1 Quidve Calabria 
Saltibus adjecti Lucani, si metit Orcus 
Grandia cum parvis, non exorabilis auro % 
Gammas, marmor, ebur, Tvrrhena sigilla, tabellas, ISO 

Argentum, vestas Gaetulo murice tinctas, 
Sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere. 
Cur alter fratrum cessare et ludere et ungi 
Praeferat Herodis palinetis pinguibus ; alter, 
Dives et importunus, ad umbram lucis ab ortu 185 

Silvestrem flammis et ferro mitiget agrum, 
Scit Genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum, 
Naturae deus humanae, mortalis in unum- 
Quodque caput, vultu mutabilis, albus et ater. 
' Utar, et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo 190 

Tollam ; nee metuam, quid de me judicet heres, 
Quod non plura datis invenerit : et tamen idem 
Scire volam, quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti 
Discrepet, et quantum discordet parcus avaro. 
Distat enim, spargas tua prodigus, an neque sumtum 19^ 
Invitus facias neque plura parare labores, 
Ac potius, puer ut festis quinquatribus olim, 
Exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim. 
Pauperies immunda procul procul absit : ego, utrum 
Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et idem. 200 

Non agimur tumidis velis aquilone secundo ; 
Non tamen adversis aetatem ducimus austris ; 
Viribus, ingenio, specie, virtute, loco" re, 
Extremi primorum, extremis usque priores. 

Non es a varus : abi. Quid % cetera jam simul isto 205 
Cum vitio fugere % caret tibi pectus inani 
Ambitione ? caret mortis formidine et ira ? 
Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides % 
Natales grate numeras ? ignoscis amicis ? 210 

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ZPI8T0LARUM LIB. II. 2. 255 

Lenior et melior fis accedente senecta % 

Quid te exemta levat spinis de pluribus una 1 

Vivere si recte nescis, decede peritis. 

Lusisti eatis, edisti satis, atque bibisti ; 

Tempus abire tibi est ; *ne potum largius aequo 21 5 

Rideat et puket laeciva decentius aetas. 



<T..L 



25 

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Q. HORATn FI.ACCI 

EPISTOLA AD PISONES. 



Huinano capiti cervicem pictor equinam 

Jungere si velit, et varias inducere plumas 

Undique collatis membris, ut turpiter atrum 

Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne, 

Spectatum admissi risum teneatis, amici % 5 

Credite, Pisones, isti tabulae fore librum 

Peramilem, cujus, velut aegri somnia, vanae 

FSngentur species ; ut nee pes, nee caput uni 

Reddatur formae. — Pictoribua alque poHis 

QmdUbtt audendi semper fvdt aequa poteslas. — 10 

Scimus, et hanc veniam petimusque damusque vicissim : 

Bed non ut placidis coeant immitia : non ut 

Serpentes avibus geminentur, tigribus agni. 

Inceptb gravibus plerumque et magna profe&sis 
Purpureus, late qui splendeat, unus et alter 15 

Assuitur pannus ; quum lucus et ara Dianae, 
Et properantis aquae per amoenos ambitus agros, 
Am flumen Rhenum, aut pluvius describitur arcus. 
Sed nunc non erat his locus. Et fortasse cupressum 
Scis simulare : quid hoc, si fractis enatat exspes 20 

Navibus, aere dato qui pingitur ? Amphora coepit 
Institui ; currente rota cur urceus exit % 
Denique sit quidvis, simplex duntaxat et unum. 

Maxima parsvatum, pater et juvenes patre digni, 
Decipimur specie recti. Brevis esse laboro, 25 

Obscurus no ; sectantem lenia nervi 
Deficiunt animique ; professus grandia turget ; 

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258 Q. HORATII FLACCI 

Serpit humi tutus irimium<imidusque procellae ; 

Qui variare cupit rem prodigialiter unam, 

Delphinum silvis appingit, fluctibus aprum. 30 

In vitium ducit culpae fuga, si caret arte. 

Aemilium circa ludum faber unus et ungues 
Exprimet, et molles imitabitur aere capillos, 
Infelix operis summa, quia ponere totum 
Nesciet. Hunc ego me, si quid componere curem, 35 

Non magis esse velim, quam naso vivere pravo, 
Spectandum nigris oculis nigroque capillo. 

Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitis, aequam 
Viribus, et versate diu, quid ferre recusent, 
Quid valeant humeri. Cui lecta potenter erit res, 40 

Nee facundia deseret hunc, nee lucidus ordo. 

Ordinis haec virtus erit et Venus, aut ego fallor, 
Ut jam nunc dicat jam nunc debentia dici, 
Pleraque differat et praesens in tempus omittaL 

In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis, 45 

Hoc amet, hoc spemat promissi carminis auctor. 
Dixeris egregie, notum si callida verb am 
Reddiderit juncture, novum. Si forte necesse est 
Indiciis monstrare recentibus abdita rerum, 
Pingere cinctutis non exaudita Cethegis 50 

Continget, dabiturque licentia sumta pudenter. 
Et nova factaque nuper habebunt verba fidem, si 
Graeco fonte cadant, parce detorta. Quid autem 
Caecilio Plautoque dabit Romanus, ademtum 
Virgilio Varioque ? Ego cur, acquirere pauca 55 

Si possum, invideor, quum lingua Catonis et Enni 
Sermonem patrium ditavent, et nova rerum 
Nomina protulerit ? Licuit, semperque licebit, 
Signatum praesente nota procudere nomen. 
Ut ailvae, foliis pronos mutantis in annos, 50 

Prima cadunt : ita verborum vetus intent aetas, 
Et juvenum ritu florent modo nata vigentque, 
Debemur morti nos nostraque j sive f recepto 

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EPISTOLA AD FISOlTES. S59 

Terra Neptuno, classes aquilonibus arcet 

Regis opus ; sterilisve diu palus aplaque remis 65 

Yicinas urbes alit, et grave sentit aratrum ; 

Seu cursum mutavit iniquum fhigibus amnis, 

Doctus iter melius. Mortalia facta peribunt : 

Nedum sermonum stet honos et gratia vivax. 

Multa renascentur quae jam cecidere, cadentque 70 

Quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus, 

Quern penes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi 
Res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella 

Quo scribi possent numero, monstravit Homerus. 

Veraibus impariter junctis querimonia primum, 75 

Post etiam inclusa est voti sententia compos. 

Quis tamen exiguos elegos emiserit auctor, 

Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judice lis est. 

Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo. 

Hunc socci cepere pedem grandesque cothurni, 80 

Alternis aptum sermonibus, et populares 

Vincentem strepitus, et natum rebus agendis. 

Musa dedit fidibus divos, puerosque deorum, 

Et pugilem victorem, et equum certamine primum, 

Et ju venum curas, et libera vina referre. 85 

Descriptas servare vices operumque colores, 
Cur ego, si nequeo ignoroque, poSta salutor % 
Cur nescire, pudens prave, quam discere malo 1 
Vendbus exponi tragicis res comica non vult : 
Indignatur item privatis, ac prope socco 90 

Dignis carminibus narrari coena Thyestae. 
Singula quaeque locum teneant sortita decenter. 
Interdum tamen et vocem Comoedia tollit, 
Jxatusque Chremes tumido delitigat ore : 
Et tragicus plerumque dolet sermone pedestri. 95 

Telephus et Peleus, quum pauper et exsul, uterque 
Projicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba, 
& cor spectantis curat tetigisse querela. 

25* 

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200 <l. HOEATII FLACC1 

Non satis est pulchra esse poemata ; dulcia sunto, 



100 



Et quocunque volent, animum auditoris agunto. 

Ut ridentibus arrident, ita flentibus afflent 

Humani vultus. Si vis me flere, dolendum est 

Primum ipsi libi ; tunc tua me infortunia laedent, 

Telephe vel Peleu. Male si mandata loqueris, 

Aut dormitabo aut hdebo. Tristia moestum 105 

Vultum verba decent ; iratum plena minarum ; „ 

Ludentem lasciva ; severum seria dictu. 

Format enim natura prius nos intus ad omnem 

Fortunarum habitum ; juvat, aut impellit ad irani, 

Aut ad humum moerore gravi deducit et angit ; 110 

Post effert animi motus interprete lingua. 

Si dicentis erunt fortunis absona dicta, 

Romani tollent equites peditesque cachinnum. 

Intererit multum, divusne loquatur an heros ; 
Maturusne senex an adhuc florente juventa 1 15 

Fervidus ; et matrona potens an sedula nutrix ; 
Mercatorne vagus cultorne virentis agelli ; 
Colchus an Assjrius ; Thebis nutritus an Argis. 

Aut famam sequere, aut sibi convenientia finge, 
Scriptor. Honoratum si forte reponis Achillem ; 120 

Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer, 
Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget armis. 
Sit Medea ferox invictaque, flebilis Ino, 
Perfidus Ixion, Io vaga, tristis Orestes. 
Si quid inexpertum scenae committis, et audes 125 

Personam formare novam, servetur ad imum 
Clualis ab incepto processerit, aut sibi constet. 
Difficile est proprie communia dicere : tuque 
Rectius Iliacum carmen diducis in actus, 
Ctuam si proferres ignota indictaque primus. 130 

Publica materies privati juris erit, si 
Nee circa vilem patulumque moraberis orbem ; 
Nee verbum verbo curabis reddere fidua 

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EPI8TOLA AD PHONES. 26} 

Interpres ; nee desiUes imitator in arctum, 

Undo pedem profane pudor vetet aut opens lex, 135 

Nee sic incipies, ut scriptor cychcus olim : 
Fortonam Priami cantabo et nobile bcUwn. 
duid dignum tanto feret hie promissor hiatu % 
Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. 
Quanta rectius hie, qui nil molitur inepte : 140 

Die ntt'At, JVftcta, wrum, captaepost tempora Trojac, 
Qut marts fwminum multorum vidit et urbes. 
Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucen? 
Cogitat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat, 
Antiphaten, Scyllamque, et cum Cyclope Charybdin. 145 
Nee reditum Diomedis ab interitu Meleagri, 
Nee gemino bellum Trojanum orditor ab ovo. 
Semper ad eventum festinat, et in mediae res, 
Non secus ac notas, auditprem rapit, et quae 
Despexat tractata nitescere posse, relinquit ; 150 

Atqueita mentitur, sic veris falsa remiscet, 
Primo ne medium, medio ne discrepet imum. 

Tu, quid ego et populus mecum desideret, audi. 
Si fautoris eges aulaea manentia, et usque 
Bessuri, donee cantor, Vo$plaudile, dicat : 155 

Aetata cujusque notandi Bunt tibi mores, 
Mobilibusque decor naturis dandus et annis. 
Reddere qui voces jam scit puer, et pede certo 
Bignat humum, gestit paribus colludere, et iram 
ColKgit ac ponit temere, et mutatur in horas. 160 

Imberbus juvenis, tandem custode remote, 
Gaudet equis canibusque et aprici gramine campi ; 
Cereus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper, 
I'tiKum tardus provisor, prodigus aeris, 
SubKmis, cupidusque, et amata relinquere pernix. 165 

Conversis studiis aetas animusque virilis 
Quaerit opes et amicitias, inservit honori, 
Commisiase oavet, quod mox mutare laboret. 
Uulta senem ciroumveniunt incommoda ; vel quod 

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262 Q. HORATII fLAOCl 

tluaerit, et in vends miser abstinet, ac timet uti ; 170 

Vel quod res omnes timide gelideque ministrat, 
Dilator, spe longus, iners, avidusque futuri 
Difficilis, querulus, laudator temporis acti 
Se puero, castigator censorque minorum. 
Multa ferunt anni venientes comraoda secum, 175 

v Multa recedentes adimunt. Ne forte seniles 
Mandentur juveni partes, pueroque viriles ; 
Semper in adjunctis aevoque morabimur aptis. 

Aut agitur res in scenis, aut acta refertur. 
Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem, 180 

Q,uam quae sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quae 
Ipse sibi tradit spectator. Non tamen intus 
Digna geri promes in scenam ; multaque tolles 
Ex oculis, quae mox narret facundia praesens. 
Ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidet ; 185 

Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus ; 
Aut in avem Progne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem. 
Cluodcunque ostendis mini sic, incredulus odi. 

Neve minor neu sit quinto productior actu 
Fabula, quae posci vult et spectata reponi : 190 

Nee deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incident : nee quarta loqui persona laboret. 

Actoris partes Chorus officiumque virile 
Defendat ; neu quid medios intercinat actus, 
Quod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 195 

Ille bonis faveatque et consilietur amice, 
Et regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentes : 
Ille dapes laudet mensae brevis ; ille salubrem 
Justitiam; legesque, et apertis otia portis : 
Ille tegat commissa, deosque precetur et oret, 200 

Ut redeat miseris, abeat Fortuna superbis. 

Tibia non, ut nunc, orichalco vincta, tubaeque 
Aemula, sed tenuis simplexque foramine pauco 
Adspirare et adesse Choris erat utilis, atque 
Nondum spissa nimis complere sedilia flatu ; 201 

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KP18TOLA AD PHONES. 263 

Quo sane populus numerabilis, utpote parvus, 

Et firugi castusque verecundusque coibat. 

Postquam coepit agros extenders victor, et urbem 

Latior amplecti mums, vinoque diumo , 

Placari Genius festis impune diebus, 21 

Accessit numerisque modisque licentia major. 

Indoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum 

Rusticus, urbano confusus, turpis honesto ? 

Sic priscae motumque et luxuriem addidit arti 

Tibicen. traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem : 215 

Sic etiam fidibus voces crevere sevens, 

Et tulit eloquium insolitum facundia praeceps ; 

Utiliumque sagax rerum, et divina iuturi, 

Sortilegis non discrepuit sententia Delphis. 
Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum, 220 

Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit, et asper 

Incolumi gravitate jocum tentavit, eo quod 

Hlecebris erat et grata novitate morandus 

Spectator, functusque sacris, et potus, et exlex. 

Verum ita risores, ita commendare dicaces 225 

Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria ludo ; 

Nc, quicunque deus, quicunque adhibebitur heros, 

Regali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro, 

Migret in obscuras huinili sermone tabernas ; 

Aut, dum vitat humum, nubes et inania captet 230 

Eflfutire leves indigna Tragoedia versus, 

Ut festis matrona moveri jussa diebus, 

Intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda protervis. 

Non ego honorata et dominantia nomina solum 

Verbaque, Pisones, Satjnrorum scriptor amabo ; 235 

Nee sic enitar tragico differre colon, 

Ut nihil intersit, Davusne loquatur et audax 

Pythias, emuncto lucrata Simone talentum, 

An custos famulusque dei Silenus alumni. 

Ex noto fictum carmen sequar, ut sibi quivis 240 

Speret idem ; sudet multum, frustraque laboret 

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264 4. BOBA.TII FLACCI 

Ausus i4em. Tantuzn series juncturaque poUet ; 

Tantum de medio sumtis accedit honoris. 

Silvia educti caveant, me judice, Fauni, 

Ne, velut innati Jriviis ac paene. forenses, 245 

Aut nimium teneris juvenentur versibus unquam, 

Aut immunda crepent ignominiosaque dicta. 

OfTenduntur enim, quibus est equus, et pater, et res ; 

Nee, si quid fricti ciceria probat et nucis emtor, 

Aequis accipiunt animis donantve corona. 250 

Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur Iambus, 
Pes citus ; unde etiam Trimetris accrescere jussit 
Nomen iambeis, quum senos redderet ictus, 
Primus ad extremum similis sibL Non ita pridem 
Tardior ut paulo graviorque veniret ad aures, 255 

Spondeos stabiles in jura paterna recepit 
Commodus et patiens ; non ut de sede secunda 
Cederet aut quarta socialiter ; hie et in Acct 
Nobilibus Trimetris apparet rams, et Ennt. 
In scenam missus magno cum pondere versus, 260 

Aut operae ceteris nimium curaque carentis, 
Aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi. 
Non quivis videt immodulata poemata judex \ 
Et data Romanis venia est indigna poetis. 
Idcircone vagvr^ scribamque licenter ? Ut omnes 265 

Yisuros peccata putem mea. Tutus et intra 
Spem veniae cautus, vitavi denique culpam, 
Non laudem merui. Vos exemplaria Graeca 
Noctuma versate manu, versate diurna. 
Jit vestri proavi Plautinos et nwneros et 270 

Laudavere sales. Nimium patienter utrumque, 
Ne dicam stulte, mirati ; si modo ego et vos 
Scimus inurbanum lepido seponere dicto, 
Legitimumque sonum digitis callemus et aure. 

Ignotum tragicae genus invenisse Camenae 2T5 

Dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis 
Clui canerent agerentque peruncti faecibus ora. 

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BFISTOLA AD FIflONZfl. 265 

Poet hunc personae pallaeque repertor honeatae 

Aeschylus et modicis instravit pulpita tignis, 

Etdocuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. 280 

Successit vetus his Comoedia, non sine multa 

Laude ; sed in vitium libertas excidit, et vim 

Dignam lege regL Lex est accepta, Chorusque 

Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi. 

Nil intentatum nostri liquere poetae : 285 

Nee minimum meruere decus, vestigia Graeca 

Ausi deserere, et celebrare domestica facta, 

Vel qui praetextas, vel qui docuere togatas. 

Nee virtute foret clarisve potentius armis, 

Ctuam lingua, Latium, si non offenderet unum- 290 

Cluemque poetarum limae labor et mora. Vos, O 

Pompilius sanguis, carmen reprehendite, quod ncn 

Multa dies et multa Htura coercuit, atque 

Praesectum decies non castigavit ad unguem. 

Ingenium misera quia fortunatius arte 295 

Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poS tas 
Domocritus, bona pars non ungues ponere curat, 
Non barbam, secreta petit loca, balnea vitat. 
Nanciscetur enim pretium nomenque poetae, 
Si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile nunquam 300 

Tonsori Licino commiserit. O ego laevus, 
Qui purgor bilem sub verni temporis horam f 
Non alius faceret meliora poemata. Verum 
Nil tanti est. Ergo fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Reddere quae femim valet, exsors ipsa secandi : 805 

Munus et officium, nil scribens ipse, docebo ; 
ftnde parentur opes ; quid alat formetque poetam ; 
Quid deceat, quid non ; quo virtus, quo ferat error. 
Scribendi recte sapere est et principium et fons. 
Rem tibi Socraticae poterunt ostendere chartae : 810 

Verbaque provisam rem non invita sequentur. 
Qui didicit, patriae quid dobeat, et quid amicis, 
Quo sit arnore parens, quo frafcer amandus et hospes, 

■ 



266 4 HORATII FLACCI 

Quod ait conscript], quod judicis officium, quae 

Partes in bellum missi ducis ; ille profecto 315 

Reddere personae scit convenientia cuique. 

Respiceie exemplar vitae morumque jubebo 

Doctum imitatorem, et veras hinc ducere voces. 

Interdum speciosa locis morataque recte 

Fabula, nullius veneris, sine pondere et arte, 320 

Valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur, 

&uam versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorae. 

Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo 

Musa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris. 

Romani pueri longis rationibus assem 325 

Discunt in partes centum diducere. — Dicas, 

Filius JUbini, si de quincunce remota est 

Uncia, quid superet ? — Poteras dixisse : Triens. — Eu! 

Rem poteris seroare tuam. Redit uncia^ quid fit f — 

Semis. — An, haec aminos aerugo et cura pecult 330 

Gluum semel imbuerit, speramus carmina rlngi 

Posse linenda cedro, et levi servanda cupresso % 

Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae, 
Aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. 
Gluidquid praecipies, esto brcns, ut cito dicta 335 

Percipiant animi dociles, teneantque fideles. 
Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat. 
Ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veris : 
Ne, quodcunque volet, poscat sibi fabula credi ; 
Neu pransae Lamiae vivum puerum extrahat alvo. 340 
Centuriae seniorum agitant expertia frugis ; 
Celsi praetereunt austera poemata Ramnes : 
Omne tuiit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci, 
Lectorem delectando pariterque monendo. 
Hie meret aera liber Sosiis, hie et mare transit, 345 

Et longum noto scriptori prorogat aevum. 

Sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus. 
Nam neque chorda sonum reddit, quern vult manus et mens, 
Foscentique gravem persaepe remittit acutum ; 



KP18TOLA AD PI80NS3. 967 

Nec semper feriet quodcunque minabitur arcus. 350 

Venun ubi plura'nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
Offendar maculis, quae aut incuria rudit, 
Aut humana parum cavit natura. Quid ergo est % 
Ut scriptor si peccat idem librahus usque, 
' Quamvis est monitus, venia caret ; ut citharoedus 355 

Ridetur, chorda qui semper oberrat eadem : 
Sic mihi, qui multum cessat, fit Choerilus ille, 
Quern bis terve bonum cum risu miror ; et idem 
Indignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepere somnum. 360 

Ut pictura, poesis : erit quae, si propius stes, 
Te capiet magis, et quaedam, si longius abstes. 
Haec amat obscurum ; volet haec sub luce videri, 
Judicis argutum quae non formidat acumen : 
Haec placuit semel, haec decies repetita placebit. 365 

O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna 
Fingeris ad rectum, et per te sapis, hoc tibi dictum ' 
Tolls memor : certis medium et tolerabile rebus 
Recte concedi : consultus juris et actor 
Causarum mediocris abest virtute diserti 370 

Messalae, nee scit quantum Cascellius Aulus ; 
Bed tamen in pretio est : mediocribus esse poetis 
Non homines, non dt, non concessere columnae. 
Ut gratas inter mensas svmphonia discors 
Et crassum unguentum, et Sardo cum melle papaver 375 
Offendunt, poterat duci quia coena sine istis : 
Sic animis natum inventumque poema juvandis, 
Si paulum a summo decessit, vergit ad imum. 
Ludere qui nescit, campestribus abstinet armis, 
Indoctusque pilae disci ve trochive quiescit, 380' 

Ne spiseae risum tollant impune coronae ; 
Qui nescit, versus tamen audet fingere 1 — Quidni t 
Liber et ingenuus, praesertim census equestrem 
Sumntam nummorum, vitioqw remotus ab omm. — 
Tu nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva ; 885 

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268 O. BOAATn FLAOCI 

Id tibi judicium est, ea mens : si quid tamen olim 

Scripseris, in Maecl descendat judicis aures, 

Et paths, et nostras, nonumque prematur in annum, 

Membranis intus positis. Delere licebit, 

Quod non edideris : nescit vox missa revertL 390 

Silyestres homines sacer interpresque deorum 
Caedibus et victu foedo deterruit Orpheus ; 
Dictus ob hoc lenire tigres rabidosque leones : 
Dictus et Amphion, Thebanae conditor urbis, 
J3axa movere sono testudinis, et prece blanda 395 

Ducere quo vellet. Fuit haec sapientia quondam, 
Publica privatis secernere, sacra profanis, 
Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura mantis, 
Oppida moliri, leges incidere ligno. 

Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque 400 

Garminibus veniL Post hos insignia Homerus, 
Tyrtaeusque mares animos in Martia bella 
Versibus exacuit. Dictae per carmina sortes, 
El wtae monstrata via est, et gratia regum 
Pieriis tentata modis, ludusque repertus, 405 

fir longorum operum finis : ne forte pudori 
Sit tibi Musa ljrae solers, et cantor Apollo. 

Natura fieret laudabile carmen, an arte, 
ttuaesitum est. Ego nee studium sine divite vena, 
Nee rude quid possit video ingenium : alterius sic 410 

Altera poscit opem res, et conjurat amice. 
Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam, 
Multa tulit fecitque puer, sudavit et alsit, 
Abstinuit Venere et vino. Qui Pythia cantat 
Tibicen, didicit prius, extimuitque magistrum. 415 

Nee satis est dixisse : Ego mira po&nata pango : 
Occupet extremism scabies ; mihi turpe relinqui art, 
Et % quod non didiei, sane nescire f alert. 
Ut praeco, ad merces turbam qui cogit emendas, 
Assentatores jubet ad lucrum ire po£ ta 420 

Dives agris, dives positis in fenore nummia, 

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KPI8TOUL AD PI809K8. 2Qf> 

Si vera est, unctum qui recte ponere poesit, 

Et spondere levi pro paupere, et eripere atria 

Litibus inplicitum, mirabor si sciet inter- 

Noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. 42ft 

Tu seu donaris, seu quid donare voles cuL 

Nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum 

Laetitiae ; clamabit enim, Pulckre ! bene ! reeU ! 

PaUescet super his ; etiam stillabit amicis 

Ex oculis rorem j saliet, tundet pede terrain. 430 

tit, qaae conductae plorant in funere, dicunt 

Et faciunt prope plura dolentibus ex animo ; sic 

Denser vero plus laudators movetur. 

Reges dicuntur multis urguere culullis, 

Et torquere mero, quern perspexisse laborant, 431 

An sit amicitia dignus : si carmina condes, 

Nunquam te fallant anuni sub vulpe latentes. 

Quintilio si quid recitares, Corrige sodts 

Hoc, aiebat, et hoc. Melius te posse negares, 

Bis terque expertum frustra, delere jubebat, 440 

Et male tomatos incudi reddere versus. 

Si defendere delictum, quam vertere, malles, 

Nullum ultra verbum aut operam insumebat inanem 

Quin sine rivali teque et tua solus amares. 

Vir bonus et prudens versus reprehendet inertes, 445 

Culpabit duros, incomtis allinet atrum 

Transverso calamo signum, ambitiosa recidet 

Omamenta, parum clans lucem dare coget, 

Arguet ambigue dictum, mutanda notabit ; 

Ret Aristarchus ; non dicet ; Cur ego amicum 45^ 

Offendam in nugu t Hae nugae seria ducent 

In mala derisum semel exceptumque sunstre. 

Ut mala quern scabies aut morbus regius urguet, 

Aut fanaticus error, et iracunda Diana, 

Vesanum tetigisse timent fugiuntque poetam, 155 

&ui sapiunt ; agitant pueri, incautique sequuntur, 

Hie dum sublimis versus ructatur, et errat, 

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WO Q. HORAT1I FULGCI 

Si veluti merulis intentua decidit auceps 

In puteum foveamve, licet, Succurrite, longum 

Clamet, to civea ! ne sit, qui tollere cureL 460 

Si curet quia opem ferre, et demittere funem, 

&ut scis, an prudens hue se projecerit, atque 

Servari nolit % dicam, Siculique poetae 

Narrabo interitum. Deus immortalis haberi 

Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem rtigidus Aetuam 465 

Instluit. Sit jus ticeatque perire poetis. 

Invitum qui servat, idem fecit occidentL 

Nee semel hoc fecit ; nee, si retractus erit, jam 

Fiet homo, et ponet famosae mortis amorem. 

Nee satis apparet, cur versus factitet ; utrum 470 

Minxerit in patrios cineres, an triste bidental 

Movent incestus : certe furit, ac velut ursus 

Objectos caveae valuit si frangere clathros, 

Indoctiim doctumque fugat recitator acerbus : 

Quern vero arripuit, tenet, occiditque legendo, 476 

Non missuracutem, nisi plena cruoris, hiruda 



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EXPLANATORY NOTE 5 



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EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



ODES. 

Thb word Ode (from the Greek 4J& ) was not introduced into the 
Latin tongue until the third or fourth century of our era, and was then first 
used to denote any pieces of a lyric nature. The grammarians, perceiv- 
ing that Horace had more than once used the word carmen to designate 
this kind of poetry, ventured to place it at the head of his odes, ana their 
example has been followed by almost all succeeding editors. We have 
no very strong reason, however, to suppose that the poet himself ever 
intended this as a general title for his lyric productions. (Compare Leg 
Poena LP Horace, par Banadon, voL 1. p. &) 



Odb 1. Addressed to Maecenas, and intended probably by Horace as 
a dedication to him of part of his odes. It is generally thought that the 
poet collected together and presented on this occasion the first three books 
of his lyric pieces. From the complexion, however, of the last ode of the 
second book, it would appear that the third book was separately given to 
the world, and at a later period. 

The subject of the present ode is briefly this : The objects of human 
desire and pursuit are various. One man delights in the victor's prize at 
the public games, another in attaining to high political preferment, a third 
in the pursuits of agriculture, &c. My chief aim is the successful culti- 
vation of lyric verse, in which if I shall obtain your applause, O Maecenas, 
my lot will be a happy one indeed 

1— 2. 1. Mceeauu ataois, &c "Maecenas, descended from regal 
ancestors." Caius Cilnius Maecenas, who shared with Agrippa the fa- 
vour and confidence of Augustus, and distinguished himself by his 
patronage of literary men, is said to have been descended from Elbius 
Volterrenus, one of the Lucumones of Etruria, who fell in the battle at the 
lake Vadimona, A. U. C. 445.-2. O et prasukwn, &c " O both my pa- 
tron and sweet glory." The expression duke dtcus mewn refers to the 
feeling of gratification entertained by the poet in having so illustrious a 
patron and friend. — The synaloepha is neglected in the commencement 
of this line, as it always is in the case of 0, tfeu, Ah, &c. ; since the voice 
is sustained and the hiatus prevented by the strong feeling which these 
interjections are made to express. 

31 Sunt quob curricukj &<*. "There are some, whom it delights to 
Lave collected tKe Olympic dust in the chariot-course." i. e. to have con- 
tended for the prae at the Olympic games. The Olympic are here put 
Mr' ty>x*T for any gsnnes. The Grecian games were as follows: 1. The 
Qiympbi celebrated afOlympia in Elis, on the bank* of the Alpheu*, after 
an interval of four years, from the eleventh to the fifteenth of the month 



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£74 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I. ODE I. 

Hecatombaeon which corresponds nearly to our July. It is uncertain 
whether Pelops or Hercules was their founder. After the inrasion of the 
Heraclidae, Iphitus renewed them, (884 B. C.) and Coroebus a second 
time, 776 ft. C. They were celebrated in honour of Jupiter: the crown 
was of wild olive, «fn*>c — 8. The Pythian, in honour of Apollo, celebrated 
on the Crisssean plain near Delphi, at first every nine, but subsequently 
every five, years. The season for holding them was the spring. The 
crown was of laurel. — 3. The Jfemcan. These were originally funen 
games, (iywv hnrd+ios,) in memory of Archemorus. Hercules, however, 
after having killed the Nemean lion, consecrated them to Jupiter. They 
were celebrated in a grove near the city of Nemea, in the second and 
fourth years of every Olympiad. The crown was of fresh parsley. 4. 
The Isthmian. Originally established in honor of Pahemon, but after- 
wards re-modelled by Theseus, and consecrated to Neptune. They 
were held on the isthmus of Connth, twice during each Olympiad. The 
crown was originally of pine, and afterwards of withered parsley, but the 
pine subsequently came again into use. 

4. Metaaue favidis, &c " And whom the goal, skilfully avoided by the 
glowing wheels." The principal part of the charioteer's skill was di» 
played in avoiding the metet (vievat) or goals. In the Greek hippodrome, 
as well as in the Roman circus, a low wall was erected which divided the 
Bpatium, or race-ground, into two unequal parts. Cassiodorus calls it the 
spina. At each of its extremities, and resting on bellow basements, were 
placed three pillars formed like cones ; these cones were properly called 
mttct, (rfow) ; but the whole was often collectively termed in the singu- 
lar meta. The chariots, after starting from the careens, or barriers, where 
their station had been determined by lot, ran seven times around the spina. 
The chief object, therefore, of the rival charioteers, was to get so near to 
the spina, as to graze (evitare) the meta in turning. This of course would 
give the shortest space to run, and, if effected each heat, would ensure the 
victory. Compare Burgess, Description ef the Circus en the Via •Sjaia, 
p. 65. 

5 — 6. 5. Palmaque nobilis. "And the ennobling palm." Besides the 
crown, a palm-branch was presented to the conqueror at the Grecian 

rmes, as a general token of victory : this he carried in his hand. — 
Terrarum domino*. " The rulers of the world," referring simply to the 
gods, and not, as some explain the phrase, to the Roman people. 

7 — 10. 7. Hune. Understand jurat Hune in this line ; Wvm in the 
9th ; and gaudentem in the 1 1th, denote, respectively, the ambitious aspi- 
rant after popular favours, the covetous man, and the agriculturist. — 
8. Certat tergeminis, &c. " Vie with each other in raising him to the 
highest offices in the state.* 1 Honoribus is here the dative, by a Graecbun, 
for ad honor es. The epithet tergeminis is equivalent merely to amplissimis. 
— 9. IUum. Understand juvat. — 10. Libycis. One of the principal grana- 
ries of Rome was the fertile region adjacent to the Syrus Minor, and 
called Byzacium or Emporia). Ft formed part of Africa Propria. Horace 
uses the epithet Libyeis for AJricis, in imitation of the Greek writers, with 
whom Libya (At6*v) was a general appellation for the entire continent 
of Africa. 

1 1— Is. 11. Sarcxdo. "With the hoe." Sarcuhm is for sarricmbm, 
from sarrio. — 13. Jltlalicis conditionibtts. " For all the wealth of Attalua." 
Alluding to Altalus 3d, the last king of Pergamus, famed for his riches, 



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■ZFLANATORT MOTH.— BOOK L ODE 1. 871 

which be bequeathed, together with hie kingdom, to the Roman people.—. 
13. Tnbe Cypria. The epithet "Cyprian" seems to allude here not eo 
much to the commerce of the island, extensive as it was, as to the 
excellent quality of He naval timber. The poet, it will be perceived, usee 
the expressions Cypria, Myrtoum, Icariis, Africum, Massici, &c «ot> 
far>, for amy ship, any sea, any waves, &©.— 14. Jtfyt town. The Myrto- 
tn sea was a part of the iEgean, lying, according to Strata, between 
Crete, Argolis, and Attica. — Patndusnauta, " becoming a timid mariner."-* 
15. ScariUJtuetibus. The Icarian sea was part of the JEgean, near the 
islands of Icaria, Mycone, and Gyaros. It derived its name, not as the 
ancient mythologies pretend, from Icarus, the son of Deedalos, who, 
according to them, fell into it and was drowned, but from the first of the 
islands just mentioned, (Icaria, i. e. Icaurej the appellation of which de- 
notes in the Phoenician language M the island of nah." Compare Bochart, 
Geogr. Saer. 1. 8. — Jlfricum, The wind Micus denotes, m strictness, 
the " West-South- West" In translating the text it will be sufficient to 
render it by " South- West" It derived its name from the circumstance 
of hs coming in the direction of Africa Propria, 

16—19. 16. Mercator. The Mercatores, among the Romans, were 
those who, remaining only a short time in any place, visited many coun- 
tries, and were almost constantly occupied with the exportation or impor- 
tation of merchandise. The Negotiator^ on the other hand, generally 
continued for some length of time in a place, whether at Rome, or in the 
proTinces.— %¥e«w«w. "Ar«long as he dreads." — (Mum tt oppidi, &c. 
"Pluses a retired life, and the rural scenery around his native place."— 
18> Psttperiem. a The pressure of contracted means." Horace and the 
best Latin writers understand by pauperUs and pauperUu, not absolute 
Poverty, which is properly exprer bed by egeaf as, but a state in which we are 
wprived indeed of the comforts, and yet possess in some degree, the neces- 
nnes, of life.— 19. Massicu Of the Roman wines, the best growths are 
Xfled indiscriminately Massicum and FaUrnum (vinum.) The Massic 
vme derived its name from the vineyards of Mom Jtiassicus, now MonU 
•Venice, near the ancient Sinuessa. The choicest wines were produced 
oo the southern declivities of the range of hills which commences in the 
noishbourhood of Sinuessa, and extend for a considerable distance inland, 
m« which may have taken their general name from the town or district 
<*" Falemns. But the most conspicuous, or the best exposed among them, 
«eems to have been the Massic : and as in process of time several infe- 
rior growths were confounded under the common name of Falernian, cor- 
net writers would choose that epithet which most accurately denoted the 
faetl vintage. 

W— 21. 80. Partem iotido, &c. Upon the increase of riches, the 
Rftnans deferred the coma, which used to he their mid-day meal, to the 
ninth hour, (or three o'clock afternoon,) in summer, and the tenth hour in 
•inter, taking only a slight repast (prandhun) at noon. Nearly the whole 
°( the natural day was therefore devoted to affairs of business, or serious 
employment, and was called in consequence dies solidtu. Hence the vo- 
jnptoary, who begins to quaff the old Massic before the accustomed hour, 
« said "to take away a part from the solid da^, w or from the period devo* 
t«d to more active pursuits, and expend it on his pleasures. This is what 
the poet, on another occasion, (Ode 2. 7. 6.) calls "breaking the lingering 
diy with wine/* dUm morantemfrangere mero. — 2 1 . Arbvto. The arbutus (or 
**afum) is the arbute, or wild-otrawberry tree, corresponding to the ripaps 
of the Greeks, the vntdo of Pliny, and the arbutus untdo of Linns**, 

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•78 EXPLANATORY VOTES. — BOOK L ODE. IL 

class 10. The fruit itself is called cfoopv, pc/i«faX«v t or #ujtair*Xov, (.ftfc. 
turn*. 8* 35.) and in Latin ordiifum. It resembles our strawberry veiy 
closely, except that it is larger, and has no seeds on the outside of the 
pulp like that fruit The arbute tree possesses medicinal qualities: its 
bark, leaves, and fruit are very astringent ; and hence, according to Pliny, 
the origin of the Latin name vnedo, (una* and ado,) because but one berry 
could be eaten at a time. The same writer describes the fruit as indigest- 
ible and unwholesome. Compare Plin. H. Jf. 19. 24 1 and S3, a Fit, 
Flore de Virguc, p. 20. Martin, mi Virg. Gearg. 1. 148. 

22 — 28. 22. Sacra* The fountain-heads of streams were supposed 
to be the residence of the river-deity, and hence were always held sa- 
cred. Fountains generally were sacred to the nymphs and rural divini- 
ties. — 23. Et Htuo tuba, &c " And the sound of the trumpet intermingled 
with the notes of the clarion." The tuba was atsaight, and used for in- 
fantry ; the Htuus was bent a little at the end. like the augur's stafi) and 
was used for the cavalry: it had the harsher sound. — 25. Detesteta. 
"Held in detestation." Taken passively.— J&aneL * Passes the night"— 
Sub Jovejrigido. u Beneath the cold, sky." Jupiter is here taken figura- 
tively for the higher regions of the air. Compare the Greek phrase M 
At*.— 2S. Terete*. "Well- wrought"— Marnu. For Mardcus. The moon 
tainous country of the Marsi, in Italy, abounded with wild boars of the 
fiercest kind. 

29 — 34. 29. Jtfie. Some editions have Te* referring to Maecenas : an 
inferior reading. — Ederau " Ivy-crowns." The species of ivy here allu- 
ded to is the £dera nigra, sacred to Bacchus, and nence styled Aiwtna by 
the Greeks. It is the Edera poetic* of Bauhin. Servius says that poets 
were crowned with ivy, because the poetic fury resembled that of the 
Bacchanalians. — Doctarvm promt* fimtkm. Poets are called docii, 
"learned," in accordance with Grecian usage: «o<to*«foi. — 3a Dii 
nascent superis. " Raise to the converse of the gods above." — 33. Euterpe 
cohibet, &c. Euterpe and Polyhymnia are meant to denote any of the 
Muses.— 34. Lesboum refugit, &c. " Refuses to touch the Lesbian lvre ■ 
The lyre is called " Lesbian" in allusion to Sappho and Alceus, both na- 
tives of Lesbos, and both famed for their lyric productions. 



ODE. 2. OctavianuB assumed his new title of Augustus on the 17th 
of January (zvm. Col. Febr.) A. U. C. 727. On the following night Rome 
was visited by a severe tempest, and an inundation of the Tiber. The 
present ode was written in allusion to that event. The poet, regarding 
the visitation as a mark of divine displeasure, proceeds to inquire on what 
deity they are to call for succour. Who is to free the Romans from the 
pollution occasioned by their civil strife ? Is it Apollo, god of prophecy 1 
Or Venus, parent of Rome? Or Mars, founder of the Roman line I 
Or Mercury, messenger of the skies ? — It is the last, the avenger of Cae- 
sar, the deity who shiuuds his godhead beneath the person of Augustus, 
He alone, if heaven spare him to the earth, can restore to us the favour 
of Jove, and national prosperity. 

1 —4. 1. Terns. A Gnecism for in terras. — Dira granainu. Every 
thing sent by the wrath of the gods (dei tra) was termed dkvsn. — 8. Pa- 
ter. " The Father of Gods and men." Jupiter. n«ri)p MpA* re 3cdp re. — 
Rubente dexter*. " With lue red right hand." Red with the reflected glare 

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CXFUUUTOEY WOWS.— BOOK I. OPS IL 277 

•f Che- thunderbolt : an idea very probably borrowed from some ancient 
paintiag. — 3l Satnuarces. u The aacred summit* of the temples." The 
lightning struck the capitol containing the temples of Jupiter, Minerva, 
and Juno. — 4. Urbem. "The city" i. e. Rome. Compare Quintilim 
(8.2.>«Ur6emr "" - 



5—10. 5. Oentes. Understand timentes. "He lias terrified the na- 
tions, farina lest," &c Analogous to the Greek idiom, fytam m— 6. Sa- 
cMhm Putrkee. AJDuding to the deluge of Deucalion in Thessaty. — Jfova 
nonetr*. M Wonders before unseen." — 7. Proteus. A sea-deity, son of 
Qceanus and Tethys, gifted with prophecy and the power of assuming 
toy form at pleasure. His fabled employment was to keep " the flocks 1 ' 
of Neptune, l e. the phocm, or seals. — 8. Visere. AGnecism for ad visen- 
earn.— 10. PdumbU. The common reading is cdumbis; but the true one 
Bsthonsw. The u palumbae," or " wood-pigeons," construct their nests on 
the branches and in the hollows of trees; the cotumbct, or "doves," are 
kept in dove-cots. 

13 — 16. 1 3. FUnum Tiberim. u The yellow Tiber." A recent traveller 
remarks, with regard to this epithet of the Tiber: " Yellow is an exceed- 
ingly undescriptive translation of that tawny colour, that mixture of red, 
brown, grey and yellow, which should answer to fltnms here ; but I may 
not deviate from the established phrase, nor do I know a better." (Rome 
m the nineteenth century, voL l.p. 84 J— 14. Litore Etrusco. The violence 
of the storm forced the waves of toe Tiber from the upper or Tuscan 
shore, and caused an inundation on the lower bank, or left side, of the 
river, where Rome was situated. — 15. Jtionumenta regis. "The memorial 
of King Numa," Alluding to the palace of Numa, which, according to 
Plutarch, stood in the immediate vicinity of the temple of Vesta, ana 
was distinct from his other residence on the Quirinal hill. {Plut. ViL 
Man. c. 14.) — 16. Vesta. What made the omen a peculiarly alarming 
one was, that the sacred fire was kept in this temple, on the preservation 
of which tbe safety of the empire was supposed in a great measure to de 
pend. Compare Chid. Trigt. 3. 1. 29. "Hie focus ett Vesta, qui Pauada 
tertet et ignem." If a vestal virgin allowed the sacred fire to be extin- 
guished, she was scourged by the~Pontifex Maximus. Such an accident 
was always esteemed most unlucky, and expiated by offering extraordi- 
nary sacrifices. The fire was lighted up again, not from another fire, but 
from the rays of the sun, in which manner it was renewed every year ou 
the first of March, that day being anciently the beginning of the year. 
Compare Lipsius, de Vesta et VestaHbw Syntagma. 

17 — 19. 17. JUa dum ae, &c " While the god of the stream, lending 
too ready an ear to the wishes of his spouse, proudly shows himself an 
intemperate avenger to the complaining Ilia." The allusion is to Ilia or 
Rem Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, and the ancestress of 
Julius Caesar, whose assassination she is here represented as bewailing. 
Ancient authorities differ in relation to her fate. Ennius, cited by Por- 
phvrion in his scholia on this ode, makes her to have been cast into the 
Tiber, previous to which she had become the bride of the Anio. Horace, 
on the contrary, speaks of her as having married the god of the Tiber, 
which be hero designates as vxorius amnis. Servius {ad Aen. 1. 274.) al- 
ludes to this version of the fable, as adopted by Horace and others. Ac- 
ron also, in his scholia on the present passage, speaks of Ilia as having 
married the god of the Tiber. According to the account which he gives. 
IEa was buried on the banks of the Anio, and tbe river, having overflowed 

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178 BzniXAToav ifOTSi.— >book .onto. 

Its borders, carried her remeina down to the Tiber; hence the was ttU 
to have espoused the deity of the last mentioned stream. It may ik* be 
improper to add here a remark of Niehbuhr's in relation to the named 
this female. "The reading Rhea," observes the historian, "is a corrup- 
tion introduced by the editors, who "very unseasonably bethought them* 
selves of the goddess: res seems only to have signified: the culprit, or the 
guilty woman : it reminds us of reafemma, which often occurs, particular- 
ly in Boocack>. n (jftehbukr's Reman History, wLl. p. m.*dea\Hen 
and ThtrhooWt tranaL) — Jfimtum. Taken as an adjective, and referring lo j 
uttorem. It alludes to the violence of the inundation. Some comments 
tors connect it as an adverb with querenH : " the too-complainine."— 19 
Jooe rum probands. Jupiter did not approve that the Tiber should under- 
take to avenge the death of Cesar, a task which he had reserved fix Au- 
gustus. 

83—97. 22. Grants Perseu u The formidable Parthians." Horace 
frequently uses the terms Medi and Persct to denote the Parthian* The 
Median preceded the Persian power, which, after the interval of the Gre- 
cian dominioo, was succeeded by the Parthian empire. The epithet 
graves alludes to the defeat of Crassus, and the check of Marc Antony.— 
PervrenL For periiuHJuisssnt. — 23. ritiomtrenturnrara juventus. u Pos- 
terity thinned through the guilt of their fathers." Alluding to the excesses 
of the civil contest — 25. rocet For invoceL — Ruentis imperi rebut. "To 
the affairs of the falling empire." Rebus by a Gnecism for ad ret.— 26. 
Prece qua. "By what supplications."— 27. Virgmes aaticta. Alluding 
to the vestal virgins.— Minus audientem comma. "Turning a deaf ear 
to their solemn prayers." Carmen is frequently used to denote any eel 
form of words either in prose or verse. — As Julius Caesar was Pontifa 
Mazimus at the time or his death, he was also, by virtue of his office, j 
priest of Vesta ; it being particularly incumbent on toe Pontifex Maxima* j 
to exercise a superintending control over the rites of that goddess. Hence 
the anger of the goddess towards the Romans on account of Caesar's death. 

29—39. 29. Scdus. "Our guilt" Alluding to the crimes of the mil 
war. — 31. Jfube candsntes, &c "Having thy bright shoulders shrouded 
with a cloud." The gods, when they were pleased to manifest themselves to 
mortal eye, were generally, in poetic imagery, clothed with clouds, in order 
to hide, from mortal gaze, the excessive splendour of their presence, — 
Augur AwMo. " Apollo, cod of prophecy."— 33. Eryeinaridens, «• Smi- 
ling goddess of Eryx." Venus, so called from her temple on mount Eryx 
in Sicily. — 34. Quom Joeus circum, &c. " Around whom hover Mirth 
and Love."— 36. Respicis. rt Thou again beholdest with a favouring eye." 
When the gods turned their eyes towards their worshippers, it was a sign 
of favour; when they averted them, of displeasure. — Jluctor. " Founder ot 
the Roman line." Addressed to Mars, as the reputed father of Romulra 
and Remus. — 39. Marsi. The common texts have Mauri. But the peo- 
ple of Mauretania were never remarkable for their valour, and their ca- 
valry besides were always decidedly superior to their infantry. The Marei, 
on the other hand, were reputed to have been one of the most valiant na- 
tions of Italy. — Cruenium. This epithet beautifully describes the foe, as 
transfixed by the weapon of the Marsian and " weltering in his blood." 

41—51. 41. Sive mutata, &c M Or if, winged son of the benign 
Maia, having changed thy form, thou assumest that of a youthful hero on 
the earth." Mercury, the offspring of Jupiter and Maia, is here addressed. 
— Juvenem. Augustus.— 43. Patient vocari, &c " Suffering thyself to b* 



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EXFLANATOUT KOTES. — BOOK L ODE IIL £79 

Called the avenger of Caesar.* 9 An imitation of the Greek idiom, for ft 
wcert Ceuaris ultorem. — 46. Lcttus. "Propitious."— 47. Mquwn. "Of- 
fended at"— 4& Ocyar aura. " An untimely blast 1 ' The poet prays 
that the departure of Augustus for the skies may not be accelerated by 
the crimes and vices of his people. — 49. Magnos triumphos. Augustus, in 
the month of August, A. U. C. 725, triumphed for three days in succession : 
on the first day over the Pannonians, Dalmatians, Iapydee, and their 
neighbours, together with some Gallic and Germanic tribes ; on the se- 
cond day, for the victory at Actium ; on the third, for the reduction of 
Egypt The successes over the Gauls and Germans had been obtained 
for him by bis lieutenant C. Carinas. — 50. Pater atque Primeeps. Augus 
tus is frequently styled on medals, Pater Patriot, a title which the succeed 
ins emperors adopted from him. — 51. Mtdos. " The eastern nations." 
Alluding particularly to the Parthians. Compare note on line 88 of this 
Ode. — Eqmtare xnuUos. u To transgress their limits with impunity." To 
make unpunished inroads into the Roman territory. 



ODE 3. Addressed to the Bhip which was about to convey Virgil to 
the shores of Greece. The poet prays that the voyage may be a safe 
and propitious one : alarmed, however, at the same time by the idea of 
the dangers which threaten his friend, he declaims against the inventor ot 
navigation, and the daring boldness of mankind in general — According to 
Heyne, (VirgilU vita per annos digesta,) this ode would appear to have 
been written A- U. C. 735, when, as Donates states, the bard of Mantua 
had determined to retire to Greece, and Asia, and employ there the space 
of three years in correcting and completing the .ZEneid. (Donat. Virg. 
vit. § 51.) "Anno veto qwnquagesimo tecundo," observes Donatus, "at 
vlthnam manum JEneidi hnponertt, gtatuit in Graciam et Asiam secedere, 
triennioque continuo omnem operant Itmatiom dare,vtreHqua vita tantum phi- 
losophic vaearet. Sed evm ingrtssus iter Athtnis oeeurisset Augusta, ab Ori- 
ente Romam revertenti, una cum Cctsare redbre statuit. Ac evm Megara, vU 
daunt Alhenis oppidum, visendi gratia peteret, languorem naetus est : quern 
man tntermissa navigatio auxit, Ua ut gravior indies, tandem BrwuHHum ad- 
ventarit, vbi diebus paucis obUt, X. KaL Octobr. C. Sentio t Q. Lucretio Cos*. 

1—4. 1. Sic te Diva, potent Cypri, &c. u ship, that owest to tho 
shores of Attica, Virgil entrusted by us to thy care, so may the goddess who 
rules over Cyprus, so may the brothers of Helen, bright luminaries, and 
the father of the winds direct thy course, all others being confined except 
Japyx, that thou mayest give him up in safety to his destined haven, and 
preserve the one half of my soul." With reddas, and serves, understand ut r 
which stands in opposition to sic. — Diva potens CyprL Venus. From her 
power over the sea she was invoked by the Cniuians, Kvirtoia, the dis- 
penser of favourable voyages. (Pausan. 1. 14.)— 2. Fratrts Helenm. 
Castor and Pollux. It was the particular office of " the brothers of 
Helen" to bring aid to mariners in time of danger. They were identified 
by the indents with those luminous appearances, resembling balls of fire, 
which are seen on the masts and yards of vessels before and after storms. — 
3. Ventorum pater, ^olus. The island in which he was fabled to have 
reigned, was Strongyle, the modern Stromboli.— 4. Obstrictis atiis. An al- 
lusion to the Homeric fable of Ulysses and bis bag of adverse winds. — 
Iapyga. The west-north -west. It received its name from Iapygia, in 
* Lower Italy, which country lay partly in the line of its direction, it was 
the moat favourable wind lor sailing from Brundisium towards the eouth- 

27 



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£89 EXPULMATOET MOTES.— BOOK L OPS ID. 

«ra puts of Greece, the Teasel having, in the course af her voyage So At 
ties, to double the promontories of Tsnarus and Malca, 

9—15. 9. M robvr d as triplex, &c "That mortal had the strength 
of triple brass around his breast." Robur ti as triplex is here pot for 
rotor oris triplicis. — 12. Jfriamx. The west-south-west wind, answer- 
ing to the Afy of the Greeks. — 13. Aquilonibus. The term Javilo de* 
notes in strictness the wind which blows from the quarter directly oppo- 
site to that denominated Afhcus. A strict translation of both term, 
however, would diminish, in the present instance, the poetic beauty of the 
passage. The whole may be rendered as follows : '< The headlong fury 
of the south-west wind, contending with the north-eastern blasts,"— 14. 
Tristes Hyadas. a The rainy Hyades." The Hyades were seven of the 
fourteen daughters of Atlas, their remaining sisters being called Pleiades. 
These virgins bewailed so immoderately the death of their brother Htss, 
who was devoured by a lion, that Jupiter out of compassion, changed inern 
into stars, and placed them in the head of Taurus, where they still re- 
tain their grief; their rising and setting being attended with heavy rains. 
Hence the epithet tristes ("weeping," "rainy,") applied to them bv the poeU- 
taist, that J&dria is here used for the set i 



IS.Adria. Some commentators insist, that J&driah 
general, because, as the Adriatic faces the south-east, the remark of Ho- 
race cannot be true of the south. In the age of the poet, however, the 
term Adria was used in a very extensive sense. The sea which it desig- 
nated, was considered as extending to the southern coast of Italy, and 
the western shores of Greece, andthe Sinus Ionicus (corresponding ex- 
actly with the present gulf of Venice) was regarded merely as a part of it 

17—19. 17. Quern mortis Hmmt pradunu " What path of death did 
he fear." L e. what kind of death. Equivalent to quam viarn ad Orcum. 
— 18. Rtctis oculis. " With steady gaze," i. e. with fearless eye. Most 
editions read siccis ocvlis, which BenUey altered, on conjecture, to recti*. 
Others prefer fixis oculis. — 19. Et infames scopulos Acroceraunia. "And 
the Acroceraunia, ill-tamed cliffs." The Ceraunia were a chain of moun- 
tains along the coast of Northern Epirus, forming part of the boundary 
between it and IUyricum: That portion of the chain which extended be- 
yond Oricum, formed a bold promontory, and was termed Acroceraunia 
('Affpuupatofayfrom its summit, ('**>) being often struck by lightning 
Utpawtf). This coast was much dreaded by the mariners of antiquity 
because the mountains were supposed to attract storms, and Augustus 
narrowly escaped shipwreck here when returning from Actium. The 
Acroceraunia are now called J&onU Chimera, 

23—39. 22. DissociabUi. " Forbidding all intercourse." Taken in 
an active sense. — 24. Tronssilhmt. " Bound contemptuously over."— M. 
Audax omnia perpetL A Greek construction : Spools mfrrv rXajm. u Bold- 
ly daring to encounter every hardship." — 25. Per vetitum ef «t/as. 
" Through what is forbidden by all laws both human and divine." The 
common text has vetitumnefas, which makes a disagreeable pleonasm.— 87 
Atrox IaptU genus. " The resolute son of Iapetus." Prometheus.— 28. 
Frauds mala. " By an unhappy fraud."— 29. Post irnem atheria dams 
rubductum. " After the fire was drawn down by stealth from its mansion 
in the skies." — 33. Corripuit gradum. " Accelerated its pace." Wehavs 
here the remnant of an old tradition respecting the longer duration of lift 
in primeval times. — 34. Expertus {est). "Essayed." — 36. PerrupUJck* 
mua Herculeus labor. " The toiling Hercules burst the barriers ef the 
lower world." Alluding to the descent of Hercules to the shades. 



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EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOO* L OOB IT. 881 

Acheron is here put figuratively for Orcus. The expression Hcmdeus 
labor is* a G racism, and in imitation of the Homeric torra Bt* 'HpacAvcfe. 
(OJ. 11.600.) So also Kdoropos pla (Pind. Pyth. 1 1.93. (Toiiosfita {Aesck. 
S. C. Th. 77.) &c.— 39. Cohan. AUucang to the battle of the giants 
with the gods. 



Ode 4. The Ode imminences with a description of the return of soring. 
After alluding to the pleasurable feelings attendant upon that delightful 
season of the year, the poet urges his friend Sextius, by a favourite Epicu- 
rean argument, to cherish the fleeting hour, since the night of the grave 
would soon close around him and bring all enjoyment to an end. 

The transition in this ode, at the 13th line, nas been censured by some 
as too abrupt. It only wears this appearance, however, to those who are 
unacquainted with ancient customs and the associated feelings of the 
Romans. " To one who did not know," observes Mr. Dunlop, "that the 
mortuary festivals almost immediately succeeded those of Faunus, tho 
lines in question might appear disjointed and incongruous. But to a 
Roman, who at once could trace the association in the mind of the poet, 
the sudden transition from gaiety to gloom would seem but an echo of the 
sentiment which he himself aimually experienced." 

1 — 4. 1. Schihtr acris byenu, &c " Severe winter is melting away 
beneath the pleasing change of spring and the western breeze." — Fo- 
ri*. The spring commenced, according to Varro (R. JL 1. 28.) on the 
seventh day before the Ides of February (7 Feb.) on which day, according 
to Columella, the wind Favonius began to blow. — FaeonL The wind 
Favonius received its name either from its being favourable to vegetation, 
(favens genilvra,) or from its fostering the grain sown in the earth, (fo- 
vrntwrfa).— 2. TrahurU. "Drag down to theses." As the ancients seldom 
prosecuted any voyages in winter, their ships during that season were 
generally drawn up on land, and stood on the shore supported by props. 
When the season for navigation returned, they were drawn to the water 
by means of ropes and levers, with rollers placed below. — 3. Jgnu "In 
his station by the fee-side." — 4. Cants prutnii. " With the hoar-frost" 
Pruhta is from the Greek ***fo*. 

5—7. 5. Cytherea. "The goddess of Cythera." Venus: so called 
from the island of Cythera, now Cerigo, near the promontory of Malea, 
in the vicinity of which island she was fabled to have risen from the sea. — 
Chora* duciL "Leads up the danees.'*— ImndnenU luna. " Under the full 
ught of the moon." Tne moon is here described as being directly over 
head, and, by a beautiful poetic image, threatening as it were to fall.— 6 
Jvnctoque M/mphis Gratia decenteo. "And the graces, arbitresses of all 
that is lovely and boopming, joined hand in hand with the Nymphs." We 
have no sinpie epithet in our language, which fully expresses the meaning 
of decenUs in this, and similar passages. The idea intended to be convey- 
ed is analogous to that implied in the to koXov of the Greeks, ("omits quod 
pulchrxsmct decorum tsL")— 7. Dum graves Cyclopum, &c "While glow- 
ing Vulcan kindles up the laborious forges of the Cyclops." The epithet 
mrdtno is here equivalent to flammit relveeno, and beautifully describes the 
person of the god as glowing amid the light which streams from his forge* 
Horace is thought to have imitated in this passage some Greek poet of 
Sicily, who, in depicting the approach of spring, lays the scene in his na- 
tive island, with mou it <£tna stroking in the distant hornon. The inte- 

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SI EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK LOUT. 

nor of tli© mountain is the fabled scene of Vulcan's labours; and here 
be is busily employed in forging thunderbolts for the monarch of theatrics 
to hurl during the storms of spring, which are of frequent occurrence ia 
that climate. 

9 — 12. 9. Nitidwn. "Shining with unguents." — Caput tmpedlm 
At the banquets and festive meetings of the ancients, the guests were 
crowned with garlands of flowers, herbs, or leaves, tied and adorned with 
ribands, or with the inner rind of the linden tree. These crowns it was 
thought prevented intoxication — Jtfyrto. The myrtle was sacred to Ve- 
nus.— 10. Solute. "Freed from the fetters of winter."— 11. Famo. 
Faunus, the guardian of the fields and flocks, had two annual festivals cal- 
led Faunalia, one on the Ides (13th) of February, and the other on the 
Nones (5th) of December. Both were marked by great hilarity and 
joy. — 1 8. Sen poscat agna, fee. " Cither with a lamb if he demand one, or , 
with a kid if he prefer that offering." 

13 — 16. 13. Pallida JuVs, &c. u Pale death, advancing with impar- 
tial footstep, knocks for admittance at the cottages of the poor, and the 
lofty dwellings of the rich." Horace uses the term rex as equivalent to bcatus 
or dives. As regards the apparent want of connection between this por- 
tion of the ode and that which immediately precedes, compare what has 
been said in the introductory remarks. — 1 5. tnchoart. " Day after day to 
renew." — 16. Jam it vremetnox, &c The passage may be paraphrased 
an follows : " Soon will the night of the Grave descend upon thee, and the 
Manes of fable crowd around, and the shadowy home of Pluto become 
also thine own." The Zeugma in the verb prcmo, by which it is made to 
assume a new meaning in each clause of the sentence, is worthy of no- 
tice. By the Manes of fable are meant the shades of the departed, often 
made the theme of the wildest fictions of poetry. Some commentators, 
however, understand the expression in its literal sense, " the Manes of 
whom all is fable," and suppose it to imply the disbelief of a future state. 

17—18. 17. Stimtf. For Simul ac.— 18. Tatis. This may either be 
the adjective, or else the ablative plural of talus. If the former, the 
meaning of the passage will be "Thou shalt neither cast lots for the so- 
vereignty of such wine as we have here, nor, &c." Whereas if talis be 
regarded as a noun, the interpretation will be, "Thou shalt neither cast 
lots with the dice for the sovereignty of wine, nor," &c. This latter mode 
of rendering the passage is the more usualbne, but the other is certainly 
more animated and poetical, and more in accordance too with the very 
early and curious belief of the Greeks and Romans in relation to a future 
state. They believed that the souls of the departed, with the exception 
of those who had offended against the majesty of the gods, were occupied 
in the lower world with the unreal performance of the same actions which 
had formed their chief object of pursuit in the regions of day. Thus, the 
friend of Horace will still quaff his wine in the shades, but the cup and its 
contents will be, like their possessor, a shadow and a dream : it will not 
be such wine as he drank upon the earth. — As regards the expression, 
' sovereignty of wine," it means nothing more than the office of arbiter 
bibendi, or "toast-master." (Compare Ode 2. 7. 25.) 



Ode 5. Pyrrha, having secured the affections of a new admirer, is ad 
dressed by toe poet, who had himself experienced her inconstancy and 



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BXPLANATOBT NOTES.— BOOS L ODl TL 883 

faithlessness. He compares her youthful lover to one whom a sudden 
sod dangerous tempest threatens to surprise on the deep, — himself to the 
mariner just rescued from the perils of shipwreck. 

1 — 5. 1. Multn in rosa, " Crowned with many a rose." An imitation 
of the Greek idiom, h> <m+dvoit «W (Eurip. Here. Fur. 677.)— 2. Urguet. 
Understand te. « Prefers unto thee his impassioned suit" Urguet would 
seem to imply an affected coyness and reserve on the part of PYrrha, in 
order to elicit more powerfully tho feelings of him who addresses her. — 5. 
SimvUx munditiis. "With simple elegance." Plain in thy neatness. 
(Milton.)— -FuUm- mutalosqw deos. "Thy broken faith, and the gods 
adverse to his prayer." The gods, who once seemed to smile upon his 
mil, are now, under the epithet of "mutati" ("altered") represented as 
frowning upon it 

7—12. 7. Jfisnis ventis. "With blackening clouds." The epithet 
nip% here applied to the winds, is equivalent to " calum nigrum reddentes" 
—8. Emirabitnr ioadens. "Unaccustomed to the sight shall be lost in 
wonder at" — 9. Jixtrea. "All golden," i. e. possessing a heart swayed 
by the purest affection towards him. — 10. Vacuam. "Free from all 
attachment to another." — 1 1. AVseiw* axtrce fcdlacis. Pvrrha is likened in 
point of fickleness to the wind. — 12. Nitts. An idea borrowed from the 
appearance presented by the sea when reposing in a calm, its treacherous 
waters sparkling beneath the rays of the sun. 

13. Me tobvlz sacer, &c. Mariners rescued from the dangers of ship- 
wreck were accustomed to suspend some votive tablet or picture, together 
with their moist vestments, in the temple of the god by whose interposi- 
tion they believed themselves to have been saved. In these paintings the 
storm, and the circumstances attending their escape, were carefully de- 
lineated. Ruined mariners frequently carried such pictures about with 
them, in order to excite the compassion of those whom they chanced to 
meet, describing at the same time in songs the particulars of their story. 
Horace in like manner speaks of the votivo tablet which gratitude has 
prompted him to offer in thought, his peace of mind having been nearly 
shipwrecked by the brilliant but dangerous beauty of Pyrrha. 



Ode 6. M. Yipsanius Agrippa, to whom this ode is addressed, is 
thought to have complained of tne silence which Horace had preserved in 
relation to him throughout his various pieces. The poet socks to justify 
himself on the ground of his utter inability to handle so lofty a theme. 
M Varios will sing thy praises, Agrippa, with all the fire of a second Ho- 
mer. For my own part, I would as soon attempt to describe in poetic 
numbers the god of battle, or any of the heroes of the Iliad, as under- 
take to tell of thy fame and that of the royal Coesar." The language, 
however, in which th^ bard's excuse is conveyed, while it speaks a high eu- 
logium on the characters of Augustus and Agrippa, proves at the same 
time, how well qualified he was to execute the task which he declines. 

Sanadon, without the least shadow of probability, endeavours to trace 
an allegorical meaning throughout the entire ode. He supposes Pollio to 
he meani by Aclulles, Agrippa and Messala by the phrase duplicis Ulixei, 
Antony and Cleopatra by tj e "house of Pelops," Statilius Taurus by the 
god Mars, Marcus Titms oy Merionea, and Maecenas by the son of 
Tydcus. 

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984 BXPLAHATORY NOTES. — BOOK I. ODI VL 

1. Beriberis Verio, &c "Thou shalt be celebrated by Varius, a bird of 
Maeonian strain, as valiant," &c. Vatic and aliti are datives, put by a 
Grecism for ablatives. — The poet to whom Horace here alludes, and 
who is again mentioned on several occasions, was Lucius Varius, famed 
for his epic and traffic productions, duintilian (10. 1.) asserts, that a 
tragedy of his, entitled Thyestes, was deserving of being compared with 
any or the Grecian models. He composed also a panegyric on Augus- 
tus, of which the ancient writers speak in terms of high commendation. 
Macrobius (8aL 6. 1.) has preserved some fragments of a poem of his on 
death. Varius was one of the friends who introduced Horace to the no- 
tice of Maecenas, and, along with Plotius Tucca, was entrusted by Au- 
gustus with the revision of the. JEncid. It is evident that this latter poem 
could not have yet appeared when Horace composed the present ode, 
since he would never certainly, in that event, have given Varius the prefer- 
ence to VirgiL For an account of the literary imposture of Hearkens in 
relation to a supposed tragedy of Varius's, entitled Tereus, consult 
SchocU, Hist LiL Rom. voL 1. 212. aeqq. 

2 — 5. 2. Jtfaomi cormbiis aliti. The epithet " Maeonian, n contains an 
allusion to Homer, who was generally supposed to have been born near 
Smyrna, and to have been consequently of Maeonian (i. e. Lydian) de- 
scent. The term aliti refers to a custom in which the ancient poets often 
indulged of likening themselves to the eagle and the swan. — 3. Quam rtm 
cunqye. u For whatever exploit," i. e. quod altinet ad rem, quamcvnqve, 
&c — 5. Jlgrippa. M. Vipsanius Agrippa, a celebrated Roman of hum- 
ble origin, but who raised himself by his civil and military talents to some 
of the highest offices in the empire. He gained two celebrated naval vic- 
tories for Augustus, the one at Actium, and the other over the fleet of Scx- 
tus Pompcius, near MylsB off the coast of Sicily. Agrippa was distin- 
guished also for his successes in Gaul and Germany, lie became event- 
ually the son-in-law of the emperor, having married, at his request, Ju- 
lia the widow of Marcellua. Tne Pantheon was erected by him. 

5 — 12. 5. Nee graoem Pelidct stomackum, fcc "Nor the fierce resent- 
ment of the unrelenting son of Peleue," alluding to the wrath of A- 
chilles, the basis of the Iliad, and his beholding unmoved, amid his anger 
against Agamemnon, the distresses and slaughter of his countrymen. — 
7. Jfcc cursus duplicis, &c "The wanderings of the crafty Ulysses.'* — 8. 
Servant Pelopisdomum. Atrcus, Thyestes, Agamemnon, Orestes, &c. the 
subjects of tragedies. — 10. ImbeUisque lyree Musa jxftens. "And the 
Muse that sways the peaceful lyre." Alluding to his own inferiority m 
epic strain, and his being better qualified to handle sportive and amatory 
themes. — 12. Culpa deterere ingent. "To diminish (Le. weaken) by 
any want of talent on our part" 

14—20. 14 Dipie. "In strains worthy of the theme." — 15. Meri- 
onen. Meriones, charioteer and friend of Idomcneus. — 16. Tudiden. Doo- 
med e, son of Tydeus. — Superis parent. " A match for the inhabitants of 
the skies." Alluding to the wounds inflicted on Venus and Mars by the 
Grecian warrior. — 17. Jfoa convtvto, &c "We, whether free from all at- 
tachment to another, or whether we burn with any passion, with our 
wonted exemption from care, sing of banquets ; we sing of the contests 
of maidens, briskly assailing with pared nails their youthful admirers," — 
18. Sectis. Bentley conjectures strictis, which conveys, however, rather 
the idea of a serious contest 



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EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOX L 0DX TO. 989 

Odb 7. Addresses to L. Munatius Plancus, who had become suspect* 
ed by Augustas of disaffection, and meditated, in consequence, retiring 
from Italy to some one of the Grecian cities. As for as can be conjee* 
tared from the present ode, Plancus had communicated his intention to. 
Horace, and the poet now seeks to dissuade him from the step, but in 
such a way, however, as not to endanger bis own standing with the empe- 
ror. The train of thought appears to be as follows : " I leave it to others 
to celebrate the far-famed cities and regions of the rest of the world. 
My admiration is wholly engrossed by the beautiful scenery around the 
banks and falls of the Anio." (He nore refrains from adding" "betake 
yourself^ Plancus, to that lovely spot," but merely subjoins,) "The south 
wind, my friend, does not always veil the sky with clouds. Do you there- 
fore bear up manfully under misfortune, and, wherever you may dwell, 
chase away the cares of life with mellow wine, taking Teucer as an exam- 
ple of patient endurance worthy of all imitation." 

1. LaudtbwU aiiL "Others are wont to praise. 9 This peculiar usage 
of the future is in imitation of a Greek idiom, of no unfrequent occur- 
rence: thus intfaowt (Hta. Ipy. co] $p. 185^ for artrffr ^cXaffri, and pip- 
yfrnrrai ( id. ibid. 186. ) for pip+vriai ftXaton. For other examples, compare 
CrovNtf, LteU Uet. e. 5. and MaUkut. G. G. $ 503. 4, 

Clarmn Rhodon. "The sunny Rhodes." The epithet daram is 
here commonly rendered by "illustrious," which weakens the force of 
the line by its generality, and is decidedly at variance with the well- 
known skill displayed by Horace in the selection of his epithets. The in- 
terpretation, which we have assigned to the word, is in full accordance with 
a passage of Lucan (a 248.) " Claramqut reliquU boU Rhodm." Pliny (H. 
At. 2. 62.) informs us of a boast on the part of the Rhodians, that not a 
day passed during which their island was not illumined for an hour at 
least by the rays of the sun, to which luminary it was sacred. — MUyUnm. 
Mitylene, the capitol of Lesbos, and birth place of Pittacus, Alcaeus, 
Sappho, and other distinguished individuals. Cicero, in speaking of this 
city, (2 OraLmRvU.l&)B*y*"Urbs J etnatwraietsUuetde*ertpt^ 
ctorum, et puUhritodme, in prima wMlia. n 

2 — 4. 2. Epheson. Ephssus, a celebrated city of Ionia, in Asia Mi-* 
nor, famed for its temple and worship of Diana. — Bimarisvc Corinthi mo- 
ms. " Or the walls of Corinth, situate between two arms of the sea." 
Corinth lay on the isthmus of the same name, between the Sinus Conn- 
thiacus (Gulf of Leponto) on the west, and the Sinus Saronicus (Gulf 
of Engia ) on the south-east. Its position was admirably adapted for 
commerce.— 3. Yd Baccho Thebas,kc. " Or Thebes ennobled by Bac- 
chus, or Delphi by Apollo." Thebes, the capital of Bcaotia, was the 
fabled scene of the birth and nurture of Bacchus. — Delphi was famed 
lor its oracle of Apollo. The city was situate on the southern side of 

mount Parnassus i.Tempe. The Greek accusative plural, Ttyjnj, con • 

traded from 17/trca. Tempo was a beautiful valley in Thessalv, betwees* 
the mountains Ossa and Olympus, and through which flowed the Peneua. 

5—7. 5. Intacta Palladia arces. "The citadel of the virgin Pallas.'- 
Alluding to the acropolis of Athens, sacred to Minerva. — 7. Indeque de- 
cerptamfonti, &c. " And to place around their brow the olive crown, de- 
served and gathered by them for celebrating such a theme." The olive was 
sacred to Minerva.— Some editions read " Undique " for " Jndeoiu," and 
the meaning will then bo "To place around their brow the olive crown 
deserved and gathered by numerous other bards." The common loo- 
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989 BXfLAlUTOBY R0T9S*— BOOK 1. ODB Til. 

tion Undiqu* dtctrpta* fnmdi, &.c. must be rendered, €i *ro prefer the olive* 
leaf to every other that is gathered." 

9—1 1. 9. Aptum equi* .Argot. u Argoe weil-fitted for the nurture of 
Steeds." An imitation of the language of Homer 'Apytot !*r*&r»i« (/L 
^ 287.) Ditesqtu Mycenas. Compare Sophocles (EUctr. 9.) Miafac **« 
v»Xvgpe*tvf. — 10. Patient Lacedctmon. Alluding to the patient endu- 
rance of the Spartans under the severe institutions of Lvcurgus. — 1 1 . La- 
riw<s campus ommau Larissa, the old Pelasgic capital of Thessaly, was 
situate on the Peneus, and famed for the rich and fertile territory in which 
it stood. — Tom percutsit. " Has struck with such warm admiration." 

19. Domut AUnmeai retonantie. "The home of A Ibunea, re-echoing to 
the roar of waters." Commentators and tourists are divided in opinion re- 
specting the dormu Atbunea. The general impression, however, scorn s 
to be, that the temple of the Sibyl, on the summit of the cliff at Tibur, 
(now TYvoii) and overhanging the cascade, presents the fairest claim to 
this distinction. It is described as being at the present day a most beauti- 
ful ruin. " This beautiful temple," observes a recent traveller, " which 
stands on the very spot where the eye of taste would have placed it, and 
on which it ever reposes with delight, is one of the most attractive features 
of the scene, and perhaps gives to Tivoli its greatest charm." (Rome t» 
the JfbuUenth Century, eoJ. 9. p. 39a Am. ed.) Anions the arguments 
in favour of the opinion above stated, it may be remarked, that Varro, as 
quoted by Lactantius (de Falsa Rel. 1. 6.) gives a list of the ancient Sibyls, 
and, among them, enumerates the one at Tibur, surnamed Albunea, as 
the tenth and last. He farther states that she was worshipped at Tibur, 
on the banks of the Anio. Suidas also says, Awdn? f Tffovprfe, 6v6pan 
AXfovvata. Eustace is in favour of the "Grotto of Neptune," as it is 
called at the present day, a cavern in the rock, to which travellers descend 
in order to view the second fall of the Anio. ( Close. Tour, vol 9. p. 230. 
Lend. ed\) Others again suppose that the domua Albuneei was in the 
neighbourhood of the Aowt AlbuUt, sulphureous lakes, or now rather 
poolsj close to the Via Tifrurfiao, leading from Rome to Tibur ; and it is 
said, in defence of this opinion, that, in consequence of the hollow ground 
in the vicinity returning an echo to footsteps, the spot obtained from 
Horace the epithet of resonanHs. (Spence's Potymetis.) The idea is cer- 
tainly an ingenious one, but it is conceived that such a situation would 
give rise to feelings of insecurity rather than of pleasure. 

13-rl5. 13. Praceps Anio. " The headlong Anio." This river, mm 
the Teverone, is famed for its beautiful cascades, near the ancient town of 
Tibur, now Tivoli. — Tiburni lucus. This grove, in the vicinity of Tibur 
took its name from Tiburnus, who had here divine honours paid to hit 
memory. Tradition made him, in conjunction with his brothers Ca till us 
and Coras (all three being sons of Amphiaraus,) to have led an Argfve 
colony to the spot and founded Tibur. — 15. Albus ut obscuro. Some 
editions make this the commencement of a new ode, on account of the 
apparent want of connection between this part and what precedes ; but 
consult the introductory remarks to the present ode, where the connec- 
tion is fully shown. By the Albus Nobis "the clear south wind,*' is 
meant the Anurfwroc, or •Apyivrttt W&ros (R. 11. 306.) of the Greeks. This 
wind, though for the most port a moist and damp one, whence its 
n«ne(i^ri(,o W r/j, * moisture," "humidity,") in certain seasons of the 
year well merited th« appellation here given it bv Horace, producing dear 

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EXFLAX ATOftT NOTES.— BOW I. ODE Till. 887 

and serene weather.— DeUrgeL " Chases away." literally "wipes 
away." 

19—32. 19. MolHmero. " With mdlow wine." Some editions place 
a comma after tristUiam in the previous line, and regard tnotti as a verb in 
the imperative : " and soften tne toils of life, O Plancus, with wine." — 21. 
TvL Alluding either to its being one of his favourite places of retreat, or, 
more probably, to the villa which he possessed there. — Teucer. Son of 
Telamon, King of Salamis, and brotner of Ajax. Returning from the 
Trojan war, he was banished by his father for not having avenged his 
brother's death. Having sailed, in consequence of this, to Cyprus, be there 
built a town called Salamis, after the name of his native city and island. — 
22. Lyon. " With wine." Lyeus is from the Greek Avaio* an appella- 
tion given to Bacchus, in allusion to Yob freeing the mind from care, ( A»e<V, 
** to loosen," " to free.") Compare the Latin epithet Liber (" aw liberal 
scums.") 

23 — 32. 23. Popxdta, The poplar was sacred to Hercules. Teucer 
wears a crown of it on the present occasion, either as the general badge of 
a hero, or because he was offering a sacrifice to Hercules. The white, or 
silver, poplar is the species here meant — 26. tocii comilesque. "O 
companions in arms and followers." Socii refers to the chieftains who 
were his companions : Canutes, to their respective followers. — 27. Auspice 
Teucro. u Under the auspices of Teucer."— 29. Ambiguam ietlure novo, 
&c " That Salamis will become a name of ambiguous import by reason 
of a new land." A new city of Salamis shall arise in a new land, 
(Cyprus) so that whenever hereafter the name is mentioned men will be 
in doubt, for the moment, whether the parent city is meant, in the island 
of the same name, or the colony in Cyprus. — 32. Grot ingent Uerabimut 
mquor. "On the morrow, we will again traverse the mighty surface of 
the deep." They had just returned from the Trojan war, and were now 
a second time to encounter the dangers of ocean. 



Ode 8. Addressed to Lydk, and reproaching her for detaining the 
young Sybaris, by her alluring arts, from the manly exercises in which he 
had been accustomed to distinguish himself. 

2—5. 2. Amanda. "By thy love."— 4. Campwn. Alluding to the 
Campus Martins, the scene of the gymnastic exercises of the Roman 
youth. — Patient jndveri* atque soli*. "Though once able to endure the 
dost and the heat."— 5. JiUUaris, "In martial array." Among the 
sports of the Roman youth, were some in which they imitated the costume 
and movements of regular soldiery. 

6 — 9. 6. JEqualet. "His companions in years." Analogous to the 
Greek n6t tjkuas. — GaUica nee lunatu, &c. "Nor manages the Gallic 
steeds with curbs fashioned like tne teeth of wolves." The Gallic steeds 
were held in high estimation by the Romans. Tacitus (Ann. 2. 5.) 
speaks of Gaul's being at one time almost drained of its horses : "Jfejssf 
Gallia* ministrandis equis. They were, however, so fierce and spirited a 
breed as to render necessary the employment of "jrena fupoto," i. e. curbs 
armed with iron points resembling the teeth of wolves. Compare the 
corresponding Greek terms M«w and Ixtvot. Schneider. Worltrb. $. v. — 
9. Flavvtn Tiberim. Compare Explanatory Notes, Ode 2. 13. of tins 

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288 K1W.AMAT0RT NOTES.— BOO* I. ODB I*. 

book. — 9. Olivwru "The oil of the ring." Wax was comorily mixed 
with it, and the composition was then termed ceroma (agptSpa.) WHh this 
the wrestlers were anointed in order to give pliability to their limb*, and, 
after anointing their bodies, were covered with dust, for the purpose of 
affording their antagonists a better bold. (Compare Lucian, de Gym- 
noras, vol. 7. p. 189. ed. hip.) The term ceroma {mp&pa) is sometimes in 
consequence used for the ring hself. (Compare Plutarch, An sent sit ger. 
resp.—vol. 12. p. 119. ed. Hutten. Seneca. BreviL vit. 12. Ptm. H. X. 
35. 2.) 

10 — 16. 10. Arms. "By martial exercises." — 11. Sttpe omco, &c 
"Though famed for the discus often cast, for the javelin often hurled, be- 
yond the mark." The discus (Afaroc) or colt, was round, flat, and perfo- 
rated in the centre. It was made either of iron, brass, lead, or etonc, and 
was usually of great weight Some authorities are in favour of a central 
aperture, others are silent on this head. The Romans borrowed this 
exercise from the Greeks, and among the latter the Lacedaemonians were 
particularly attached to it. — 12. Expedite. This term carries with it the 
idea of great skill as evinced by the ease of performing these exercises.— 
13. Ut marina. &c Alluding to the story of Achilles having been con- 
cealed in female vestments at the court of Lycomedes, King of Scyros, m 
order to avoid going to the Trojan war. — 14. Sub lacrytnosee Troja fwera. 
"On the eve of the mournful carnage of Troy." L e. in the midst of the 
preparations for the Trojan war. — 15. VirUis cuHus. " Manlv attire."— 
16. In cadem et Lycias catenae. A Hendiadys. * To the slaughter of 
the Trojan bands." Lycias is here equivalent to Trqjanas, and refers to 
the collected forces of the Trojans and their allies. 



Ode 9. Addressed to Thaliarchus, whom some event had robbed of 
his peace of mind. The poet exhorts his friend to banish care from his 
breast, and, notwithstanding the pressure of misfortune, and the gloomy 
severity of the winter-season, which then prevailed, to enjoy the present 
hour and leave the rest to the gods. 

The commencement of this ode would appear to have been imitated 
from Alcaus. 

2. Soracte. Mount Soracte lay to the south-east of Falerii, in the ter- 
ritory of the Falisci, a part of ancient Etruria. It is now called Monte S. 
SUoeslra, or, as it is by modern corruption sometimes termed, SanV Oresie. 
On the summit was a temple and grove, dedicated to Apollo, to whom 
an annual sacrifice was offered by the people of the country distinguished 
by the name of Hirpii, who were on that account held sacred, and exempt- 
ed from military service and other public duties (Plitu H. A*. 7. 2.) The 
sacrifice consisted in their passing over heaps of red hot embers, without 
being injured by the fire. (Compare Virgil, Aen. 11. 785. SiLItaLS. 
175.) 

3. Laborantes. Tlus epithet beautifully describes the forests as strug- 
gling and bending beneath the weight of the superincumbent ice and snow. 
&8 regards the present climate of Italy, which is thought from this and 
other passages of the ancient writers, to have undergone a material change, 
the following remarks may not prove unacceptable. "It has been 
thought by some modern writers > w observes Mr. Cramer, (re/erring to 

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CKM4VATMLY HOTM.— *OOK I. 09* X. St 

&M4d»8«, "Reflex, sur U Poesie et sur U Pemture, 19 vol ft. p. 29S. 
and VAbU Longuerue, cited by Gibbon, u Miscellaneous Works/ 9 vol X p. 
845.) " thai the climate and temperature of Italy have undergone some 
change daring the lapse of apes : that the neighbourhood of Rome, for 
instance, was colder than it is at present This opinion seems founded on 
some passages of Horace (Ode. 1. 9. EptsU 1. 7. 10.) and Juvenal (SaL 
& 521.) in which mention is made of the Tibor as being frozen, and of the 
rest of the country as exhibiting all the severity of winter. But these are 
circumstances which happen as often in the present day as in the time of 
Horace ; nor is it a very uncommon thing to see snow in the streets of 
Rome in March, or even April. I witnessed a fall of snow there, on the 
12th of April, 1817. Whatever change may have taken place in some 
districts is probably owing to the clearing away of great forests, or the 
draining ot marshes, as in Lombardy, which must be allowed to be a 
much better cultivated and more populous country than it was m the time 
of the Romans. On the other hand, great portions of land now remain 
uncultivated which were once productive and thickly inhabited. The 
Campagna dt Roma, part of Tuscany, and a great portion of Calabria are 
instances of the latter change." (Description of Ancient Italy, voL 1. 

MO.) 

3 — 10. 3. Gduaarto. "By reason of the keen frost"— 5. Dissohe 
fiigus. " Dispell the cold."— e\ Benignius. "More plentifully." Re- 
garded by some as an adjective, agreeing with merum, " Rendered more 
mellow by are." — 7. Sabina diota. " From the Sabine jar." The vessel 
is here called Sabine, from its containing wine made in the country of the 
Sabines. The diota received its name from its having two handles or 
ears (&t and 0?$). It contained generally forty eight sextarii, about twenty 
seven quarts English measure. — 9. Qui simul stravere, &c. " For, as soon 
as they have lulled," &c The relative is here elegantly used to introduce 
a sentence, instead of a personal nronoun with a particle. — JEquorefervidx 
u Orer the boiling surface of the deep." 

13 — 24. 13. Fuge quarere. "Avoid enquiring." Seek not to know* 
— 14. Quod Fort Merum cunque dabit. A tmesis for quodcunque Merum 
fort dabiL — Lucre adpone. "Set down as gain"— 16. Puer. "While 
still young." — Jfcque tu choreas. The use, or rather repetition, of the pro- 
noon before choreas is extremely elegant, and in imitation of the Greek. — 
17. Donee virenti, &c "As Ions as morose old-age is absent from thee 
still blooming with youth. — 18. Campus et area. " Rambles both in the 
Campus Martins and along the public walks." By area are here meant 
those parts of the city that were free from buildings, the same probably as 
the squares and parks of modem days, where voting lovers were fond of 
strolling. — Subnoetem. "At the approach of evening."— 21. Jfunc et 
Mentis, &c The order of the construction is, et nunc grains risus (rape- 
tatmr) ab tntimo angulo, proditor latenHs pueltee. The verb repetatur is 
understood. The poet alludes to some youthful sport, by the rules of 
which a forfeit was exacted from the person whose place of concealment 
was discovered, whether by the ingenuity of another, or the voluntary act 
of the party concealed.— 24. Male pertinaci. "Faintly resisting." Pre- 
tending only to oppose. 



Ode 10. In praise of Mercury. Imitated, according to the Scholiast 
Porpbyrioo, from the Greek poet oicsjus. 



y Google 



989 EXPLAMATQM MOTES.— BOOK I. ODB X. 

1 — & 1. Fticvnde. Mercury was regarded as the inventor of language, 
and the god of eloquence.— Jfepos AUanUt. Mercury was the fabled son 
of Mala, one of the daughters of Atlas. — The word Atlantis must be pro 
nounced here A-tlarUis y in order to keep the penultimate foot a trochee. 
This peculiar division of syllables is imitated from the Greek. Thus 
m-tyui {Soph. PkUoct. 490.), wwr (ib. 874.). t* X w (id. Track. 629.) 
&c 8. FeroM evihu hom&num recenhm. "The savage manners of the 
early race of men." The ancients believed that the early state of mankind 
was but little removed from that of the brutes. (Compare Horace, Scrm. 
L 3. 99. uqq.)— 3. Voce. "By the gift of language."— Catu*. "Wisely.'" 
Mercury wisely thought, that nothing would sooner improve and sorter 
down the savage manners of the primitive race of men than mutual inter 
course, and the interchange of ideas by means of language. — Decora more 
pdeutnz. " By the institution of the grace-bestowing palaestra." The 
epithet decor* is here used to denote the effect produced on the human 
frame by gymnastic exercises. — 6. Cvrva lyra parentem. " Parent of the 
sending lyre." Mercury [Hymn, m Jtferc 20. seaq.) is said, while still an 
infant to have formed the lyre from a tortoise which he found in his path, 
stretching seven strings over the hollow shell, (iwri &i ovp+Amn itw 
Iraviffvaro x*p&a&) Hence the epithets 'Epftatrj and KvXXipmtti, which are 
applied to this instrument, and hence also the custom of designating it by 
the terms x&Wt chehf*, testudo, &c Compare Gray, (Progress of Poesy) 
"Enchanting shell." Another, and probably less accurate, account makes 
this deity to nave discovered on the banks of the Nile, after the subsiding 
of an inundation, the shell of a tortoise with nothing remaining of the body 
but the sinews: these when touched emitted a musical sound, and gave 
Mercury the first hint of the lyre. {Compare perm. e. 23. Isidor. Orig. 3. 
4) It is very apparent that the fable, whatever the true version may be, 
has an astronomical meaning, and contains a reference to the seven 
planets, and to the pretended music of the Bpheres. 

9—11. 9. Te botes olim nisi reddidisses, &c "While Apollo, in former 
days, necks, with threatening accents to terrify thee, still a mere stripling, 
unless thou didst restore the cattle removed by thy art, he laughed to find 
himself deprived also of his auiver." — Bovcs. The cattle of Admetus 
were fed by Apollo on the banks of the Amphrysus, in Thessaly, after 
that deity had been banished for a time from the skies for destroying the 
Cyclopes. Mercury, still a mere infant, drives off fifty of the herd, and con- 
ceals them near the Alpheus, nor does he discover the place where they 
are hidden until ordered so to do by bis sire. (Hymn, in Merc. 70. seqq.) 
Lucian (DiaL D. 7.) mentions other sportive thefts of the same deity, oy 
which he deprived Neptune of his trident, Mars of his sword, ApoUo of 
his bow, Venus of her cestus, and Jove himself of his sceptre. He 
would have stolen the thunderbolt also, had it not been too heavy and not 
(Bi tt /i} fiapfctpot i Ktpavbs 9*1 **l *oXd rd irOp «7x«, kAiwvov iv 66<Acro. 
Lucian, L cA — 1 1. Viduus. A G racism for vidmun se sentient. Horace, 
probably following Alcaeus, blends together two mythological events, 
which, according to other authorities, happened at distinct periods. The 
Hymn to Mercury merely speaks of the tnefl of the cattle, after which 
Mercury gives the lyre as a peace-offering to Apollo. The only allusion 
to the arrows of the god is where Apollo, after this, expresses his fear lent 
the son of Maia may deprive him both of these weapons aid of the lyre 

Aef fca, MatrfAof vtt, £u(rropc, raffiXd/igrv, 
ju} jtM dyaxAtyfff Kiddptjr sol ffapirvXa rtf£a. 



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BXFLAXATORT M0TS8.— BOOK I. ODS XI. 99} 

IS— 19. 13. Q.wnetAtridas i S r e. "Under thy guidance, too, the rich 
Priam passed unobserved the haughty sons of Atreus." Alluding to the 
visit wnich the aged monarch paid to the Grecian camp in order to ran- 
som the corpse of Hector. Jupiter ordered Mercury to be his guide, and 
to conduct him unobserved and in safety to the tent of Achilles. (Con- 
salt Homer f 11. 24. 336, seqq.) — 14. Dices Priamus. Alluding not only to 
his wealth generally, but also to the rich presents which he was bearing 
to Achilles.— J 5. Thesstdos ignes. " The Thessalian watch fires." Re- 
ferring to the watches and troops of Achilles, through whom Priam had 
to pass in order to reach the tent of their leader. — 16. FefelliL Equivalent 
here to the Greek ihzOtp. — 17. Tu puts tofts, fyc. Mercury is here rep- 
resented in his most important character, as the guide of departed spirits. 
Hence the epithets of t/.*v%Mr»fiY^and vsqwiro/nror so often applied to him. 
The verb reponfa in the present stanza receives illustration, as to its mean- 
ing, from the passage in Virgil, where the future descendants of jEneaa are 
represented as occupying abodes in the land of spirits previously to their 
being summoned to the regions of day. {JEn. 6. 756, seqq,)— 18. Ftrgo- 
que icvem coerces, &c An allusion to the cadueeus of Mercury.— 19. 
Super-is deorum, a Gnecism for Superis dUs. 



Ode 11. Addressed to Leuconoe, by which fictitious name a female 
friend of the poet's is thought to be designated. Horace, having disco- 
vered that she was in the habit of consulting; the astrologers of the day 
in order to ascertain, if possible, the term both of her own, as well as 
his, existence, entreats her to abstain from such idle enquiries, and leave 
fee events of the future to the wisdom of the gods. 

1 — 1 1. Tu.ne qtuBsieris. "Enquire not, I entreat" Thesubjunc- 
tire mood is here used as a softened imperative, to express entreaty or 
request : and the air of earnestness witn which the poet addresses his 
female friend is increased by the insertion of the personal pronoun. — 3. 
Finem. " Term of existence." — BabyUnrnnumeros. " Chaldean tables.** 
The Babylonians, or, more strictly speaking, Chaldeans, were the great 
astrologers of antiquity, and constructed tables for the calculation of 
nativities and the prediction of future events. This branch of charlata- 
nism made such progress and attained so regular a form among them, 
that subsequently the terms Chaldean and Astrologer became completely 
synonymous.— 3. Ut melius. " How much better is it"— 4. Ultimam. 
M This as the last" 

4 — 9. 4. Qius nunc opposite, &c "Which now breaks the strength 
of the Tuscan sea on the opposing rocks corroded by its waves." By the 
term pumicUms are meant rocks corroded and eaten into caverns by the 
constant dashing of the waters.— 5. Vina liques. " Filtrate thy wines." 
The wine-strainers of the Romans were made of linen, placed round a 
frame-work of osiers, shaped like an inverted cone. In consequence 
of the various solid or viscous ingredients which the ancients added to 
their wines, frequent straining became necessary to prevent inspissntion. 
^-Spatio brtvL " In consequence of the brief span of human existence." 
— 31 Carps Mem. "Enjoy the present day." 



Odk 18. Addressed to Augustus.— The poet, intending to celebrate 

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191 EXPLUf ATOmr MOTES.— BOOK I. ODE. ML 

the praises of his imperial master, pursues a course extremely flattering to 
the vanity of the latter, by placing his merits on a level with those of 
gods and heroes. 

1—6. 1. Qitm virwm out hero*. "What living or departed hero." 
Compare the remark of the scholiast, " Quern virum devMs? quern fens 
de morhds ?"— Lyra vel aeri tibia. " On the lyre, or shrill-toned pipe." i. e> 
in strains adapted to either of these instruments.— 2. Cdebrure. AGic* 
cjsm, for ad ceUbrandum. — Clio. The first of the nine muses, and pre- 
siding over epic poetry and history.— 3. Jocosa imago. " Sportive ecSo." 
Understand vocis.—5. In umbrosis HcHconu oris. " Amid the shady bor- 
ders of Helicon." A mountain in Boeotia, one of the favourite haunts 
of the Muses.— 6. Super Pindo. "On the summit of Pindus." The 
chain of Pindus separated Thesealy from Epirus. It was sacred to 
Apollo and the Muses. — Homo. Mount Hemus stretches its great belt 
round the north of Thrace, in a direction nearly parallel with the coast 
of the iEgean. The modem name is Emineh Dag, or Balkan. 

7—15. 7. Vocalm. "The tuneful"— Temere. "In wild confusion." 
The scene of this wonderful feat of Orpheus was near Zone, on the 
coast of Thrace. (Mela, 2. 2.) — 9. Arte materna. Orpheus was the la- 
bled son of Calliope, one of the Muses. — 11. Blandwn et auritas, && 
"Sweetly persuasive also to lead along with melodious lyre the listening 
oaks," i. e. who with sweetly persuasive accents and melodious lyre 
led along, &c The epithet auritas is here applied to quercus by a bold 
image. The oaks are represented as following Orpheus with pncked-up 
ears.— 13. Quid prius dicam, &c « What shall I celebrate before the 
accustomed praises of the Parent of us all ?" Some read parentum, in* 
stead of parentis, "What shall I first celebrate, in accordance with the ac- 
customed mode of praising adopted by our fathers ?" Others, retaining 
parentom, place an interrogation after dicam, and a comma* after lauoHbus. 
"What shall I first celebrate in song? — In accordance with the accus- 
tomed mode of praising adopted by our fathers, I will sing of him who" 
&c — 15. Varus horis. "With its changing seasons." 

17 — 26. 17. Unde. "From whom." Equivalent to ex quo. — 19. 
Proximo* tamen, &c "Pallas, however, enjoys honours next m impor- 
tance to his own." Minerva had her temple, or rather shrine, in the Capi- 
tol, on the right aide of that of Jupiter, while Juno's merely occupied tie 
left Some commentators think that Minerva was the only one of the 
deities after Jupiter who had the right of hurling the thunderbolt This, 
however, is expressly contradicted by ancient coins. (Rasche, Lex.Rei 
Jfuntisin. vol %pt. 1. p. 1192.— Heyne, Excurs. ad Virg. JEn. 1. 42.)— 21. 
Praliis audax Liber. The victories of Bacchus, and especially his con- 
quest of India, form a conspicuous part of ancient mythology. — 22. Sctris 
inimica Virgo belluis. Diana. Compare her Greek epithets %>crtm, 
and /o^atpa.— 25. Aleiden. Hercules, grandson of Alaeus. — Puerosqve 
Leda. Castor and Pollux. — Hune. Alluding to Castor. Compare the 
Homeric Kdoropa imrt6oitov, € (IL 3. 237.) — Ilium. Pollux. Compare the 
Homeric «6| AyaO&v HoXv£rf«c<a. ( IL L e. ) — Pugnis. "In pugilistic en- 
counters," literally u with fists." 

27— 27. Quorum sirmd alba, &c "For, as soon as the propitious* 
star of each of them," &c. Alba is here used not so much in the sen*^ 
of ludda and elara, as in that of purum ae serenum caium redden*. Com**^ 
pare the expression AUm Jfotus, (Ode 1. 7. 15.) and Explanatory No' 

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SXFLANATdftT NOTES.— BOOK L ODE XII. 903' 

(Ode 1. 3. 8.)— 29. AgUatus humor. "The foaming water." 31. Ponto 
reeimMf. M Subsides on the surface of the deep."— 34. PompUL Nu- 
ma Pompilius. — Superboa Tar quini fasces. "The splendid fasces of Tar- 
qninias Superbus," L e. the powerful reign of Tarquin the Proud. Com- 
mentators are in doubt whether the first or second Tarqum is here meant, 
and to most of them it appears incongruous and improper that mention 
of Tarquinius Superbus should be made in an ode which closes with the 
praises of Augustus. This difficulty, however, is easily explained. The 
phrase dubUo an prUu memorem, far from being a merepoetic form, is 
meant to express actual doubt in the mind of the poet Trie bard is un- 
certain, whether to award the priority in the scale of merit to Romulus, 
die founder of the eternal city, or to Numa, who first gave it civilization 
and regular laws, or to Tarquinius Superbus, who raised the regal au- 
thority to the highest splendour, or to Cato, the last of the Republicans, 
who defended the old constitution until resistance became useless. — With 
respect to Cato, who put an end to his existence at Utica, the poet calls 
his death a noble one, without any fear of incurring the displeasure of Au- 
gustus, whose policy H was to profess an attachment for the ancient forms 
of the republic, and consequently for its defenders.— Some editors not 
comprehending the true meaning of the poet, read, on conjecture, JunU 
fasces, for Tarqvhd fasces, and suppose the allusion to be to the first Bru- 
tus. Bentley, also, thinking Catonts too bold, proposes CurtL 

37—40. 37. Regulum. Compare Ode 3. 5. — Scauros. The house 
of the Scauri gave many distinguished men to the Roman republic. 
The most eminent among them were M. JEmilius Scaurus, princeps 
tenatusy a nobleman of great anility, and his son M. Scaurus. The 
former held the consulship A. U. C. 639. Sallust gives an unfavourable 
account of him, (lug. 15.) Cicero, on the other hand, highly extols his 
virtues, abilities, and achievements, (dt Off. 1. 82. et 30. — Ep, ad Lent. 
1. 9. — Brut. 29. — Orat. pro Jtfiirftna, 7.) Sallust's account is evidently 
tinged with the party-spirit of the day. — 38. Paullum, Paullus JEmi- 
lius, consul with Terentius Varro, and defeated along with his col- 
league, by Hannibal, in the disastrous battle of Cannes. — Park). " The 
Carthaginian." Hannibal. — 41. Incomptis curium capillis. Alluding to 
Manias Cu rius Dentatus, the conqueror of Pyrrhus. The expression th* 
camptis capUis, refers to the simple and austere manners of the early Ro- 
mans. — 40. Fabriciwn. C. Fabricius Luscinus, the famed opponent of 
Pyrrhus, and of the Samnites. It was of him Pyrrhus declared, that it 
nrould be more difficult to make him swerve from his integrity than to 
turn the son from its course. (Compare Cic. de Off. 3. 22. — VaU Jtfox. 

42 — 44. 42. CmnSlum. M. Fun us Camillas, the liberator of his 
oari try from her Gallic invaders.-- 43. Sava paupertas. As paupertas re- 
nins in this passage its usual signification, implying, namely, a want not 
f th« necessaries, but of the comforts, of life, the epithet sava is not en- 
tied here to its full force. The clause may therefore be rendered as fol- 
iws r* " A scanty fortune, which inured to hardship its possessor." — 
I atritus apto cum lore fundus. " And an hereditary estate with a dwel- 
ler proportioned to it." The idea intended to be conveyed is, that Cu- 
t 9 axmd Camillus, in the midst of scanty resources, proved far more use- 
[ to tiaeir country than if they had been the owners of the most exten- 
re paatesstQUB, or the votaries of luxury. 



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S94 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK I. ODE XIII. 

45—47. 45. Cr«ei*occWto,&c "The .fame of MarceUus increase* 
like a tree amid the undistinguished lapse of time." Alluding to the 
illustrious line of the Marcelli. The glory of this ancient house had 
sunrived the lapse of ages, and a new ana illustrious scion was beginning 
to bloom in the young MarceUus, the son of Octavia and nephew of 
Augustus.— 46. Micat inter omnts, &c. The young MarceUus is here com- 
pared to a bright star, illuming with its effulgence the Julian line, 
and forming the hope and glory of that illustrious house. He married 
Julia, the daughter of Augustus, and was publicly intended as the sao- 
cessor of that emperor, but his early death, at the age of eighteen, fnat- 
trated all these hopes and plunged the Roman world in mourning. Vir- 
gil beautifully alludes to him at the close of the sixth book of the^neid, 
— 17. Ignes minaret. " The feebler fires of the night" The stars. 

51 — 54. 51. Tu secundo C^uare regnes. " Thou shalt reign in the 
heavens, with Caesar as thy vicegerent upon earth." — 53. Parthot Loao 
imminentts. Horace is generally supposed to have composed this 
ode at the time that Augustus was preparing for an expedition against 
the Parthians, whom the defeat of Crassus, and the check sustained 
by Antony, had elated to such a degree, that the poet might well 
speak of them as " now threatening the repose of the Roman world." 
Lotto is elegantly put for Romano Imntrio. — 54. Egerit jtisto frnmofa. 
" Shall have led along in just triumph." The conditions of a " tat- 
ha triumpkus," in the days of the republic, were as follows: 1. The 
war must have been a just one, and waged with foreigners ; no triumph 
was allowed in a civil war. 2. Above 5000 of the enemy must have been 
slain in one battle, (Appian says it was in his time 10,000.) 3. By this 
victory the limits of the empire must have been enlarged. 

55 — 60. 55. Subjectos Orientu era. " Lying along the borders of the 
East" By the Seres are evidently meant the natives of China, whom 
an overland trade for silk had gradually, though imperfectly, made known 
to the western nations. — 57. Te minor. " Inferior to thee alone." Un- 
derstand solo. — 59. Parvm castis. " Polluted." Alluding to the cor- 
rupt morals of the day. The ancients had a belief that lightning never 
descended from the skies except on places stained by some pollution 



Ode 13. Addressed to Lydia, with whom the Poet had very proba- 
bly quarrelled, and whom he now seeks to turn away from a passion 
for Telephus. He describes the state of his own feelings, when praises 
are bestowed by her whom he loves on the personal beauty of a bated 
rival ; and, while endeavouring to cast suspicion upon the sincerity of 
the latter' s passion for her, he descants upon the joys of an uninterrupted 
union founded on the sure basis of mutual affection. 

8 — 8. 2. Cervicem roseam. "The rosy neck." Compare Virgil, 
(JEn. 1. 402.) " Rosea cervicerefidsU." The meaning of the poet is, a 
neck beautiful and fragrant as the rose. — 3. Cerea brackU. The epithet 
cerea, " waxen," carries with it the associate ideas of smoothness, or 
glossy surface, &c the allusion being to the white wax of antiquity. 
Bentley, however, rejects cereo, and reads lactta. — Difficili. " Difficult to 
be repressed." — 6. Manent. The plural is here employed, as equivalent 
to the double manet. This latter form would vitiate the measure. — H* 



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EXPLANATORY XOTK*.— BOOS L ODE JUT. 995 

msrdtn gents, &c " And the tear steals silently down my cheeks."— 
8t Lends ignibus. u By the slow consuming fires." 

9 — SO. 9. Uror. " I am tortured at the sight" Equivalent to ad- 
tpectu cruder. — 10. Immodica mero. " Rendered immoderate by wine." 
—12, Memvrem. "As a memorial of his passion.' 1 — 13. Si me satis au- 
dio*. " If you give heed to me." Ifyou still deem my words worthy 
of your attention. — 14. Perpetuwn. "That he will prove constant in his 
attachment" Understand fore. — Dulcia barbare Usdentem oscula. "Who 
barbarously wounds those sweet lips, which Venus has imbued with the 
fifth part of all her nectar." Each god, observes Porson, was supposed 
to have a given quantity of nectar at disposal j and to bestow the fifth or the 
tenth part of this on any individual was a special favour. The common, 
but incorrect interpretation of oxdnta parte is " with the quintessence." 
—18. Irrupta copula. " An indissoluble union." — 20. Suprema die, 
• The last day of their existence." 



Ode 14. Addressed to the vessel of the State, just escaped from the 
ftormy billows of civil commotion, and in danger of being again exposed 
to the violence of the tempest. This ode appears to have been compo- 
sed at the time when Augustus consulted Maecenas and Agrippa whether 
he should resign or retain the sovereign authority. 

1 — 8. 1. O navis, referunt, &c " O ship ! new billows are bearing 
thee back again to the deep." The poet, in his alarm, supposes the ves- 
sel (i. e. his country) to be already amid the waves. By the term tunrit 
lis country is denoted, which the hand of Augustus had just rescued from 
the perils of shipwreck ; and by mare the troubled and stormy waters of 
civir dissension are beautifully pictured to the view. — 2. jfovi Jhtctus. 
Alluding to the commotions which must inevitably arise if Augustus 
abandons the helm of affairs.— 3. Portum. The harbour here meant is 
the tranquillity which was beginning to prevail under the government of 
Augustus. — Ut nudum remigio lotus. " How bare thy side is of oars ?" 
— 6. Ac svufunUnu carina. " And thy hull, without cables to secure it." 
Some commentators think that the poet alludes to the practice usual 
arnon^ the ancients of girding their vessels with cables in violent storms, 
in order to prevent the planks from starting asunder. — S. Imperiosius 
oeuor. u The increasing violence of the sea.' 1 The comparative de- 
scribes the sea as growing every moment more and more violent 

10 — 13. 10. Di. Alluding to the tutelary deities, whose images were 
accustomed to be placed, together with a small altar, in the stern of the 
vessel. The figurative meaning of the poet presents to us the guardian 
deities of Rome offended at the sanguinary excesses of the civil wars, 
and determined to withold their protecting influence, if the state should 
be a^ain plunged into anarchy and confusion . — 11. Pontica pinus. " Ot 
Pontic pine." The pine of Pontus was hard and durable* and of great 
value in ship building. Yet the vessel of the state is warned by the 
poet not to rely too much upon the strength of her timbers. — 12. Silvm 
fitia nobilis. " The noble daughter of the forest." A beautiful imaire, 
which Martial appears to have imitated, (14. 90.) " Non sum Maitra filia 
silixB. — 13. Et genus et nomen inutile. " Both thy lineage, and unavailing 
fame." The idea intended to bo crnveved bv the whole clause is aa 

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896 EXPLANATORY NOTES 4B00K I. 0»X XT. 

follows : « Idle, O my country ! will be the boast of thy former glories, 
and the splendour of thy ancient name.'* 

14—20. 14. PicHs fmppibus. Besides being graced with the statnei 
of the tutelary deities, the sterns of ancient vessels were likewise enibet 
lished withpaintings and other ornaments. — 15. JVut debts vmtis Uub- 
bnurru "Unless thou art doomed to be the sport of the winds," An 
imitation of the Greek idiom, tyW ycXwro. — 17. JPuper soflicifwn, && 
" Thou who wert lately a source of disquietude and weariness to me, who 
at present art an object of fond desire and strong apprehension," &c The 
expression soUicitum tedium refers to the unquiet feelings which swtyed 
the bosom of the poet during the period of the civil contest, and to the 
weariness and disgust which the long continuance of those scenes pro- 
duced in his breast Under the sway of Augustus, however, his eoantrr 
again becomes the idol of his warmest affections, (desiderwm,) and a feel- 
ing of strong apprehension (euro non Uvis) takes possession of him, lest 
he may again see her involved in the horrors of civil war. — 20. Jfittnta 
Cydadaa. " The Cyclades conspicuous from afar." The epithet mka- 
tes appears to refer, not so much to the marble contained in most of then 
islands, as to the circumstance of its appearing along the coasts of many 
of the group, and rendering them conspicuous objects at a distance. 



Onx. 15. This ode is thought to have been composed on the breaking 
out of the last civil war between Octavianus and Antony. Nereus, the sea- 
god, predicts the ruin of Troy at the very time that Paris bears Helen 
over the JEgean sea from Sparta. Under the character of Paris, the 
poet, according to some commentators, intended to represent the infatu- 
ated Antony, whose passion for Cleopatra he foretold would be attended 
with the same disastrous consequences as that of the Trojan prince for 
Helen ; and under the Grecian heroes, whom Nereus in imagination 
beholds combined against Ilium, Horace, it has been said, represents the 
leaders of the party of Augustus. 

1 — 4. 1. Patter. Paris, whose early life was spent among the 
shepherds of mount Ida, in consequence of his mother's fearful dream. 
Sanadon, who is one of those that attach an allegorical meaning to this 
ode, thinks that tho allusion to Antony commences wkh the very first 
word of the poem, since Antony was one of the Luperci, or priests of 
Pan, the god of shepherds. — Trahtret. " Was bearing forcibly away." 
Horace here follows the authority of those writers, who make Helen to 
have been carried off by Paris against her will. Some commentators, 
however, consider traheret, in this passage, as equivalent to lenU nacigo- 
tione cvrcxtmduceret, since Paris, according to one of the scholiasts and 
Eustathms, did not go directly from Lacedaemon to Troy, but, in ap 
prehension of being pursued, sailed to Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Egypt — 
Naribus Idads* " In vessels made of the timber of Ida." — 3. Jngrvto etia> 
" In an unweMbme calm." — 4. Ut caneret /era fata. " That he might 
foretell their gloomy destinies." 

5—12. 5. Mala am. " Under evil omens." — 7. Conjvrata ht*$ rvm- 
pert nuptiasy &c. " Bound by a common oath to sever the union between 
thee and thy loved one, and to destroy the ancient kingdom of Priam." 
The term nupHas is here used, not in its ordinary sense, but with refer- 

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BXPLANATOftY KOTES.— BOOK I. ODC If. 299 

floce to the criminal lores of Paris and Helen. — 9. Qtumhu sudor. 
u What toil." — 10. Quanta fimera. « What carnage."— 1*. Et rabiem 
font ** And is kindling up her martial fury." The zeugma in parol, 
and the air of conciseness which it imparts to the style, are peculiarly 
striking. 

15—19. 13L Veneris prasidioferox. "Proudly relying on the aid of 
Venus." — 14. Grataque feminU, fyc. " And distribute pleasing strains 
among women on the unmanly lyre.*' The expression earmina divider* 
feaanis means nothing more than to execute different airs for different 
females in succession. The allegorical meaning is considered by some 
as being still kept up in this passage : Antony, according to Plutarch, 
lived for a time at Samoa, with Cleopatra, in the last excesses of luxury, 
amid the delights of music and song, while all the world around were 
terrified with apprehensions of a civil war. — 16. Thalamo. " In thy bed- 
chamber."— 1 7. Calami spieula GnossU. Gnossus, or C nossus, was one of 
tbc oldest and most important cities of Crete, situate on the river Ceratus. 
Hence Gnmhu is taken by Synecdoche in the sense of " Cretan." The 
inhabitants of Crete were famed for their skill in archery. — 18. Strepitum 
eve, et celerem sequi Jijacem. " And the din of battle, and Aiax swift in 
pursuit." The expression celerem sequi is a Grascism for celerem ad se- 
quendum. The Oilean Ajax is here meant (Horn. II. 2. 527.) — 19* 
Tamen. This particle is to be referred to quamvis which is implied in 

una, L e. quamvis serus f tamen coUmes. " Though late in the con 

ffict, still," &c» 

21—28. 21. LaerUaden* "The son of Laertes." Ulysses. The Greek 
form of the patronymic (Aatprid&m) comes from AaJpnof, for Aaiprrjf. 
(•Vattsfo, G. G. vol. 1. p. 130.)— The skill and sagacity of Ulysses were 
among the chief causes of the downfall of Troy. — 22. Pylium Neatora. 
There were three cities named Pylos, in the Peloponnesus, two in Elis 
and one in Messenia, and all laid claim to the honour of being Nestor's 
birth place. Strabo is in favour of the Triphylian Pylos, in the district 
ofTnphyiia, in Elis. (Compare Home, ad JL 4.591: 11, 681.)— 23. 
Salammius Tenter- Teucer, son of Telamon, King of Salamis, and 
brother ot Ajax. — 24. Sthenelus. Son of Capaneus, and charioteer of 
Oiomedc. — 26. Merionen. Charioteer of I do m en e us, King of Creft. — 
23. Tfdides melior patre. "The son of Tydeus, in arms superior to his 
•ire." Horace appears to allude to the language of Sthenelus, (IL 4, 
405.) in defending himself and EHomedc from the reproaches of Agamem- 
non, when the latter was marshalling his forces after the violation of the 
truce by Pandarus, and thought that he perceived reluctance to engage 
on the part of Diomede and his companion. 'Hptls rot waHpuv /ify* dftdvo- 
"f cvxtftd' uvai, are the words of Sthenelus. 

29—35. 29. Quern tu, cervus f &c. " Whom, as a stag, unmindful of its 
pasture, flees from a wolf seen by it in the opposite extremity of some 
valley, thou, effeminate one, shalt flee from with deep pantings, not hav- 
ing promised this to thy beloved." Compare Ovid, Her* 16. 356. — 33. 
Irocunda diem, &c Literally, "The angry fleet of Achilles shall protract 
the day of destruction tor Ilium, &c. i. e. the anger of Achilles, who re- 
tired to his fleet, shall protract, &&— 35. Post certas Hemes. M After a 
Jcetiaed period of years." 



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198 EXFLAffATOBY M OTB9.— BOOK L ODB XTL 

Ode 18. Horace, in early life, had written some severe verses against 
a young female, He now retracts his injurious expressions, and lays thi 
blame on the ardent and impetuous feelings of youth. The ode tuna 
principally on the fatal effects of unrestrained anger. An old commen- 
tator informs us that the name of the female was Gratidia, and that she 
is the same with the Canidia of the Epodes. Acron and Porphyrion call 
her Tyndaris. whence some have been led to infer, that Gratidia, whom Ho- 
race attacked, was the parent, and that, being now in love with her daugh- 
ter Tyndaris, he endeavours to make his peace with the latter, by giving 
up his injurious verses to her resentment Acron, however, farther states, 
that Horace in his Palinodia imitates Stesichorus, who, having lost his 
sight as a punishment for an ode against Helen, made subsequently • fall 
recantation, and was cured of his blindness. Now, as Tyndaris was the 
patronymic appellation of Helen, why may not the Roman poet have 
merely transferred this name from the Greek original to his own produc- 
tion, without intending to assign it any particular meaning? 

8 — 5. 2. Criminosis iambi*. a To my injurious iambics. 9 ' Theism 
bic measure was originally applied to the purposes of satirical compo- 
sition.— 4. Jtfort Adriano. The Adriatic is here put for water gene- 
rally. The ancients were accustomed to cast whatever they detested 
either into tho flames or the water. — 5. Mm Dindyrnene, &uc " Nor 
Cybele, nor the Pythian Apollo, god of prophetic inspiration, so agitate 
the minds of their priesthood in the secret shrines, Bacchus docs not 
so shake the soul, nor the Corybantes when they strike with redoubled 
blows on the shrill cymbals, as gloomy anger rages." Understand 
qualiunt with Corybantes and inz respectively, and observe the expres- 
sive force of the zeugma. The idea intended to be conveyed, is, when 
divested of its poetic attire, simply this : " Nor Cybele, nor ApoUo, nor 
Bacchus, nor tne Corybantes, can shake the soul as does the power of 
anger." — Dindymene. The Goddess Cybele received this name from 
being worshipped on mount Dindymus, near the city of Pessinus in 
Galatia, a district of Asia Minor. 

6 — 11. 6. Inccla Pythhis. The term incola beautifully expresses the 
prophetic inspiration of the god : " habitans quasi in pectore," — 9. O 
rybanies. Priests of Rhea, or Cybele, who were said to nave brought the 
worship of that goddess from Crete to Phrygia. — 9. Jforicus ensis. The 
iron of Noricum was of an excellent quality, and hence the expression 
Noricus enrit is used to denote the goodness of a sword. Noricum, 
after its reduction under the Roman sway, corresponded nearly to the mo- 
dern dutchies of Carinthia and Styria. — 11. Savus ignis. "The unsparing 
lightning :" The fire of the skies. — Aec tremendo, &c u Nor Jove hm> 
self, rushing* down amid dreadful thundcrings." Compare the Greek 
expression Zads Kara/frnr? , applied to Jove hurling his thunderbolts. 

13 — 16. 13. Fertw Prometheus, &c According to the fable. Pro 
metheus, having exhausted his stock of materials in the formation of 
other animals, was compelled to take a part from each of them (partial 
lam undique desectam), and added it to the clay which formed the primi- 
tive element of man (principi it mo.) Hence the origin of anger, Pro- 
metheus having " placed in our breast the wild rage of the lion" (fc- 
sani leonis vim, i. e. insanam leonis trim). — 16. Stamacko. The term st> 
nutchus properly denotes the canal through which aliment descends into 
the stomach : it is then taken to express the upper orifice of the stomach 
(compare the G.eck Kapita). and 6nally tha ventricle in which the food 

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EXPLANATORY NOTXS.— BOOK L ODK XV If. 999 

ft digested. Its reference to anger or choler arises from the circum- 
stance of a great number of nerves being situated about the upper ori- 
fice of the stomach, which render it very sensible ; and from these also 
proceeds the great sympathy between the stomach, head, and heart It 
was on this account Van Helmont thought that the soul had its seat in 
Che upper orifice of the stomach. 

17 — 18. 17. Ira. " Angry contentions." — Thytstm. Alluding to 
the horrid story of At reus and Thyestes. — IS. Et allis urbibus, &c. " A nd 
have been the primary cause to lofty cities, why, &c." A G nee ism, for 
d ultima rtetere causa cur alta urbu fundUus perirent, &c. " And have 
been the primary cause why lofty cities have been completely over* 
thrown, &c." The expression altis urbibus is in accordance with the 
Gr*ek, a?r» mMsBfov, *6\ts altu^. _ The elegant use of tletert for exstitere 
or Jwart must be noted. It carries with it the accompanying idea of 
lomething fixed and certain. Compare Virgil (JEn. 7. 735) "Stmt belli 



20 — 27. SO. Imprimeretque muris," &c. Alluding to the custom, 
prevalent anions the ancients, of drawing a plough over the ground pre- 
viously occupied by the walls and buildings of a captured and ruined 
city. — 22. Compescc mentem. " Restrain 3iy angry feelings." — Pectoris 
fervor. "The glow of resentment." The poet lays the blame of his 
injurious effusion on the intemperate feelings of youth. — 24. Ctleres 
umbos. " The rapid iambics." The rapidity of this measure rendered 
it peculiarly fit to give expression to angry feelings. — 25. Mitibus mu- 
ter* tristuu " To exchange bitter taunts for soothing strains." JWitibus, 
though, when rendered into our idiom, it has the appearance of a da- 
tive, is in reality the ablative, as being the instrument of exchange.— 
27. Recantalis opprobriis : "my injurious expressions being recanted. 1 ' 
— .fntmum. "My peace of mind." 



Ode 17. Horace, having in the last ode made his peace with Tyndarifl, 
now invites her to his Sabine farm, where she will find retirement and se- 
curity from the brutality of Cyrus, who had treated her with unmanly 
rudeness and cruelty. In order the more certainly to induce an accep- 
ance of his offer, he depicts in attractive colours the salubrious position 
if his rural retreat, the tranquillity which reigns there, and the favouring 
protection extended to him by Faunus and the other gods. 

1 — 4. 1. Vdox amanprn, &c, "Oft times Faunus, in rapid flight, 
changes mount Lycaeus for the fair Lucretilis." Lyccto is here the abla* 
ive, as denoting the instrument by which the change is made. — Lucrelilem. 
v.icretilis was a mountain in the country of the Sabines, and ainid its 
findings lay the farm of the poet — 2. Lycao. Mount Lycaeus was situ- 
te in the south western angle of Arcadia, and was sacred to Faunus or 
*an. — Faunus. Faunus, the god of shepherds and fields among the 
matins, appears to have been identical with the Pan of the Greeks. — 
. DefcndU. "Wards off"— 4. Pluviosqut venlos. "And the rainy 
rinds." The poet sufficiently declares the salubrious situation of his 
abine farm, when he speaks of it as being equally sheltered from the 
cry heats of summer, and the rain-bearing winds, the sure precursors of 

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900 SXPLAtUTORY NOTES.— BOOK L ODE XVIL 

5 — 17. 5. Arbutos. Compare the note on Ode 1. 1. 21. — 6. Tkymo, 
The thyme of the ancients is not our common thyme, but the thymus cap- 
talus, qui Dioscoridis, which now grows in great plenty on the mountains 
of Greece. — 7. Olentis uxores mariti. " The wives of the fetid husband." 
A periphrasis for copra. — 9. MarHaUs lupos. Wolves were held sacred 
to Mars, from their fierce and predatory nature.— Hctdulea. The com? 
mon reading is katdWa, which vitiates the metre, its antepenult being long. 
By hetduieoi are meant the young female kids. — 10. Utcunque. "When- 
ever." For quandocunque, — 11. Ustica cubantis. " Of the recumbent 
Ustica." This was a small mountain near the poet's farm. — 12. Levis. 
In the sense of aUrita: "worn smooth by the mountain rills." — 14. Hie 
tibi eopia, &c " Here a rich store of rural honours shall flow in to thee, in 
full abundance, from the bounteous horn of Fortune." M plenum is ele- 
gantly used for aoimcfcmicr.— 17. In reducta voile. u In a winding vale.*— ■ 
CanUulce. Certain days in the summer, preceding and ensuing the heli- 
acal rising of Canicula, or " the dog-star," in the morning, were called Dies 
Canicidares. The ancients believed that this star, rising with the sun, 
and joining its influence to the fire of that luminary, was the cause of 
the extraordinary heat which usually prevailed in that season ; and ac- 
cordingly they gave the name of dog-days to about six or eight weeks of 
the hottest part of summer. This idea originated, as some think, with 
the Egyptians, and was borrowed from them by the Greeks. The Ro- 
mans sacrificed a brown dog every year to Canicula, at its rising, to ap 
pease its rage. 



18—21. IS. Fide Teia. " On the Teian lyre," i. e. in Anacreontic 
Anacreon was born atTeosin Asia Minor. — 19. Lahorantesinuno. "Striv* 
ing for one and the same hero," i. e. Ulysses. — SO. Vitrtamque Cvreen. " And 
the beauteous Circe." VUrea appears to be used here in the sense of /or- 
mosa, splendiday and to contain a figurative allusion to the brightness and 
transparency of glass. 21. Innocentis Lesbii. The Lesbian wine, ob- 
serves Henderson, would seem to have possessed a delicious flavor, for it 
is said to have deserved the name of ambrosia rather than of wine, and to 
have been like nectar when old. (Mhenaus 1. 22.) Horace terms the 
Lesbian an innocent or unintoxicating wine j but it was the prevailing opin- 
ion among the ancients, that all sweet wines were less injurious to the 
hea/1, and less apt to cause intoxication, than the strong dry wines. By 
Plinv ; however, tne growths of Chios and Thasos are placed before the 
Lesbian, which, he affirms, had naturally a saltish taste. History of Jh* 
dent and Modern Wines, p. 77. 

22—27. 22. Duces. u Thou shait quaff."— 23. Semdeius Tkytmna. 
" Bacchus, offspring of Semele." This deity received the name of Thjo- 
neus, according to "the common account, from Thyone, an appellation oi 
Semele. It is more probable, however, that the title in question was de» 
rived e*s rod Sttiv, a furendo. — 24. Jfec metues protervum, &c " >'of 
•halt thou, an object of jealous suspicion, fear the rude Cyrus." — 25. Mds 
dispart "111 fitted to contend with him."— 26. Incontinentes. "Rash.* 
" Violent." — 27. Coronam. Previous to the introduction of the second 
course, observes Henderson, the guests were provided with chapleU oi 
leaves or flowers, which they placed on their foreheads or temples, and 
occasionally, also, on their cups. Perfumes were at the same time offered 
to such as chose to anoint their face and hands, or have their gariandu 
sprinkled with them. This mode of adorning their persons, which wai 
borrowed from the Asiatic nations, obtained so universally among d* 
Greeks and Romans, that, by almost every author after the time of B* 

I 



KX*LANATORf H0TK3.— BOOK I. ODE TfJU. 801 

mar, it is spoken of as the necessary accompaniment of the feast It is 
said to have originated from a belief, that the leaves of certain plants, as 
the ivy, myrtle, and laurel, or certain flowers, as the violet and rose, pos- 
sessed the power of dispersing the fumes and counteracting the noxious 
effects of wine. On this account the ivy has been always held sacred to 
Bacchus, and formed the basis of the wreathes with which his images, 
and the heads of his worshippers, were encircled ; but, being deficient in 
smell, it was seldom employed for festal garlands ; and, in general, the 
preference was given to the myrtle, which, in addition to its cooling or 
astringent qualities, was supposed to have an exhiliratin^ influence on the 
mind. On ordinary occasions the guests were contented with simple wreaths 
from the latter shrub ; but, at their gayer entertainments, its foliage was en- 
twined with roses and violets, or such other flowers as were in season, and 
recommended themselves by the beauty of their coloqrs, or the fragrancy of 
their smell. Much taste was displayed in the arrangement of these garlands, 
which was usually confided to female hands; and, as the demand for 
them was great, the manufacture and sale of them became a distinct 
branch of trade. To appear in a disordered chaplet was reckoned a sign 
of inebriety; and a custom prevailed, of placing a garland, confusedly put 
together, (pfaiov artffrop,) on the heads of such as were guilty of excess 
in their cops. History of Ancient and Modern wines, p. 1 19, seqq. 



mis, the Epicurean, and friend of Augustus, of whom 
3 by Quintilian, ^6. 3. 78.) being engaged in setting out 



One 18. Varus, the Epic 

mention is made by Qrintiliai , _ — c--«, =» 

trees along his Tiburtine possessions, is advisetTby the poet to give the 
"sacred vine" the preference. Amid the praises, however, which he bestows 
on the juice of the (grape, the bard does not forget to inculcate a useful 
lesson as to moderation in wine.— The Varus to whom this ode is ad- 
dressed, must not be confounded with the individual of the same name, 
who killed himself in Germany after his disastrous defeat by Arminius. 
He is rather the poet duintilius Varus, whose death, which happened A. 
C C. 729, Horace deplores in the 84th Ode of this book. 

1—4. 1. Sacra. The vine was sacred to Bacchus, and hence the * 
epithet *>«Aof *rwp, (" father of the vino,") which is applied to this god.— 
Prius. "In preference to." — Sevens. The subjunctive is here used as a 
softened imperative : " Plant, I entreat" Consult Zumpt, L. G. p. 331. 
KcnricVs transl.—% Circa mile solum Tiburis. "In the soil of the mild 
Tibor, around the walls erected by Catilus." The preposition circa is 
here used with solum, as ntpl sometimes is in Greek witn the accusative : 
thus Tkucyd. 6. 3. «rspl«flo«y r*> Xt«A/ov, "in the whole of Sicily, round 
about." — The epithet mite, though in grammatical construction with 
•sfan, refers in strictness to the mild atmosphere of Tibur. — And lastly, 
Ac particle el is here merely explanatory, the town of Tibur having been 
founded by Tiburnus, Coras, and Canllus or Catilus, sons of Catillus, 
«ad grandsons of Amphiaraus. Some commentators, with less propriety, 
•wder mUe soitim, " the mellow soil." — 3. Siccis omnia nam dura, " For 
Jke god of wine has imposed every hardship upon those who abstain from 
*»" Proposuit conveys the idea of a legislator uttering his edicts.— 4. 
Merdacea toUcUudmes. "Gnawing cares." — Aliter* "By any other 
■eana," i. e. by the aid of any other remedy than wine. 

i5— 8. 5. Peat vino. u After indulging in wine." The plural (fit* 
l» eacteUaUtot) imparts additional force to the term.— CrepoL « Talk* 

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80S EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I. ODE XVtII. 

of." The verb in this line conreys the idea of complaint, and is eqcri* 
valent to" rails at," or " decries." In the succeeding verse, however, 
where it is understood, it implies encomium. — 6. Quisncn U pomis, &c. 
Cl Who is not rather loud in thy praises." Understand crepaL— Deems 
Vanu*. "Lovely Venus."— 7. Modici tnvnera Liberi. "The gifts of 
moderate Bacchus." i. e. moderation in wine. The appellation Liber, 
as applied to Bacchus, is a translation of the Greek epithet Avofec, tod 
Indicates the deity who frets the soul from cares. — 8. Centavrea aumt^ 
&c Alluding to the well-known conflict between the Centaurs and 
Lapithse, which arose at the nuptials of Pirithous, king of the Lapiths, 
ana Hippoda 



6. Super mere. " Over their wine." — Jtferum denotes wine in its pore 
and most potent state, unmixed with water. " Amphyction is said to 
have issued a law, directing that pure wine should be merely tasted at the 
entertainments of the Athenians : but that the guests should be allowed 
to drink freely of wine mixed with water, after dedicating the first cud to 
Jupiter the Saviour, to remind them of the salubrious quality of the lat- 
ter fluid. However much this excellent rule may have been trans- 
gressed, it is certain that the prevailing practice of the Greeks was to 
drink their wines in a diluted state. Hence a common division of them 
into mAtyopoi, or strong wines which would bear a large admixture of 
water, and iXiytyopot, or weak wines which admitted of only a slight ad- 
dition. To drink wine unmixed was held disreputable ; and those who 
were guilty of such excess wero said to act like Scythians, (hnnwfaat.) 
To drink even equal parts of wine and water, was thought to be un- 
safe : and in general the dilution was more considerable ; varying, ac- 
cording to the taste of the drinkers, and the strength of the liquor, fmro 
one part of wine and four of water to two of wine, and four or else fiv» 
parts of water, which last seems to have been the favourite mixture.*' 
Henderson's History of Ancient and Modern Wines, p. 98. 

9—19. 9. SithonUsnonUvis. "Unpropitioiis to the Thracians." Al- 
luding to the intemperate habits of the Thracians, and the stern in- 
* fluence which the god of wine was consequently said to exercise over 
them. — The Sithonians are here taken for the Thracians generally. In 
strictness, however, they were the inhabitants of Sithoma, one of the 
three peninsulas of Chalcidice, subsequently incorporated into Macedo- 
nia. — £mt». A name of Bacchus, supposed to have originated from the 
cry of the Bacchanalians, EJ •{. Others derive the appellation Jrom en 
exclamation of Jupiter (Eff vfe, "Well done, sonl") in approval of the 
valour displayed by Bacchus during the contest of the giants. — 10. Cim 
fas aiqut tufas, &c." When, prompted by their intemperate desires, 
they distinguish right from wrong by a narrow limit." 

1 1 . Mm ego it candide Bassaren, &c "I will not disturb thee against 
thy will, O Bassareus, graced with the beauty of perpetual youth.* 
The epithet candide is here very expressive, and refers to the unfading 
youth which the mythology of the Greeks and Romans assigned to the 
deity of wine. Compare Broukhus. ad TibulL 3. 6. 1. and Dryden, (Ode 
for St Cecilia's day.) " Bacchus, ever fair and ever young."— In order 
to understand more fully the train of ideas in this and the following 
part of the ode, we must bear in mind, that the poet now draws all hit 
images from the rites of Bacchus. He who indulges moderately in thej 
use of wine is made identical with the true and acceptable worahippejj 
of the god, while he who is given to ezoees is compared to that followed 

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EXPLANATORY KOTOS* —BOOK L ODE SIX. 903 

of Bacchus, who undertakes to celebrate his orgies in an improper and 
unbecoming manner, and who reveals his sacred mysteries to the game 
of the profane. On such an one the anger of the god is sure to fall, and 
this anger displays itself in the infliction* of disordered feelings, in arro- 
gant and blind love of self, and in deviations from the path of integrity 
and good laith. The poet professes his resolution of never incurring the 
resentment of the god, and prays therefore (v. 13.) that he may not be 
exposed to such a visitation. — Batsareu. The epithet Baeareut is de- 
rived by Creuzer {Symbolik, vcL 3. p. 363.) from limp* "a fox," and 
be thinks that the garment called jSoraste, worn in Asia Minor by the 
females who celebrated the rites of Bacchus, derived its name from ha 
having superseded the skins of foxes, which the Bacchantes previously 
wore during the orgies. 

12 — 16. 13. Qustiam. The verb quatio has here the sense of moves, 
and alludes to the custom of the ancients, in bringing forth from the tern- 
plea the statues and sacred things connected with the worship of the gods, 
on solemn festivals. These were carried round, and the ceremony began 
by the waving to and fro of the sacred vases and utensils. — Jfec varUs 
dsUafnmd&usjkc "Nor will I hurry into open day the things concealed 
voder various leaves.** In the celebration of the festival of Bacchus, a se- 
lect number of virgins, of honourable families, called cwvfMpoc, carried 
mall baskets of gold, in which were concealed beneath vine, ivy, and 
other, leaves, certain sacred and mysterious things, which were not to be 
exposed to the eyes of the profane. — 13. Sctv* tens cum Bertcyntio, &c. 
"Cease the shrill-clashing cymbals, with the Berecyntian horn." 
Berecyntus was a mountain in Phrygis, where Cybele was particularly 
worshipped. Cymbals and horns were used at the festivals of this sod* 
dees, as at those of Bacchus. — 14. Qiue subseqwtur, tic. "In whose 
train follows."— 15. Gloria. « Foolish vanity."— Ferttcm vacuum. "The 
empty head." — 16. drcani fideg prodiga. "Indiscretion prodigal of 
secrets.* 9 



Ode 19. The poet, after having bid farewell to love, confesses that the 
beauty of Glycera bad again made him a willing captive. Venus,Bacchus, 
tod Licentia are the authors of this change, and compel him to abandon 
til graver employments. A sacrifice to the first of these deities, in order 
to propitiate her influence, now engrosses the attention«of the bard. Some 
commentators have supposed that the poet's object in composing this 
piece was, to excuse himself to Maecenas for not having celebrated in son& 
u the latter requested, the operations of Augustus against the Scvthiana 
tnd the Parthians. We should prefer, however, the simpler ana more 
Datura! explanation of the ode as a mere sportive enusion. 

1—5. 1. Mater sava Cvpidinum. "The cruel mother of the Loves." 
Tbe Lores, of whom Venus is here represented as the parent, were many 
in number, according to the poets. Compare the language of Station, 
(SUv. 1. 2. 61. seqa.y—% Thebanm Semeles puer, Bacchus, hence styled 
IquXvytvtrtei — 3. Lascwa Licentia, " Frolic License." Compare Claudian, 
(Aunt. Hon. ei. Mar. 78.) " Jfullo constricta Licentia nod©."— 5, JTUor. 
"The brilliant beauty." 

& Pariomarmorcpurhts. " The peculiar excellence of the Parian mar- 
we," observes Dr. Clarke, "is extolled by Strabo, and it possesses some 

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304 BXPLANATOET KOTE3. — BOOK L ODE HX. 

valuable qualities unknown even to the ancients who spoke so highly in 
its praise. These qualities are, that of hardening by exposure to atmos- 
pheric air, (which, however, is common to all homogeneous limestone,} 
and the consequent property of resisting decomposition through a series of 
ages, — and this, rattier than the supposed preference given to the Parian 
marble by the ancients, may be considered as the cause of its prevalenos 
among the remains of Grecian sculpture. That the Parian marble was 
highly and deservedly extolled by the Romans, has been already shown; 
but, in a very early period, when the arts had attained their full splendour 
in the age of Pericles, the preference was given by the Greeks, not to the 
marble of Paros, but to that of mount Pentelicus : because it was whiter, 
and also, perhaps, because it was found in the immediate vmcinity ot 
Athens. While, however, the work? executed in Parian marble retain, 
with all the delicate softness of wax, the mild lustre even of their original 
polish, those which were finished in Pentelican marble have been decom- 
posed, and sometimes exhibit a surface as earthy and as rude as common 
limestone. This is principally owing to veins of extraneous substances 
which intersect the Pentelican quarries, and which appear more or less in 
all the works executed in this kind of marble." (Clarke's TVavdt.vcL 
6.p.m.Eng.E<L) 

8—12. 8. Etvultut ntmwnlubricus aspicu "And her countenance 
too voluptuous in expression to be cpzed upon with safety." The vultvt 
Ivbricut of the Latin poet is analogous to the BX/pjic byoh of Anae- 
reon.— & Toia. u In all her strength."— 10. CWua The island of 
Cyprus was the favourite residence of Venus, — Benthos. An allusion to 
the conquests of Augustus. Horace professes his inability to handle 
such lofty themes, in consequence of the all-controlling power of love.— 
11. Vertit animotum, &c "The Parthian, fiercely contending on retreating 
steeds." Compare the language of Plutarch in describing the peculiar 
mode of fight practised by this nation. ( ViL Croat, c 24.-— ed\ Hutten. voL X 
p. 442.) 'Tirfytvyow y&o fya 0dX\ovreso\ UdpBoi, «ol rotrr* Kpdn<rra *»M*m ptrd 
ZK66af Kal vopbrarto Jirrtv, iftvofihovs hi rfi o^tcBai, t§j dvyfc iAataur H 
ahrxfifo. M For the Parthians shot as they fled ; and this they do with a 
degree of dexterity, inferior only to that of the Scythians. It is indeed 
an excellent invention, since they fight while they save themselves, and 
thus escape the disgrace of flight"— 18. Jfu qum nihil attmaU. Under- 
stand ad ««. « Nor of aught that bears not relation to her sway." 

13—14 13. Vtvum eetpUem. "The verdant turf" An altar of turf is 
now to be erected to the goddess. This material, one of the earliest that 
was applied to suoh a purpose, was generally used on occasions where 
little previous preparation could be made. — 14. Verbenas. Vervain. The 
Verbena of the Romans corresponds to the 'Upopordvn, or Dy^yiii of 
the Greeks, and to the Verbena officinalis of Linnaeus (Gen. 43.) The 
origin of the superstitious belief attached to this plant, especially 
among the Gauls, can hardly be ascertained with any degree of certainty. 
One of the Greek names given to it above CltpAorivTh" sacred plant,") 
shows the high estimation in which it was held by that people* The 
Latin appellation is supposed to come from the Celtic Ferfaa\ from which 
last is also derived the English word * vervain." 

15 — 16. 15. Bind meri. " Of wine two years old." New wine was always 
preferred for libations to the gods. So also, the Romans were accustomed to 
use then' own, not the Greek, wines for such a purpose,the former being mors 
Bee from any admixture of water. Hence the remark of PIiny(H. JV 

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SXPLAKATOET NOTES. — BOOK 1. ODE XX. 905 

14. 19.) u Grata vina Ubare nefas, qxtonism aquam habeanl." — 16. Mae* 
talahostia. Tacitus informs ua (Hist. 2.) that it was unlawful for any 
blood to be shed on the altar of the Paphian Venus, " Sanrufnem anz of- 
fundere veltium," and hence Catullus (66. 91.) may be explained: "Plo- 
eabis festis luminibus Venerein sanguinis expertem." It would appear, 
sowever, from other authorities, especiaUy Martial, (9. 91.) that animal 
sacrifices in honour of this goddess, and for the purpose of inspecting the 
entrails in order to ascertain her will, were not unfrequent The very 
historian, indeed, from whom we have just given a passage, clearly proves 
this to have been the case. (Tacit, L c.) " Hostice, utquisque vovit, sed 
mares deliguntur. Certiisima fides hadorum Jibris." The apparent con- 
tradiction into which Tacitus falls may easily be explained away, if wo 
refer the expreraon "sanguinem arct qffundere vclihcm" not to the total ab- 
sence of victims, but merely to the altar of the goddess being kept un- 
touched by their blood. The sacrifices usually offered to Venus, would 
seem to have been white goats and swine, with libations of wine, milk, 
and honey. The language of Virgil, in describing; her altars, is in accord- 
ance somewhat wilh mat of Catullus: " Tkure count ores, strHsqus recen- 
tibuskalmdP (-En. 1.417.) 



Ode 20. Addressed to Maecenas, who had signified to the poet his in- 
tention of spending a few days with him at his Sabine farm. Horace 
warns him that he is not to expect the generous wine which he has been 
accustomed to quaff at home : and yet, while depreciating the quality of 
that which his own bumble roof affords, he mentions a circumstance re- 
specting its age, which could not but prove peculiarly gratifying to his pa- 
tron and intended guest 

1 — 3. 1. Vile Sabinum. "Common Sabine win*." The Sabine ap- 
pears to have been a thin table- wine, of a reddish colour, attaining its ma* 
turity in seven years. Pliny (H. N. 14. 2.) applies to it the epithets cru- 
dvm and austerum. — 2. Cantharis. The cantharus was a bowl or vase for 
balding wine, from which the liquor was transferred to the drinking cups. 
It derived its name, according to most authorities, from its being made to 
resemble a beetle (tavdapof.) Some, however, deduce the appellation 
from a certain Cantharus, who was the inventor of the article. The Can- 
tharus was peculiarly sacred to Bacchus. — Testa. The testa, or "jar," 
derived its name from having been subjected, when first made, to the ac- 
tion of fire (testa, quasi tosta, a torreo.) The vessels for holding wine, in 
general use among the Greeks and Romans, were of earthen ware. — 
3. Levi. u I closed up." When the wine vessels were filled, and the disturb- 
ance of the liquor had subsided, the covers or stoppers were secured with 
piaster or a coating of pitch, mixed with the ashes of the vine, so as to 
exclude all communication with the external air. — Datus in theatro, &c. 
Alluding to the acclamations with which the assembled audience greeted 
Maecenas on his entrance into the theatre, after having, according to most 
commentators, recovered from a dangerous malady. Some, however, 
suppose it to have been on occasion of the celebrating of certain games 
by Maecenas ; and others, among whom is Faber, refer it to the time 
when the conspiracy of Lepidus, was detected and crushed by the mi- 
nister. (Compare VelL Pater e. 8. 88. 3.) 

5—9- 6. Care Maicenas equts. " Beloved Maecenas, ornament of 
the equestrian ranks.'' Equet Is here equivalent to equitum decue, 

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S06 BM.AXATORY KOTBS.— BOOK I. ODE XXL 

Bentley reads Clare fer Care ; but the latter breathes more of tnw 
friendship. — Paterni Jtuminfa. The Tiber. The ancestors of Maecenas 
were natives of Etruria, where the Tiber rises, and through which it io 
part flows. — 7. VaticamtrumtU. The Vatican mount formed the prolon- 
gation of the Janiculum towards the north, and was supposed to have de- 
rived its name from the Latin word votes, or va&tnsum, as it was once the 
seat of Etruscan divination. — 8. Imago. "The echo." Understand 
sods. — 9. Cacubam. The Caecuban wine derived its name from the 
cacubusager, in the vicinity of Amyche, and is described by Galen as a 
generous, durable wine, but apt to affect the head, and ripening only 
after a long term of years. (Athenam 1. 27.) Pliny informs us, that 
theCflBcuban subsequently lost its repute, partly from the negligence of 
the growers, and partly from the limited extent of the vineyard, which 
was nearly destroyed by the navigable canal begun by Nero from 
Avernus to Ostis, ( H. A". 14. 6.)— Caieno. The town of Cales, now 
Calvij lay to the south of Teanum in Campania. The ager CaUnui was 
much celebrated for its vineyards. It was contiguous in fact to that fa- 
mous district so well known in antiquity, under the name of ager Faler- 
niic, as producing the best wine in Italy, or indeed in the world. It 
would seem, from the testimony of ancient writers, that the Faiernian 
vineyards extended from the Massic hills, near Sinuessa, to a conside- 
rable distance inland. The best growth appears to have been the Mas- 
sic. All writers agree in describing the Faiernian wine as very strong 
and durable, and so rough in its recent state, that it coold not be drunk 
with pleasure, but required to be kept a great number of years before it 
was sufficiently mellow. 

10— T2. 10. Utam. "The juice of the grape."— 11. Formianl The 
Formian hills are often extolled for the superior wine which they produced. 
Formic, now Mola di Gotta, was a city of great antiquity in Latinm, 
near Caieta.— 12. Pocula. These were the drinking cups, into which 
the wine was poured, after having been diluted with water in the crater, 
or mixer. Hence the expression temperant. The clause may be para- 
phrased as follows : " Neither the produce of the Faiernian vines, nor 
that of the Formian hills, mingles in my cups with the tempering water." 



Odb 21. A Hymn in praise of Apollo and Diana, which has given 
rise to much diversity of opinion among the learned. Many regard it 
as a piece intended to be sung in alternate stanzas by a chorus of 
youths and maidens on some solemn festival. Acron refers it to the 
Saccular Games, and Sanadon, who is one of those that advocate this 
opinion, actually removes the ode from its present place and makes it a 
component part of the Secular hymn. Others again are in favour of 
the Ludi Apottinares. All this, however, is perfectly arbitrary. No 
satisfactory arguments can be adduced for making the present ode an 
amcebeean composition, nor can it be fairly proved that it was ever cus- 
tomary for such hymns to be suns in alternate chorus. Besides them 
are some things in the ode directly at variance with such an opinion. 
Let us adopt for a moment the distribution of parts which these com- 
mentators recommend, and examine the result The first line is to he 
sung by the chorus of youths, the second by the choros of maidens, 
while both united sing the third and fourth. In the succeadinff stanzas, 
the lines from the fifth to the eighth inclusive are assigned to the youths, 
and, from the ninth to the twelfth inclusive, to the maidens, while the 

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■XFLARATOET MOTES. — BOOK I. ODB XXI. 307 

resuming lines are again sung by the doable chorus. In order to effect 
this arrangement we must change with these critics the initial Hie in 
the thirteenth line to Hate, in allusion to Diana, making the reference 
to Apollo begin at hie miseram. Now, the impropriety of making the 
youths sing the praises of Diana, (verses 5 — 8,) and the maidens those 
of Apollo, (v. 9 — 12,) must be apparent to every unprejudiced observer, 
and forms, we conceive, a fatal error. Nor is it by any means a feeble 
objection, whatever grammatical subtleties may be called in to explain 
it away, that motus occurs in the sixteenth line. If the concluding 
stanza is to commence with the praises of Diana as sung by the youths, 
then evidently motus should be mota, which would violate the measure. 
The conclusion therefore to which we are drawn is simply this : The 
present ode is merely a private efrasion, and not intended for any public 
solemnity. The poet only assumes in imagination the office ot cho- 
ragus, and seeks to instruct the chorus in the proper discharge of their 
general duties. 

1—8. 1. Dlanam. Apollo and Diana, as typifying the sun and 
moon, were ranked in the popular belief among the averters of evil, 
(Dii sverruKci, &oi wrt&wf, 4><#jco*»t, &c.) and were invoked to ward off 
famine, pestilence, and all national calamity. — 2. Intotuwn Cyn- 
tinum. "Apollo ever young." It was customary among the ancients for 
the first growth of the beard to be consecrated to some god. At the 
same time the hair of the head was also cut off, and offered up, usu- 
ally to Apollo. Until then they wore it uncut. Hence the epithet 
mtonsus, (literally " with unshorn locks") when applied to a deity, car- 
ies with it the idea of unfading youth. — The appellation of Cynthins 
i given to Apollo from mount Cynthus in the island of Delos. — 4. IX- 
mampenitua. u Deeply beloved." — 6. Jllgido. Algidus was a moun- 
tain in Latium consecrated to Diana and Fortune. It appears to have 
keen, strictly speaking, that chain which stretched from the rear of the 
Alban mount, and ran parallel to the Tusculan hills, being separated 
from them by the valley along which ran the Via Latina. — 7. Eryman- 
UtL Erymanthus was a chain of mountains in Arcadia, on the borders 
of Elis, and forming ono of the highest ridges in Greece. It was 
celebrated in fable as the haunt of the savage boar destroyed by Her- 
cules. — 8. Crap. Gragu8 was a celebrated ridge of Lycia, in Asia 
Minor, extending along the Glaucus Sinus. The fabulous monster 
Chimera, said to have been subdued by Bellerophon, frequented this 
range, according to the poets. 

9 — 15. 9. Tempt, Compare the note on Ode 1. 7. 4. — 10. Jfatalem 
Ddoru Delos, one of the Cyclades, and the fabled birth place of 
Apollo and Diana. — 12. FraUrns Lyra. The invention of the lyre by 
Mercury has already been mentioned. (Note on Ode 1. 10. 6.) This 
instrument he bestowed on Apollo after the theft of the oxen was dis- 
covered. — 15. Porta* static Brikmno*. Marking the farthest limits of 
the empire on the east and west. By the Peraa are meant the Par- 



Ooe. 22. It was a very prominent feature in the popular belief of an- 
tiquity, that poets formed a class of men peculiarly under the protection 
of the gods : since, wholly engrossed by subjects of a light ana pleasing 
nature, no deeds of violence, and no acts of fraud or perjury could ever 

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908 KXTLAMATOBY VOTES. — BOOK 1. ODE XXIL 

be laid to their charge. Horace, having escaped imminent danger, 
writes the present ode in allusion to this belief. The innocent man, ei- 
claims the bard, ia shielded from peril, wherever he may be, by his own 
parity of life and conduct (The innocent man is here only another 
name for poet.) The nature of the danger from which he had been res- 
cued is next described, and the ode concludes with the declaration, that 
his own integrity will ward off every evil, in whatever quarter of the 
world his lot may be cast, and will render htm at the same time tranquil 
in mind and ever disposed to celebrate the praises of his Lalage. 

The ode is addressed to Aristius Fuscus, to whom the tenth Epistl* 
of the First Book is inscribed. 

1—4. 1. Integer vita, &c. " The man of upright life, and free from 

Silt.^— -2. Mauris jaculi*. For Mauritanicis jactdis. The natives of 
auritania were distinguished for their skill in darting the javelin, the 
frequent use of this weapon being required against the wild beasts which 
infested their country. — 4. Syrte* attuoeas. " The burning sands of 
Africa." The allusion here is not to the two remarkable quicksands or 
gulfs on the coast of Africa, commonly known by the name of the Great- 
er and Smaller Syrtes, (now the gulfs of 8idr* and Cabet,) but to the in- 
land region. There is nothing hostile to this acceptation of the term 
Syrtis in the etymology commonly assigned to it. For if it be deduced, 
as most maintain, from the Greek «*>#, "rroAo," the name will be equal- 
ly applicable to the sands of the gulf agitated by the waves, and tot now 
of the more inland parts driven to and fro by the violence of the winds. 
It remains to be seen, however, whether the word in question be not of 
indigenous origin, since the name Serl is applied at the present day 'by 
the natives not only to the sandy region along the coast, but also to the 
desert immediately south of it, and, according to modern travellers, the 
term likewise exists in Arabic in the sense of a desert tract of country. 
(Compare RiUa>t Erdkunde, voLl.p. 929. 2d. edL) 

7 — 12. 7. Vd qua loco, fcc " Or through those regions, which the 
Hydaspes, source of many a fable, laves." The epithet febuUmu refers 
to the strange accounts which were circulated respecting this river, its 
golden sands, the monsters inhabiting its waters, &c The Hydaspes, 
now the JtyJum, is one of the five eastern tributaries of the Indus, which, 
by their union form the Punjnub, while the region which they traverse 
is denominated the Punjdo, or country of the rive rivers. — 9. Jfamque. 
Equivalent to the Greek xoi yip. Supply the ellipsis as follows : "jM 
this I have plainly learnt from my own case, for? &c — SUvc t» Sottas. 
He refers to a wood in the vicinity of his Sabine farm. — 10. UUra term** 
num. " Beyond my usual limits." 1 1 . Cum expeditu. " With all mf 
cares dispelled." — 12. Intrmem. " Though unarmed." 

12—17. 12. MUUaris Dauniaa. " Warlike Daunia." DmtxUs is 
here the Greek form of the nominative. The Daunii, a people probably 
of Illyrian origin, were situate along the northern coast of Apulia. — 14. 
Jubct teUua. Mauritania. — 17. Pone me pigris> &c For the connection 
between this and the previous portion of the ode, consult the introductory 
remarks. The poet alludes in this stanza to what is termed at the pre- 
sent day the frozen zone, and he describes it in accordance with the 
general belief of his age. The epithet pigris may be rendered by "bar- 
ren," and refers to the plains of the north lying sterile and uncultivated 
by reason of the excessive cold. Modern observations, however, assign 
two seasons to this distant quarter of the globe ; a long and rigorous 

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EXFLAMJlTO&T WOTB8.— BOOK I. ODB XZI1L HIT. $08 

rater, succeeded often suddenly by insupportable beats. The power 
of the solar beams, though feeble, from the obliquity of their direction, 
accumulates during the days, which are extremely long, and produces 
sheets which might be expected only in the torrid zone. The days for 
several months, though of a monotonous magnificence, astonishingly 
accelerate the growth of vegetation. In three days, or rather three times 
twenty-four hours, the snow is melted, and the flowers begin to blow 
(MdU-Bnm, Geog. p.418.voLl.) 

19--29. 19, Quod law mvndi, &c. " In that quarter of the world, 
which clouds and an inclement sky continually oppress."— 81. JV?mtum 
snjptssw. "Too near the earth." Understand ferris.— 28. Dormbut 
ntgata. u Denied to mortals for an abode." Most of the ancients 
conceived that the heat continued to. increase from the tropic to- 
wards the equator. Hence they concluded that the middle of the 
woe was uninhabitable. It is now, however, ascertained that many 
arcomstances combine to establish even there a temperature that a 
supportable. The clouds ; the great rains ; the nights naturally very 
cool, their duration being equal to that of the days ; a strong evapora- 
tion; the vast expanse of the sea; the proximity of very high moun- 
tains, covered with perpetual snow; tbe trade-winds, and the periodical 
ffiondatioiis, equally contribute to diminish the heat This is the reason 
why, in the torrid zone, we meet with all kinds of climates. The plains 
•re burnt up by the heat of the sun. All the eastern coasts of the great 
continents, fanned by the trade-winds, enjoy a mild temperature. The 
elevated districts are even cold ; the valley of Quito is always green ; 
and perhaps tbe interior of Africa contains more than one region which 
nature has gifted with the same privilege. (MalU-Brvn, Geog. j». 416. 
•fit 1.) 



Odm S3. The poet advises Chloe, now of nubile years, no longer to 
follow her parent (ike a timid fawn, alarmed at every whispering breeze 
and rustling of the wood, but to make a proper return to the affection 
of one whom she had no occasion to view witn feelings of alarm. 

_ 1—10. 1. JKnnufeo. The term Mtmuleus is here used for Atnnirfus, as, 
» Ode 1. 17. 9, hadulea occurs for haduli. — 2. Pavidam. Denoting the 
alarm of the parent for the absence of her offspring. — Jtviis, " Lonely." 
—5. VtprU. The common reading is eertt. Great difficulties attend 
this lection : In the first place, the foliage of the trees is not sufficiently 
Ppt forth in the commencement of spring, to justify the idea of its being 
disturbed by the winds ; and secondly, the young fawns do not follow 
the parent animal until the end of this season, or the beginning of June. 
—6. JJd ventum. The common text has adventus. — TtxhorruU. "Has 
rastled." — 10. Gatulutve leo. That part of Africa which the ancients 
denominated Gstulia, appears to answer in some measure to the mo- 
dem Bdad-tl-Djcrid — Frangere. This verb has here the meaning of 
^to rend," or " tear in pieces," as iyvivai is sometimes employed in 



Odk 84. The poet seeks to comfort Virgil for the loss of their mu- 
taal friend. The individual to whom the ode alludes was a native of 

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SIO BXTLAMATORY MOTH — BOOK I. ODE XXV. 

Cremona, and appears to have been the same with the Ctuinctiliiis gf 
whom Horace speaks in the Epistle to the Pisos, (v. 438.) 

1 — 7. 1. Desiderio tarn cavi capitis. " To our regret for the toss of so 
dear an individual." The use of caput in this clause is analogous to 
that of ffqkM and xdpa in Greek. — 2. Pracipe lugubres cantus. " Teack 
me the strains of wo." Literally, " precede me in the strains of wo. 11 
Melpomene. One of the Muses, so called from the dignity and ei- 
-•• — -- - - - ^ n ei " ' 



ceUence of her strains, (McAavpfar, from pAvopot, canto.] 
over Lyric and Epic poetry. — Liqtddam vocem. " A clear ana tuneful 
voice.— Pater. Tne muses, in the common mythology, were said to 
have been the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. — 5. Ergo Quint- 
tWum, The muse here commences the funeral dirge. — 7. Nudaqve 
Veritas. "And undisguised Truth." 

1 1 — 16. 1 1. Tufrustra pbu, &c. " Thou, alas ! displaying a fruitless 
affection, dost pray the gods for the restoration of Quinctilius, not on such 
terms entrusted to thy care." The train of ideas is as follows: Thy af- 
fectionate sorrows lead thee to pray for the restoration of our common 
friend ; but the effort is a vain one : he was not given to thee as a lasting 
possession. — 13. Btandhu. " With more persuasive melody. — 16. Ftrra 
horrida. "With his gloomy wand." Alluding to the caduceus. The 
epithet horrida regards its dreaded influence over the movements of de- 
parted shades, as they pass onward to the fatal river. — 17. «A/on Unis,kc. 
"Not gentle enough to change the order of the fates in compliance with 
our prayers." i. e. sternly refusing to change, &c Lenis redudere, a 
Gnscismfor lenis ad rtcludendum. 



Ode 25. Addressed to Lydia, now an object of neglect, and declining 
rapidly in the vale of years. The picture here drawn of a vicious female, 
towards the close of her career, is a disgusting but most instinctive one. 

1. Junctas qutdwnt fenestras. An idea borrowed from a besieged city. 
The custom here alluded to was one of common occurrence among the 
youth of Italy and Greece. The ancient Romans had only openings in 
the walls to admit the light (fenestra^ u windows," from *Wn» "ostendo.") 
They were covered with two folding leaves or shutters of wood, and 
sometimes a curtain. Occasionally a net or frame work was placed over 
the aperture. Compare on this head Potto, S. R. 3. 7. " Fenestris 
Punicanis, out latioribus, reticulata utrinque, ut locus omnia sit illustris, 
neve qwt serpens, oliudve quid ontond moleficum introire queat." 

fi — 10. 8. Jimatque janva Umen. A beautiful expression. Compare 
Virgil {JF.ru 5. 163.) " Litus emo," and Statius (Silv. 2. 3 56.) " Umbris 
smuatur anumtUms undas." — 5. Midtumfacilis. "Most easily." — 7. Me 
tuo longas. &c Intended lor the words of a serenade. — 10. Lexis. 
" Thinly clad." When poverty shall have succeeded, as it inevitably roast, 
to a career of vicious indulgence, the Kent vestments of summer will be 
thy only protection against the wintry blasts. 

1 1—20. 11. Thracio vento. By the "Thracian wind" is meant Bores* 

-or the North wind, whose native land, according to the Greek poets, was 

the country of Thrace. — Sub intniimia. " At the time which intervenes 

between the old and new moon." Or in freer and more poetic language, 

*« duimg the dark and stormy season when the moon has disappeared 

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SXPLAMATOEY K0T1S.— MOK I. ODB XXVI. 811 

from the skies." — 14. Qtue sofef moires, fee. An allusion to the sum idee 
that is expressed by the Greek hnropavtiv. Consult Heyne, ad Virg. Qeorg. 
3. 280. — 15. Jccur vlcerosum. The liver was supposed by the ancients 
to be the primary receptacle of the blood, whence it was diffused over the 
whole system : hence it became also the seat of the passions. — 17. Hedera 
viretdi. The "verdant ivy" and the "daik myrtle" are here selected as fit 
emblems of youth. The leaves of the latter, in general of a dark hue, are 
mora particularly so when young. — 20. Dedicet Euro. The common text 
has itebro. The objection, however, to this reading is the utter impossi- 
bility of associating the idea of a Thracian river with an act performed by 
Roman youth. The propriety of styling the wind Eurus, " the companion 
sf winter," may on the other hand easily be defended by the expression 
ofVnrgil (Gtorg. 2. 3S9.) " Hibernus Euri flatus" To "devote to Euros," 
moreover, coincides precisely with our own form of expression, "to 
scatter to the winds." 



Odb 46. In praise of JElius Lamia, a Roman of ancient and illus- 
trious family, and distinguished for bis exploits in the war with the Can- 
tabii The bard, wholly occupied with the Muses and his friend, con- 
signs every other thought to the winds. 

2—3. 2. Mart CreUcum. The Cretan, which lay to the north of the 
island, is here put for any, sea. — 3. Poriare. " To waft them." — Quia 
tub Areto, fee " By what people the monarch of a frozen region beneath 
the northern sky is feared," fee. The present ode appears to have been 
written at the time when Phrahates, king of Parthia, had been dethroned 
by his subjects for his excessive cruelty, and Teridates, who headed a 
party against him, appointed in his stead. Phrahates fled for succour to 
the Scythians, and a monarch of that nation was now on his march to 
restore htm. The king of the frozen region is therefore the Scythian 
invader, and the people who fear his approach are the Parthians with 
Teridates at their head. Dio Cassias informs us that Phrahates was rein- 
stated in his kingdom, and that Teridates fled into Syria. Here he was 
allowed to remain by Augustus, who obtained from him the son of Phra- 
hrtes, and led the young prince as a hostage to Rome. This son was sub- 
sequently restored to the father, and the standards taken by the Parthi- 
ans from C ramus and Antony were delivered in exchange. (Compare 
Dio Cassius, 51. 18— volA. p. 649. e<L Rem. Justin. 42. 5.) Strabo, 
however, states that the son of Phrahates was received as a hostage from 
the father himself and along with him sons and grandsons, (*a76a<Kai 
mtf»y vatius. Strab. 6. extr.) Compare with this the language of 
Suetonius (vil. Aug. 43.) who speaks ot the hottaget of the Parthians, 
(" Parthorvm ofrsirfer.") 

6—11. 6. FontibusinUgris. «« The pure fountains." By the fimies 
interri lyric poetry is designated, and the poet alludes to the circumstance 
of his having been the first of his countrymen that had refreshed the lite- 
rature of Rome with the streams of lync verse. Hence the invocation 
of the muse. — 7. Apricot necte floret. "Entwine the sunny flowers." 
The sunny flowers and the chaplet which they form are figurative ex- 
pressions, and mean simply a lyric effusion. The muse is solicited to 
aid the bard in celebrating the praises of his friend. — PimpleL The 
muses were called PimfieuUs from Pimples, a fountain, hill, and city of 
Thrace, subsequently include* within the limits of Macedonia Ornhcus 



y Google 



312 SXfL&VJLTOftY HOTBS. — BOOK I. OD* XXVII. 

wu said to bare been bora bere.— 9. MM sine te mek, fee " Without thy 
favouring aid, the honours which I have received can prove of no avail in 
celebrating the praises of others." By the term honores the poet allude* 
to his successful cultivation of lyric verse. — 10. Fidibus navis. "In new 
strains," L e. in lyric verse. Hence the bard speaks of himself as the 
first that had adapted the jEolian strains to Italian measures, (Ode, 3. 
30. 13.)— -11. Lesbio plectra. "On the Lesbian Ivre." The niednna, 
or quill, is here taken figuratively for the lyre itself. Compare Ode, 1. 
1. 34.— Sacrare. " To consecrate to immortal feme." 



Ode 27. The poet is supposed to be present at a festal party, where 
the guests, wanning under the influence of wine, begin to break forth 
into noisy wrangling. He reproves them in severe terms for conduct so 
foreign to a meeting of friends, and, in order to draw off their attention 
to other and more pleasing subjects, he proposes the challenge in verse 
10th, on which the rest of the ode is made to turn. 

1 — 6. 1. JVatif in usum. &c " Over cups made for joyous purposes." 
The scypkus was a cup or rather large dimensions, used both on festal 
occasions, and in the celebration of sacred rites. Like the canthanu, it 
was sacred to Bacchus. — 2. Thracum est. Compare note on Ode 1. 18. 
9. — 3. Verecundum. Equivalent to modicum- "Free to excess." — 5. Vi- 
no et lucerrUsy &c " It is wonderful how much the dagger of the Parthian 
is at variance with nocturnal banquets,'* literally "with wine and lights." 
Vino and Itieernis are datives, put by a Grecism for the ablative with the 
preposition a. — Jtfedus. Compare Ode, 1. 2. 51. -^Actnaets. The term 
is of Persian origin. The acinaces was properly a small dagger, in use 
among the Persians, and borrowed from them by the soldiers of later 
ages. It was worn at the side. Hesychius, in explaining the word, 
calls it &p« n<pn«*r, {If of. Suidas remarks : *cm(r*s, /iMcpfr ty» Uefm- 
«dr, and PoUux (1, 138.) JUmmtAv tt<f>(6t6v ti, t$ ^pfl rpocvpnffUyov. This 
last comes nearest the true explanation as given above. Compare 
Schneider,*, t. hctwdnnt. "ein eigenthumlich Persiches Wort : einkleiner 
seitendegen bey den Persem." — 6. Immmu quantum. Analogous to the 
Greek $a»/i«<rr*v 8eov. — Jmmum clamortm. The epithet itnpius has here 
a particular reference to the violation of the ties and duties of friendship, 
as well as to the profanation of the table, which was always regarded as 
sacred by the ancients. 

8— a 8. Cubito remmete presto. "Remain with the elbow pressed on 
the couch." i. e. Stir not from your places. Alluding to the ancient cus- 
tom of reclining at their meals. — 9. Severi Falerni. All writers agree in 
describing the Falernian wine as very strong and durable, and so rough in 
its recent state, that it could not be drunk with pleasure, but required to 
be kept a great number of years, before it was sufficiently mellow. 
Horace even terms it a "fiery" wine, and calls for water from the spring 
to moderate its strength ; and Persius applies to it the epithet il indomitwn n 
probably in allusion to its heady quality. From Galen's account it ap- 
pears to have been in best condition from the tenth to the twentieth year: 
afterwards it was apt to coutract an -unpleasant bitterness: yet we may 
suppose, that when of a good vintage, and especially when preserved in 

giiss bottles, it would keep much longer without having its flavour impaired, 
orace, who was a lover of old wine, proposes, in a well known ode. (3b 
21.) to broach an amphora which was coeval itith himself, and which, 



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KKA*ATOftT MOTES.— SOOX I. ODI XXVII. SU 

£»"£"*» was probably not 1ms than thirty-thrae yean old; MTomuatw 
Manilas was consul in the six hundred and eighty-ninth year from the 
fimndaaon of the aty, and Corvinus, in honour of whom the wine was to 
be drawn, did not obtain the consulate till 723 A. U. C. As he bestows 
the highest commendation on this sample, ascribing to it all the virtues of 
the choicest vintages, and pronouncing it truly worthy to be produced on 
a day of festivity, we must believe it to have been really of excellent quali- 
fy- *a general, however, it probably suffered, more or less, from the mode 
in which it was kept j and those whose taste was not perverted by the 
rage for high-dried wines, preferred it in its middle state. 

Among our present wines, we have no hesitation in fixing upon those of 
Xeres and Madeira as the two to which the Falernian offers the most 
distinct features of resemblance. Both are straw-coloured wines, assum- 
ing a deeper tmt from age, or from particular circumstances in the quality, 
or management of the vintage. Both of them present the several varieties 
of dry, sweet, and light Both of them are exceedingly strong and durable 
wines ; being, when new, very rough, harsh, and fiery, and requiring to be 
kept about the same length of time as the Falernian, before they attain a due 
degree of mellowness. Of the two, however, the more palpable dryness 
and bitter-sweet flavour of the Sherry might incline us to decide, that it 
approached most nearly to the wine under consideration : and it is worthy 
of remark, that the same difference in the produce of the fermentation m 
observable in the Xeres vintages, as that which Galen has noticed with 
respect to the Falernian : it being impossible always to predict, with cer- 
tainty, whether the result will be a dry wine, or a sweetish wine, resem- 
bling Paxarete. 

HK-14 10. Optmti*. So called from Opus, the capital of the Opmv 
fcenLocnin Greece, at the northern extremity of Bc&otia.— 11. Quo 
•eofus, ace. The expressions beatus vulnere and pereai, afford very pleas* 
mg specimens of what grammarians term the oxymoron. — 13. Cmot 
voiunfo*. "Dost thou refuse." Literally, "does (thy) inclination hesi- 
tate."— Jfm alia bibam mtrcedc " On no other condition will I drink."— 
14. Qua U eunque. &c. An encomium well calculated to remove the 
bashful reserve of the youth. "Whoever the lair object may be that 
sways thy bosom, she causes it to burn with a flame at which thou hast 
no occasion to blush, for thou always indulgest in an honourable love." 
The expression amore peecare isnothing more than the simple smart. 

. 1? — **» 18. Ah miser ! The exclamation of the poet when the secret 
is divulged. — 19. Quant* laborabas, &c The passion of the youth is com- 
pared to the dangers of the fabled Charybdis, and hence the expression 
Quanta laborabaa Charybdi is equivalent in effect to Quest perieuUnam tibi 
fuellam amabas.— 91. Thestalit venenis. Thessaly was remarkable for 
producing numerous herbs that were used in the magical rites of antiquity. 
— 93. Vix UUgatum, &c. "Even Pegasus* serf will with difficulty extri- 
cate thee from the entangling snares of this three-shaped Chimera." 
Literally, "Pegasus will hardly extricate thee, entangled by this three- 
shaped Chimera." In construction, triformi Chimctra, depending on 
UUgatum, is the dative put by a Grecism for the ablative. A new com- 
partaon is here made, by which the female in question is made to resemble 
the well-known Chimera, or, to use the words of Doring, " Meretrix ills, 
rmpmcUate sua jwenum boms infesHssima* comparator turn trUwnd Uh 
momUro CMnurro." 



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814 EXFLAKATORY W0TB8.— BOC£ f. ODt XXVITI. 

Obi 88. The object of the present ode is to enforce the useful tenon, 
that we are all subject to the power of death, whatever may be oar sta- 
tion in life, and whatever our talents and acquirements. The dialogue 
form is adopted for this purpose, and the parties introduced are a mari- 
ner and the shade of Archytas. The former, as he is travelling along 
the shore of southern Italy, discovers the dead body of the philosopher 
which had been thrown up by the waves near the town of Mali nam on 
the TarentJne gulf. He addresses the corpse, and expresses his surprise 
that so illustrious an individual could not escape from the dominion of 
the grave. At the seventh verse the shade replies, and continues on 
until the end of the ode. Be not surprised, O mariner, at beholding me 
in this state, exclaims the fallen Pythagorean. Death has selected far 
nobler victims. Bestow the last sad offices on my remains, and so shall 
prosperous fortune crown your every effort. If, on the contrary, you 
make light of my request, expect not to escape a just retribution. 

The ode would appear from its general complexion to have been imi- 
tated from the Greek. 

1. Te marie et terra, &c. The order of construction is as follows: 
Paarva munera exigui jndveri* (negata tibi) cohibent te, &c " The scanty 
present of a little dust, denied to thy remains, confines thee," &c. The 
ellipsis of negata tibi must be noted, though required more by the idiom 
of our own, than by that of the Latin tongue. According to the popular 
belief, if a corpse were deprived of the ntes of sepulture, the shade of 
the deceased was compelled to wander for a hundred years either around 
the dead body or along the banks of the Styx. Hence the peculiar pro- 
priety of cohibent in the present passage. In order to obviate so lament- 
able a result, it was esteemed a most solemn duty for every one who 
chanced to encounter an unburied corpse to perform the last sad offices 
to it Sprinkling dust or sand three times upon the dead body was 
esteemed: amply sufficient for every purpose. Hence the language of 
the text, "mdveris exigui porta muneraJ 9 Whoever neglected this in- 
junction ot religion was compelled to expiate his crime by sacrificing a 
sow to Geres. Compare Feattu (in PracUoneo agna,) Cicero, de LegSm % 
2. 22. Mariue Victorinus, 1. p. 247. ed Putsch. 

The interpretation, which we have here given, has found, however, 
very strenuous opponents. Mitscherlich, Jam and D6ring maintain that 
pulveris exigui porta munera is a mere circumlocution for locus extgvtu, 
and that cohibent is only the compound used for the simple verb. 
Hence, according to these commentators, the meaning will be, " A 
small spot of earth now holds thee," &c and they contend, that in this 
way the opposition is best preserved between the different parts of the 
sentence. We cannot agree in the propriety of such an interpretation. 
The periphrasis of munera pufoeris, with the two accompanying epithets, 
is extremely harsh, nor is the sense at all improved by ibis mode of ren- 
dering, as tar at least as we are able to decide. As for the examples of 
a similar periphrasis which Jani undertakes to cite, it must be evident 
upon the slightest inspection that they are not entitled to the name. In 
Lucretius (1. 32.) "nwnera belli," is equivalent to " beUicos labores," and 
in Horace himself (Ode, 2. 1. 38.) by munera nania are meant in fact 
"legee et modoe ncenuz."— Maris et terra meneorem. Alluding to the geo- 
metrical knowledge of Archytas. — Numeroque carentu arena, Tae 
possibility of calculating the number of the grains of sand was a favour- 
ite topic with the ancient mathematicians. Archimedes has left uh a 
work on this subject entitled !£<»«**"», (Arenariue,) which is interesting 
as showing the state of the science at that period- 

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■ZFLANATORT HOTBS.— BOOK I. 0D8 XXTIfl. %{% 

•—7. 9. Archyta. ArchytsjLone of the Pythagoric preceptors of P{ato, 
was a native of Tarentum, He is laid to have been the eighth in sue. 
cession from Pythagoras, and such was his celebrity that many HI us- 
trious names, beside that of Plato, appear in the train of his disciples. 
He excelled not only in speculative philosophy, but in geometry and 
mechanics, and is said to hare invented a kind of winged automaton, 
and several carious hydraulic machines. He was in such high reputa- 
tion for moral and political wisdom, that, contrary to the usual custom, 
he was appointed seven different times to the supreme magistracy in 
Tarentum. Of his writings none remain except a metaphysical work, 
" On the nature of the universe." His death was occasioned by a ship* 
wreck. Compare Diog. Laert. 8. 79—86. Siddas, s. v. Iambi. 23 
JElian. Var. Hist. 12. 19, &c. Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1. p. 
409. — 3. Matinum. The Matinian shore lay between Callipolis and 
the Iapygian promontory, on the Tarentine gulf. The town of Mati 
num was a little distance inland. It was filmed for its bees and honey. 
(Compare Ode 4. 2. 27.) — 5. Aerias tetdaftt domos, &c. "To have 
essayed the etherial abodes. 9 * Alluding to the astronomical knowledge 
of the philosopher.— 6. Morituro. " Since death was to be thy certain 
doom.'*— 7. Pdopi* genitor. Tantalus. — Comma deorwn. "Though a 
guest of the gods." The common mythology makes Tantalus to have 
Been the entertainer, not the guest, of the gods, and to have served up 
his own son at a banquet in order to test their divinity. Horace follows 
the earlier fable, by which Tantalus is represented as honoured with a 
seat at the table of the gods, and as having incurred their displeasure 
by imparting nectar and ambrosia to mortals. His punishment is well 
known. Pindar mentions his offence, {CHymp. 1. 98.) ABavdrw tm 
cXldrafc c r. X. Euripides, however, (Orcst. 10.) ascribes his fate to a 
different cause : dKtfXarrw !o%c yXfevair, alrxlerriv v6np. 

8 — 14. 8. TUhonusque remains in auras. "And Tithonus though 
translated to the skies.'* An allusion to the fable of Tithonus and Au- 
rora. — 9. Arcanis. Understand eonsUiis. — Jtiiwa. In order to gain more 
reverence for the laws which he promulgated, Minos pretended to have 
had secret conferences with Jove respecting them. — 10. Panthoiden. 
" The son of Panthous." Euphorbus is here meant in name, but Py- 
thagoras in reality. This philosopher taught the doctrine of the trans- 
migration of souls, and is said to have asserted that he himself had ani- 
mated various bodies, and had been at one time Euphorbus the Trojan. 
To prove his identity with the son of Panthous, report made him to have 

f?ne into the temple of Juno at or near Mycenae, where the shield of 
uphorbus had been preserved among other offerings, and to have re- 
cognised and taken it down. — Iterum Oreo demissum. Alluding to the 
doctrine of the transmigration of souls. — 11. Clypeo refixo. " By the 
shield loosened from the wall of the temple.'* — 13. Jfervos atque cutem. 
u His sinews and skin," i. e. his body.— 14. Judice fe,&c "Even in 
thine own estimation, no mean expounder of nature and truth." Allu- 
ding to Pythagoras both as a Natural and Moral philosopher. Some 
editions read me. but U indicates the wide-spread reputation of Pythago- 
ras, whose well-known name was even in the mouths of the vulgar, 
throughout that part of southern Italy. 

18 — 22. 18. Avidum mare. " The greedy ocean." Some editions 
read amdis (" greedy after gain") as agreeing with nouftt. This, how- 
ever, would imply a censure on the very individual from whom the favour 
of a burial is supposed to be asked. — 19. Mixta senwn, &c. " The 

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Sid BXPLiWATOlT MOTES.— BOOK I. ODE XXEE* 

tatenningled funerals of the old and young are crowded together" 
Denteniur is from rfenses-ere, an old verb, used by Lucretius, Virgil, and 
Pliny. The common text has deneantur from rfen*e,-are. — •Mcttum capni, 
&c " No head escapes the stern Proserpina." An hypallage, foratrf- 
J«m caput fugit tenant Proserpinam. The ancients had a belief that no 
one could die, unless Proserpina, or Atropos her minister, cut a lock of 
nair from the head. The idea was evidently borrowed from the analogy 
of animal sacrifices, in which the hair cut from the front, or from between 
the horns of the victims, was regarded as the first offering. — 21. Devest 
Orionfe. M Of the setting Orion." The setting of this star was always 
accompanied by tempestuous weather. — 82. IUyricis vndU. " Amid the 
Illyrian waters." The allusion is to the Adriatic sea in general The 
Illyrians, besides their settlements on the north-eastern shores of the 
Adriatic, had at one time extended themselves as far as Ancona, on the 
coast of Italy. 

r 23—35. 23. We paree maUgtuu dare. " Do not unkindly refuse to be- 
stow."— 26. Fluetibus Hesperus. " The western waves." The seas around 
Italy, which country was called Hesperia by the Greeks. — Venusin* 
pleckadur silvct. "May the Venusian woods be lashed by it."— 28. 
I/nde potest. Equivalent to a qxdbut hoe fieri potest, " For they are able 
to enrich thee." In construing, place unde potest at the end of the sen- 
tence. — 29. Sacri eustode NcptunL Neptune was the tutelary deity oi 
Tarentum. — Jfegtigis immerito, &c " Dost thou make light of commit- 
ting a crime which will prove injurious to thy unoffending posterity ?" 
The crime here alluded to is the neglecting to perform the last sad offices 
to the shade of Archytas. — 31. Postmodo ie noHs. Equivalent to lupoti- 
bw. Te is here the ablative, depending on noHs. — For* et debUajura, &c 
** Perhaps both a well-merited punishment and a haughty retribution 
may be awaiting thee thyself."— 33. Inultis. "Unheard."— 35. Lieebit 
inject?, &c " Thou may est run on after having thrice cast dust on my 
remains." Three handfuls of dust were on such an occasion sufficient 
for all the purposes of a burial. 



Ode 29. The poet, having learned that his friend Iccius had aban- 
doned the study of philosophy, and was turning his attention to deeds of 
arms, very pleasantly rallies mm on this strange metamorphosis. 

1 — 5. 1. Beatts gazis. "The rich treasures." fiestas is often used, 
as in the present instance, for dives, from the idea of happiness which the 
crowd associate with the possession of wealth. — Nunc. Emphatic*!, re- 
ferring to his altered course of life. — JLrabunu Augustus, A. U. C. 730, 
(which gives the date of the present ode,} sent MMus Gal I us, prefect of 
Egypt, with a body of troops against Arabia Felix. The expedition 
proved unsuccessful, having railed more through the difficulties which the 
country and climate presented, than from the desultory attacks of the un- 
disciplined enemy. It was in this army that Iccius would seem to have 
had a command. Compare, in relation to the event here alluded to, Dio 
Casrius, 53. 29.— vol 1. p. 723. erf. Reinu Strdbo. lG.—voL 6. p. 443. stag. 
erf. Tzschk. Plin. H, Jf. 6. 28. With regard to the division of Arabia 
bto Petraa, Deserta, and Felix, it may be remarked that this arrangement, 
which was made by Megasthenes and Ptolemy, was unknown to the in- 
habitants of the east. Compare Iahn't Biblical Jlrchetology, p. a Upssat's 
CrsnsJ.— Sato<c Sanaa, a part of Arabia Felix, is here put for the whoso 

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KXPLAH ATORT MOTES . BO OK L ODB XXX. 317 ' 

region. The SabaH would seem to have occupied what corresponds to 
the northernmost part of the modern Yemen, — HorribUique Medo. " And 
for the formidable Parthian." It is more than probable, from a compari- 
son of Ode, 1. 12. 56, and 1. 35. 31, with the present passage, that Augus- 
tas intended the expedition, of which we have been speaking, not merer? 
for Arabia Felix, but also for the Parthians and Indi. — 5. Ntctis catenae. A 
pleasant allusion to the fetters in which Iccius, already victorious in imagi- 
nation, is to lead his captives to Rome. — Qua Virginian barbara. "What 
barbarian virgin." A Gnecism for qua virgo barbara. 

7 — 15. 7. Puer quit em aula. Equivalent to quis puerregius. The 
term aula may refer to the royal court either of the Arabians or the Par- 
thians. — 8. M cyathum staluetur. "Shall stand as thy cup-bearer. 1 * 
Literally, u shall be placed," &c.— 9. Doctus tender e. " Skilled in aiming." 
A Gnecism. — Sericas. The Seres were famed for their management of 
the bow. The reference here, however, is not so much to these people 
in particular, as to the eastern nations in general. In relation to the Seres 
compare Explanatory Note, Ode 1. 12. 56.— 11. Rdabi posse. "Can 
glide back." In this sentence, mantibus is the dative by a Gnecism. 
Prose Latinity would require ad mantes. Some make montibus the abla- 
tive, with which they join pronar in the sense of deevrrentes. This ar- 
rangement is decidedly inferior to the one first given. As regards the idea 
intended to be conveyed, it may be observed, that the poet compares his 
friend's abandonment of graver studies for the din of arms, to a total 
alteration of the order of nature. The expression appears to be a prover- 
bial one, and is evidently borrowed from the Greek. — 12. Reverti. " Re- 
turn in its course." — 13. Coemtos. " Bought up on all sides." A pleasant 
allusion to his friend's previous ardour in philosophic pursuits. — 14. 
PanaH. Paroetius, a native of Rhodes, holds no mean rank among the 
Stoic philosophers of antiquity. He passed a considerable part of his life 
at Rome, and enjoyed an intimate acquaintance with several eminent 
Romans, particularly Scipto and Laelius. Cicero highly extols his moral 
doctrine in his treatise " De Cffieiis. n Towards the end of his life Paiue- 
tios removed to Athens, where he died. — Socraticam et domum. " And 
the writings of the Socratic school." Alluding to the philosophical inves- 
tigations of Xenophon, Plato, iEschines, and others. — 15. Loricis Iberis. 
The Spanish coats of mail obtained a decided preference among the Ro- 
mans, from the excellence of the metal and its superior temper. 



Ode 30. Venus is invoked to grace with her presence and with that 
of her attendant retinue, the temple prepared for her at the home of 
Glycera. 

1 — 8. 1. GnidL Gnidus, or C nidus, was a Dorian city, on the 
coast of Caria, near the promontory of Triopium. Venus was the tu- 
telary goddess of the place. — Paphique. Paphos was a town of Cyprus, 
on the western coast, where Venus was fabled to have landed, after 
having been wafted thither from the island of Cythera. — 2. Sperne. 
" Look with contempt on," i. e. leave. — 3. Decoram. " Adorned for thy 
reception." — 5. Fervidus ouer. Cupid. — 7. Parum comis, " Little able 
to please."— -Juventas. The goddess of youth, or Hebe.— 8. Mercwius- 
que- Mercury is enumerated among the retinue of Venus, in allusion 
to his being toe god of language and persuasive eloquence. 



y Google 



SIS EXMJLNATORT NOTES. — 100E L ODE XXXI. 

Ode 31. The poet ruses a prayer to Apollo, on the day when Au- 
gustus dedicated a temple to this deity on the Palatine Hill. £tandin£ 
amid the crowd of worshippers, each of whom is offering up some peti- 
tion to the god, the bard is supposed to break forth on a sudden with 
the abrupt enquiry, " What does the poet (L e. what do I) ask of Apollo 
on the dedication of his temple ?" His own reply succeeds, disclaiming 
all that the world considers essential to happiness, and ending with the 
simple and beautiful prayer for the " mens tana in carport x 



1— a 1. Dedtcahm. "On the dedication of his temple."— -2. .No- 
vum Liqvorem. It was customary to use wine of the same year's make 
in libations to the gods.— 4. Sardinian Sardinia was famed for its fer- 
tility, which compensated in some degree for its unhealthy climate,— 
8egetes. * Harvests."— 5. Grata amenta. "The fine herds."— *Ef 
tuosct Calabria. " Of the sunny Calabria." Calabria, in southern Italy, 
was famed for its mild climate and excellent pastures. — 6. Ebur /nii- 
cum. The ivory of India formed one of the most costly instruments of 
Roman luxury. — 7. Liris. This river, now the Garigliano, rises in the 
Appennines and falls into the Tuscan sea near Minturnse, The Liris, 
after the southern boundary of Latium was extended below the Cir- 
csean promontory, separated thai region from Campania. Subsequently, 
however, the name of Latium was extended to the mouth of the Vuh 
turnus, and the Massic hills. Compare Cramer's Ancient Italy, teL 1 
p. 11. and the authorities there cited — 8. Mordet. " Undermines," or 
** eats away." 



9 — 16. 9. PremanL " Let those prune." — Catena fdce. An allusion 
to the Falernian vineyards. Compare note on Ode, 1. 20. 9. — 11. Ex- 
siccet Equivalent to ebibaL '* Let the rich trader drain." — Cu/uttu. 
The cvlutlut was properly of baked earth, and was used in sacred rites 
by the pontifices ana vestal virgins. Here, however, the term is taken 
in a general sense for any cup. — 12. Syra reparata merce. " Obtained 
in exchange for Syrian wares." By Syrian wares are meant the aro- 
matic products of Arabia and the more distant East, brought first to the 
coast of Syria by the overland trade, and shipped thence to the western 
markets. — 16. Cichorea. "Endives." The term cichorcum (m^opcS*, 
or Ktxiipiov) is, strictly speaking, confined to the cultivated species of 
Intvhum or Iniybwn. The wild sort is called eipts by the Greeks, and 
answers to our bitter succory. The name cichorcum is of Coptic or 
Egyptian origin, the plant itself having been brought from Egypt into 
Europe. The appellation Endive comes from the barbarous word «- 
dtvto, used in the middle ages, and an evident corruption as well of the 
Arabic hendib as of the classical tniybum. Compare Fee, Flore de Yir- 
giky p. 70. 71. Marttjn ad Virg. Georg. 1. 120. — Levesque male*. "And 
emollient mallows." Dioscoridt* (2.111.) and Theophraslvs ( 1 . 5.) both 
designate mallows as aliment : the first of these two authors speaks of 
the garden mallows as preferable in this respect to the uncultivated 
kind, from which it may be fairly inferred that several species of this 
plant were used as articles of food. The Greek name or the mallows 
(pa\dxri) from which both the Latin and English are said to be deduced, 
has reference to their medicinal properties. It is formed from ******* 
" to soften," &c. 

17—80 17. Frui paratis, &c " Son of Latona, give me, I entreat. 
to enjoy my present possessions, bt'mg at the same time both healthful 

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EXPLANATORY MOTS8.—-BOOB: 1. ODE XXXII.— XXXIY. 319 

ra frame and with a mind unimpaired by disease." Or more freely, 
"Give me a soand mind in a sound body, that I may enjoy, as they 
should be enjoyed, the possessions which are mine." The expression 
rfones ftdhi waido, &c. frui paratis is a Gnecism for denes ut ego validus, 
kefhtar paratis. n Compare, in relation to the idea here ezprcssod, the 
well-known line of Juvenal, (10. 356.) " Orandum est ut sit mens sana 
mcorpore sano." — 20. Cithara earentem. "Devoid of the charms of poe- 
try and music" i. e. a morose and gloomy old age, 



Ode 32. The bard addresses his lyre, and blends with the address 
the praises of Alcsaus. The invocation comes with a peculiar grace from 
one who boasted, and with truth, of having been the first to adapt the 
JSolian strains to Italian measures. (Compare Ode 3. 30 13.) 

1 — 15 1. Poscirmtr. u "We are called upon for a strain." The re- 
quest probably came from Augustas or Maecenas. Bcntley reads PoscU 
tou, which then becomes a part of the apostrophe to the lyre. — Si quid 
saeui lusmus tecum. " If we have ever, in an idle moment, produced in 
nnison with thee any sportive effusion." — 3. Die Latinum carmen. "Be 
responsive to a Latin ode." 5. Lesbio primum, &c. Attuned to harmo- 
ny most of all by a Lesbian citizen." Primum is here equivalent to 
masme. Horace assigns to Alcoeus the merit of having brought lyric 
poetry to its highest state of perfection. — 6. Ftrox bello. Understand 
fuamyis.— 7. Udo Htore. Understand tn.— 15. Mihi cunque,&.c "Be 
propitious unto me whenever duly invoking thee." Cunque for quando- 
aaupu. 



Odb 33. Addressed to Albius Tibullus, the celebrated elegiac poet, 
who had been slighted by the object of his affections. 

9 — 16. 2. Jfeu miserabttes, &c. " Nor five utterance again and again 
to mournful laments." An allusion to the elegiac strains of Tibullus. 
—3. Tibi pranUtaL " Is preferred to thee."— 5. Tentd frmte. A low 
forehead was considered a great beauty among the Greeks and Romans. 
This taste was so general, that the females o( those days used to hide 
part of their foreheads with bandages. — 7. Deehnat. Understand em- 
mum. " Turns away his affections." — 9. Turpi peccet adultero. " Shall 
vield her affections to so disagreeable a lover." Adultero is here equiva- 
lent merely to amatori. — 10. Imports format atque animus. " Unequal 
forms and minds," i. e. persons and tempers little in unison with each 
other. — 14. Grata eompede. '• With the pleasing chain of love." — 16. 
CmvanHs Catabros sinus. " Indenting with bays the coast of Calabria." 



Odb 34. Horace, a professed Epicurean, having heard thunder in a 
cloudless sky, abandons the tenets which he had hitherto adopted, and 
declares his belief in the superintending providence of the gods. Such, 
at least, appears to be the plain meaning of the ode. It is more than 
probable, however, that the poet merely wishes to express his dissent 
from the Epicurean dogma which made the gods take no interest what* 
ever in the aflairs of men. The argument employed for this purpose is 

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920 EXPLANATORY MOTES.— BOOK L. ODK XXIV. 

trival enough in reality, and yet to an Epicurean of the ancient school it 
would carry no little weight along with it Thus Lucretius noauvdj 
states, that thunder in a serene and cloudless sky is a physical imposa 
bility. 

" Fulmhwgigni de crastit, altequ^putandum est, 

Jfubibus exstructit : nam calo null* serene, 

Jfee Uviter densit mithmtur nubibus vnquam." 

Dt R. Jf. 6. 245. ms* 

1 — 7. 1. Parent deorum, &c The Epicureans would appear only ts 
have conformed to the outward ceremonies of religion, and that too in no 
very strict or careful manner. The doctrine of their founder, after all that 
may be said in its praise, tended directly to atheism ; and there is strong 
reason to suspect, that what he taught concerning the cods was artfully 
designed to screen him from the odium and hazard which would have at- 
tended a direct avowal of atheism. Compare Enfield's History ofPhiloto- 
phy, vol. I.e. 450. seqq. — 2. Insanientis dum pkUosophUt } &c « While I 
wander from the true path, imbued with the tenets of a visionary philoso- 
phy." The expression insanientis sapientue. (literally, " an unwise system 
of wisdom,") presents a pleasing oxymoron, and is levelled directly at the 
philosophy oi Epicurus. — 4. Harare cursut rt&clot. u To return to the 
course which I had abandoned." Heinsius proposes relecios for refute*; 
which Bentley advocates and receives into his text — 5. Diespiter. u The 
father of light." Jupiter. — 7. Perpurum. " Through a cloudless sky." 
Understand cakun. Thunder in a cloudless sky was ranked among 
prodigies. 

9—14. 9. Bruta tellus. " The earth, though heavy and senseless." 
By the M brute earth" is meant, in the language of commentators, " tens 
muz sine sensu immota et gravis manet." — 10. Invisi horrida Tenari sedet. 
The promontory of Taenarus. forming the southernmost projection of the 
Peloponnesus, was remarkable for a cave in its vicinity, said to be one of 
the entrances to the lower world, and by which Hercules dragged Cerbe- 
rus to the regions of day. — II. Attanteusque finis. "And Atlas, limit of 
the world." Literally, " the boundary or Atlas." The ancients believed 
this chain of mountains to be the farthest barrier to the west — 12. VaUi 
ima summit, &c The train of thought is as follows: Warned by this 
prodigy, I no longer doubt the interposition of the gods in human ansiis; 
nay, I consider the deity all-powerful to change things from the lowest to 
the highest degree, and to humble to the dust the man that now occupies 
the loftiest and most conspicuous station among his fellow-creatures. 
Compare Hesiod t ipy. *al$fi. 5. seoq. — 14. Hinc apieem, &a a From the 
head of this one, Fortune, with a loud rushing sound of her pinions, bears 
away the tiara in impetuous flight ; on the head of that one she delights in 
having placed it" Sushdit is here taken in an aorist sense. As regards 
the term apieem, it may be remarked, that, though specially signifying the 
tiara of Eastern royalty, it has here a general reference to the crown o» 
diadem of kings. 



One 35. Augustus, A. U. C. 726, had levied two armies, the one in- 
tended against the Britons, the other against the natives of Arabia Fehx 
and the cast. The former of these was to be led by the emperor in person. 
At this period the present ode is supposed to have been written. It is an 
address to Fortune, and invokes her favouring influence for the arms of 
Augustus. 

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EXPLANATORY MOrSS, — SOOE I. ODE XXIV. 381 

The latter of these two expeditions has already been treated of in the 
Introductory Remarks on the 88th Ode of this book. The first only pro- 
ceeded as far as Gaul, where its progress was arrested by the Britons' 
suing for peace, and by the troubled state of Gallic afiairs. The negotia- 
tions, however, were subsequently broken oflj and Augustus prepared 
anew for a campaign against the island, but the rebellion of the Salassi, 
Jantabri and Astures intervened, and the reduction of these tribes en- 
grossed the attention of the prince. Compare Dio Cauku, 53. 22. and 25. 
■ Up. 717. and 719. Ed. Reinu 



r-7. 1. Jhitium. A city on the coast of Lathim, celebrated for its 
temple of Fortune. — 2. Prcuena toUere. " That in an instant canst raise." 
— 3. Vet swperbosy &c tt Or convert splendid triumphs into disasters." 
Fmuribus is in the ablative, the casus instrumentalis. — 5. In this and the 
following line, we have adopted the punctuation recommended by Mark- 
land, viz. a comma after prece, and another after ruris, which latter word 
will then depend on dominant understood, and the whole clause will then 
be equivalent to " pauper eotonut, sollUUa prcce, ambit fe, dominant ruris ; 
qmcunque laceuU, &c it dominant aquorit (ambit.) — Ambit sollicita prece. 
" Supplicates in anxious prayer." — 7. Bithyna. Bitbynia, in Asia Minor, 
was famed for its natural productions which gate rise to a very active 
commerce between this region and the capital of Italy. The expression 
in the text, however, refers more particularly to the naval timber in which 
the country abounded. — 8. Carpathivm pdagus. A name applied to that 
port of the Mediterranean which lay between the islands ot Carpathus 
and Crete, 

9 — 13b 9. Dacu$. Ancient Dacia corresponds to what is now in a 
great measure Valachia, Transylvania, Moldavia, and that part of Hun- 
gary which lies to the east of the Teiss.— Profugi Scytha. " The roving 
Scythians." The epithet profugi is here used with reference to the pe- 
culiar habits of this pastoral race, in having no fixed abodes, but dwell- 
ing in waggons.— 10. Latiumferox. " Warlike Latium." — 11. Regum 
barbarorvm. An allusion to the monarchs of the East, and more parti- 
cularly to Parthia.— 12. Purpurd Tyranni. " Tyrants clad in purple." 
— 13. /muriate nepede, &c. " Lest with destructive foot thou overthrow 
the standing column of affairs." The scholiast makes stantem columnam 
equivalent to prtuenUm felicitatem, and the allusion of the poet is to the 
existing state of affairs among the Dacians, Scythians, and others men- 
tioned in the text. A standing column was a general symbol among the 
ancients of public security. Some editions place a colon or period after 
Inranni, and the meaning then is, " Do not with destructive foot over- 
throw the standing column of the empire," alluding to the durability of 
the Roman sway. The interpretation first given, however, is decidedly 
preferable: the change in the latter is too sudden and abrupt. 

14 — la 14. Jfcu populxu frequent, &c. M Or lest the thronging po- 
pulace arouse the inactive to arms! to arms! and destroy the public 
repose." The repetition of the phrase ad artna is intended to express 
the redoubled outcries of an agitated throng, calling upon the dilatory 
and inactive to add themselves to their number. Tho term imperium in 
this passage is equivalent merely to publicum qyietem, or reipublicat da- 
tum, taking retpubUea in the general sense of " government." — 17. Te 
temper anteit, &c The idea intended to be conveyed is, that all things 
must yield to the power of fortune. This is beautifully expressed in the 
language of the text, " Thee thy handmaid Necessity ever precedes ' 

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SB CXTLANATOlY MOTCS.— MM I. OBft XXXV. 

-dfnJcit must be pronounced onf-yit, as a dissyllable, by SyncnjaW- 
1 8. Clatos trabaUs. Necessity is here represented with all such appen- 
dages as may serve to convey the idea of firm and unyielding power. 
Thus she bears in her hand demos trabales, " large spikes,*' like those 
employed for connecting closely together the timbers of an edifice. She 
is armed also with " wedges," used for a similar purpose, not for clew- 
ing asunder, as some explain it. In like manner, the u unyielding 
clamp" (severus vnau) makes its appearance, which serves to unite 
more firmly two masses of stone, while the " melted lead" is required 
to secure the clamp in its bed. Some commentators erroneously con- 
sider the claw* trabales, &c. as instruments of punishment. 

21—29. 21. Tt Spes et otto, &c. The idea which the poet wishes 
to convey is, that Hope and Fidelity are inseparable from Fortune. In 
other words, Hope always cheers the unfortunate with a prospect of 
better days to come, and a faithful friend only adheres the more closely 
to us under the pressure of adversity. The epithet rams alludes to the 
paucity of true friends, while the expression albo velaia jxmno refers in t 
very beautiful manner to the sincerity and candour by which they are 
always distinguished. — 23. Utcunque mulsfo, &c. " Whenever, clad in 
sordid vestments, thou leavest in anger the abodes of the powerful." 
Prosperous fortune is arrayed in splendid attire, but when the anger of 
the goddess is kindled, ana she abandons the dwellings of the mighty, 
she changes her fair vestments for a sordid garb. — 26. Cadis cum face 
tiecaUs, " When the casks are drained to the very dregs." Faithless 
friends abandon us after our resources have been exhausted in gratify- 
ing their selfish cupidity. — 28. Ferre j u P*n voriier dolosi. A Gnecism 
for ninds dolosi quam ut ferarU, &c. " Too faithless to bear in common 
with us the yoke of adversity." Compare Sernu 1. 4. 12. " piger ferrt,* 
i. e. "nitnis piger qxtam til fcrat." — 29. Ultimos orbis BrUannos. In de- 
signating the Britons as " uUimos orbis," Horace must be understood to 
speak more as a poet than a geographer, since the Romans of his day 
were well acquainted with the existence of Hibernia. It must be ac- 
knowledged, however, that it was no uncommon thing to call all the 
islands in this quarter by the general name of Insula Britannic* {Bf+ 
ravixal wj*©<.) Compare Pliny, U. A*. 4. 6. and Jtfisnnerf, Geogr. da 
Griechen und Romer, vol. 2. pit. 2. p. 33. seqq. CasvUus also (11. 11.) 
applies the epithet uUimos to the Bntons, but at a much earlier period. 

30 — 33. 30. Juvenum recens cxamen. " The recent levy of youthfn) 
warriors."— 32. Oeeanoque Rubro. " And by the Indian Sea." The whole 
extent of sea along the southern coast of Asia, was called by the Greeks, 
while as yet they knew little of India, ft *Ep»0pa $d\avva (Mare Erstkra* 
vm) and the name was said to be derived from that of an ancient mon- 
arch, Erythras, who reigned at a very early period on these shores. Sub- 
sequently, however, the term was restricted to the sea below Arabia and 
between the Arabian and Persian golf. The Latin appellation, Octo- 
nus Ruber, answers in the present instance to the 'Kpr0pd 34A««va in its 
more extensive meaning, and is evidently a translation of the name, on 
the supposition that it refers to colour. It is more than probable that 
this supposition is the true one, and that no monarch of the name of 
Erythras ever existed. A collateral argument in favour of this may be 
drawn from the modern designation of the Sinus Arabicus, (Red Sea.) 
The meaning of this modern name must be looked for in that of Idumea 
ortho land of Edom, whose coasts the Sinus Arabicus touches on the 
north. Edom, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies red. and was the name 

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IXFLANATOET W0T18.— BOOK I. ODI XXXVI. 99$ 

tjven to Esau for selling his birthright for a mess of red pottage.— 39. 
Eheu t cicatricial, &c. " Ah ! I am ashamed of our scars, and out 
guilt, and of brothers——" The poet was going to add, '* slain by the 
hand of brothers,'* but the thought was too horrid for utterance, and the 
sentence is therefore abruptly broken off. (Consult Various R eadings. J 
He merely adds in general language, " What in fine have we, a hardened 
are, avoided?" fee. The reference throughout the stanza is to the 
bloody struggle of the civil wars. 



38— 39. 38. trffriem dtfflngas. " O mayest thou forge again." 
The poet's prayer to Fortune is that she would forge anew the swords 
which had been stained with the blood of the Romans in the civil war, 
so that they might be employed against the enemies of the republic. 
While polluted with civil blood they must be the objects of hatred and 
aversion to the gods. — 39. In Massagetos Arabasque. " To be wielded 
against the Massagetae and the Arabians." The Massagetas were a 
branch of the great Scythian race, and according to Herodotus (1.304.) 
occupied a level tract of country to the east of the Caspian. Larcher 
considers their name equivalent probably to u Eastern Gete.' 9 {His* 
teire a? HerodoU. vol. & p. 323. TaWe Giographique. ) 



Ods 36. Plotius Numida having returned, after a long absence, from 
Spain, where he had been serving under Augustus in the Cantabrian 
war, the poet bids his friends celebrate in due form so joyous an event. 
This ode would appear to have been written about A. U. C. 730. 

1 — 10. 1 . Et thure et fidibus. Sec. " With both incense and the music 
of the lyre, and the blood of a steer due to the fulfilment of our vow." 
The ancient sacrifices were accompanied with the music of the lyre and 
flute. — 3. JAinddct. A cognomen of the Plotian and jEmilian lines. — 
A. Hesperia ah ultima. " From farthest Spain." Referring to the situa- 
tion or this country as farthest to the west Hesperia was a more com* 
noon name for Italy as lying to the west of Greece. 'For distinction's 
sake, Spain was sometimes called Hesperia ultima. — 6. Dimdit. " Dis- 
tributes." — 9. Jfon alio rege. " Under the same preceptor." — 9. Muta- 
Utque simul log*. Young men, among the Romans, when they had 
completed their seventeenth year, laid aside the toga pratexto, and put 
on the toga virilis, or manly gown.— 10. Cressa nota. " A white mark." 
The Romans marked their lucky days, in the calendar, with white or 
chalk, and their unlucky days with black. 

11 — 20. 11. Keupr&mpta, &c. " Nor let us spare the contents of 
the wine jar taken from the vault" — 12. Saltan. The Salii, or priests 
of Mars, twelve in number, were instituted by Numa. They were so 
called because on solemn occasions they used to go through the city 
dancing (saltardes.) After finishing their solemn procession, they sat 
down to a splendid entertainment Hence SaUares dopes means " a 
splendid banquet" — 13. Multi DamaUs men. " The hard drinking Da- 
aaalis." — 14. Threida amystide. " In tossing off the wine cup after the 
Thracian fashion." The amyttis (Vwu) was a mode of drinking prac- 
tised by the Thrscians, and consisted in draining the cup without once 
closing the lips. (4, pro. asm davdo.) It denotes also a large kind of 

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9M RXPLAN ATOmi NOTES.- -BOOK t, ODft XXXVU. 

drinking cap. — 16. Ftwcr opium. M The parsley that long retains itf 
verdure." The poet is thought to allude to a kind of wild parsley, of a 
beautiful verdure which preserves its freshness for a long period.— Brtw 
fitfutn. " The short lived lily." — 17- PtUres. « Wai»*Hi «— 80. Mbi- 
Hosier. " Encircling him more closely." 



Ode 37. Written in celebration of the victory at Actium, and tho final 
triumph of Augustus over the arms of Antony and Cleopatra. The 
name of the unfortunate Roman, however, is studiously concealed, and 
the indignation of the poet is made to fell upon Cleopatra. 

2—6. 2. Nunc Saliaribu*, &c "Now was it the time to deck the 
temples of the gods with a splendid banauet" The meaning becomes 
plainer by a paraphrase: " We were right, my friends, in waiting until 
the present moment : this was indeed the true period for the expression 
of our joy." We must imagine these words to nave proceeded from the 
poet after the joyous ceremonies had already begun. — Saliaribus dapUms. 
Literally, " with a Salian banauet." Consult note on verse 12, of the pre- 
ceding ode. — 3. Pulvinar. The primitive meaning of this term is, a cush- 
ion or pillow for a couch ; it is then taken to denote the couch itself; and 
finally it signifies, from the operation of a peculiar custom among the 
Romans, a temple or shrine of the gods. Wnen a general bad obtained 
a signal victory, a thanksgiving was decreed by the Senate to be made in 
all the temples ; and what was called a Lectisternium took place, when 
couches were spread for the gods as if about to feast ; and their images 
were taken down from their pedestals and placed upon these couches 
around the altars, which were loaded with the richest dishes. Dr. Adam, 
in his work on Roman Antiquities, states that on such occasions the 
image of Jupiter was placed in a reclining posture, and those of Juno and 
Minerva erect on seats. The remark is an erroneous one. The custom 
to which he refers was confined to solemn festivals in honour of Jove. 
Compare VaL Max. 2. 1. 2. — With regard to the meaning we have as- 
signed pulvinar in the text, and which is not given by some lexicographers. 
Consult Ernesli, Clav. Cic. s. v. Schutz, Index. Lai. in Cic. Op. s. t. — 5. 
JhUehac. To be pronounced as a dissyllable, {ant-yac) The place o( 
the caesura is not accurately observed either in this or the 1 4th line. Con- 
sult Classical Journal, vol. 11. p. 354. — Cacubtan. Used here to denote 
any of the more generous kinds of wine. Compare note on Ode 1. 20. 9. 
--6. Dam Capitwia, &c "While a frenzied queen was preparing ruin for 
the capitol and destruction for the Empire." An Hypallage for dvm O 
jritolio regina demena, &c Horace indulges here in a spirit of poetic exag- 
geration, since Antony and Cleopatra intended merely, in case they proved 
victorious, to transfer the seat of empire from Rome to Alexandria. Dio 
Cassias (50. 4. vol. 1. p. 606. ccL Reimar.) states as one of the rumours ot 
the day, that Antony had promised to bestow the city of Rome as a pre- 
sent upon Cleopatra, and to remove the government to Egypt. 

9 — 14. 9. Contaminate cum /rre/re, && "With a contaminated herd 
of followers polluted by disease." — 10. Quidibet impotent sperure. a Weak 
enough to nope for any thing." A Grnedsm, for impotens tU qwR&ct 
speraret. — 1 1. Fortunaque dulci ebria, " And intoxicated with p^ospe^ity. ,, 
—13. Sospes ab ignibus. "Saved from the flames." We have here 
somewhat of poetic exaggeration. Cleoostrs fled with sixty ships, while 

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BZAARATORT WOTKS.—BOO* 1. ODC XZITII. 33* 

three hundred were taken by Augustus. Many of Antony's vessels, bow- 
er or, were destroyed by fire during the action. — 14. Lymphatam Mareotico. 
tt Maddened with Mareotic wine." A bitter, though not strictly accurate, 
illusion to the luxurious habits of Cleopatra. The poet pretends in this 
way to account for the panic which seized her at Actium. — Mareotico. 
The Mareotic wine was produced alone the borders of the lake Mareotis, 
in JEgypt It was a light, sweetish, white wine, with a delicate perfume, 
of easy digestion, and not apt to affect the head, though the allusion of 
Horace would seem to imply that it had not always preserved its innocu- 
ous quality. 

16—23. 16. Ab lUdia voioafem, &c " Pursuing her with swift gallies, 
as she fled from Italy." The expression ab Italia volantem is to be ex- 
plained by the circumstance of Antony and Cleopatra's having intend- 
ed to make a descent upon Italy before Augustus should be apprised of 
meir coming. Hence the flight of Cleopatra, at the battle or Actium, 
was in reality ab Italia. — SO. Hamonia. Hsmonia was one of the early 
Barnes of Thessaly.— 91. Fatal* monstrum. "The fated monster," i.e. 
ihe fated cause of evil to the Roman world.— Qua. A syllepsis, the 
relative being made to refer to the person indicated by monstrum, not to 
the grammatical gender of the antecedent itself. — $3. ExpavU ensem. 
An allusion to the attempt which Cleopatra made upon her own life, 
when Proculaius was sent by Augustus to secure her person. — Jfiee la- 
Units, &c "Nor sought with a swift fleet for secret shores." By iofea- 
Us arms are meant coasts lying concealed from the sway of the Romans. 
Plutarch states, that Cleopatra formed the design, after the battle at Ac- 
tium, of drawing a fleet of vessels into the Arabian gulf, across the neck 
of land called at the present day the isthmus of Suez, and of seeking 
some remote country where she might neither be reduced to slavery nor 
involved in war. The biographer adds, that the first ships transported 
across were burnt by the natives of Arabia Petnea, and that Cleopatra 
subsequently abandoned the enterprise, resolving to fortify the avenues 
of her kingdom against the approach of Augustus. The account, 
however, which Dio Cassius gives, differs in some respect from that of* 
Plutarch, since it makes the vessels destroyed by the Arabians to have 
been built on that side of the isthmus. Compare Plutarch, Ft*. Anton, c. 
6&--*of. 6. p. 143. ed. Htdten. and Dio Cassius, 51. 7.— wrf. 1. p. 637. ed. 

85 — 86. 85. Jaeentem rtgiam. " Her palace plunged in affliction." — 
86. Fortis el aspens, &c M And had courage to handle the exasperated 
serpents." Horace here adopts the common opinion of Cleopatra's death 
having been occasioned by the bite of an asp, the animal having been 
previously irritated by the queen with a golden bodkin. There is a 
great deal of doubt, however, on this subject, as may be seen from Plu- 
tarch's statement After mentioning the common account, which we 
have just given, the biographer remarks, "It was likewise reported that 
she carried about with her certain poison in a hollow bodkin which she 
wore in her hair, yet there was neither any mark of poison on her body. 
nor was there any serpent found in the monument, though the track of 
a. reptile was said to have been discovered on the sea-sands opposite the 
windows of her apartment Others again have affirmed, that she had 
two small punctures on her arm, apparently occasioned by the asp's 
atiri£, and to this Cesar obviously gave credit : for her effigy which lie 
earned in triumph, had an asp on the arm." It is more than probable 

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3*0 EXf/LAIf ATOET WOTES.— E0OE O. ODB I. 

that the asp on the arm of the effigy was a mere ornament, mistaken by 
the populace for a symbolical allusion to the manner of Cleopatra*! 
death. Or we may conclude with Wrangham, that there would of coarse 
be an asp on the diadem of the effigy, because it was peculiar to the 
kings of Egypt 

29 — 30. 29. Ddiberatamorit ferodor. " Becoming more fierce by a 
determined resolution to die." — 30. Saevis Ltinmis, fcc "Because, 
being a haughty woman, she disdained being led away in the hostile 
galliesof theLibumians, deprived of all her former rank, for the purpose 
of gracing the proud triumph of Augustus." Superbo trhtmpko is nere 
put by a Gnecism for ad iuperbvm triumphum. — The runts Libwmm were 
a kind of light galleys used by the Liburnians, an IUyrian race along 
the coast of the Adriatic, addicted to piracy. To ships of this construc- 
tion Augustus was in a great measure indebted for his victory at Acti- 
um. The vessels of Antony, on the other band, were remarkable for 
their great size. Compare the tumid description of Flonu (4. 11, 5.) 
* Turrilnu atque UbuUtu allteote, catttUonun et urbium specie, no* $mt 
gemitu mmit, et labore ventorumferebmtur." 



Ode 38. Written in condemnation, as is generally supposed, of the 
luxury and extravagance which marked the banquets of the day. The 
bard directs his attendant to make the simplest preparations for his en- 
tertainment. 

1 — 5. 1. Perticos apparatus. "The festal preparations of the Per* 
sians," L e. luxurious and costly preparations. — 2. Nex*tphUyracorvn&. 
"Chaplets secured with the rind of the linden." — 3. MitU sedan. 
"Give over searching."— 4. Mcrttwr. "Loiters beyond its season."— 
5. Nihil aUaborts seduku cures. " Strive not with earnest care to add 
any thing." Stdulue cur* is a Gnecism for scdtdo curs. 



BOOK II. 

Ode 1. C. Asinius Pollio, distinguished as a soldier, a pleader, and a 
Tragic author, was engaged in writing a history of the civil war. The 
poet earnestly entreats him to persevere, and not to return to the paths 
of Tragic composition until he should have completed bis promised 
narrative of Roman aflairs. The ode describes in glowing colours the 
expectations entertained by the poet of the ability with which Pollio 
would treat so interesting and difficult a subject 

For remarks on the character and writings of Pollio, compare Dist- 
lop's Roman Literature, voL 3. p. 45. seqq. Lend, ed. 

1—6. 1. Ex MeUUo consult. " From the consulship of Metellus." The 
narrative of Pollio, consequently, began with the formation of the first 
triumvirate, by Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, A. U. C. 694, in the con- 
sulship of Qu Cajcilius Metellus and L. Afranius. This may well be 
considered as the germ of the civil wars that ensued.-— The Romans 



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CZPLANATOBT VOTES.— BOOK U. ODE L 227 

■wkad the year by the names of the consuls, and he who had most 
swrrsges, kc. was placed first The Athenians, on the other hand, de- 
nsnated their years by the name of the chief archon, who was hence 
called 9 Apx*i> •Er^/.oi.-i Bellique causes, &c. " And of the causes, 
ind the errors, and the operations, of the war." The term vitia has 
here a particular reference to the rash and unwise plans of Pompey and 
his followers.— 3. Ludumque Fortm*. "And of the game that For- 
tone played."— Graves que principum amUiHas. " And of the fatal con- 
federacies of the chiefs." An allusion to the two triumvirates. Of the 
tint we have already spoken. The second was composed of Octavia 
bob, Antony, and Lepidus. Compare Lucan, 1. 84. — 5. Jfondvm espi- 
es*. Compare Ode 1. 2. 29.-6. Ferievhem plenum, be. "An under- 
taking fall of danger and of hazard." Opus is applied by some, though 
lew correctly, we conceive, to the civil war itself. — The metaphor of too 
poet is borrowed from the Roman games of chance, 

8-11 8. Cineri. The dative put by a Grecian for the ablative. 
9. Pwflarn seventy Jtc. " Let the Muse of dignified tragedy be absent 
w a while from our theatres," L e. suspend for a season thy labours in 
the field of Tragic composition. — The muse of tragedy is Melpomene, 
▼ho presided also over lyric verse. Compare Explanatory Notes, Ode) 
1. 24. 3.— 10. Ubi pubHau res ertthuarit. "When thou hast completed 
thy history of our public aflairs." The phn 



- _. „ r , irase may also be i 

fhen thou hast settled our public aflairs," i. e. when in the order c_ 
thy narratire thou hast brought the history of our country down to the 
present period of tranquillity and repose. The former interpretation is 
less poetic indeed, but in everyother point of view decidedly preferable. 
—11. Grande uumus, &c. " Thou wilt resume the important task with 
all the dignity of the Athenian tragic style," i. e. thou wilt return to 
t»J labours in the walks of tragedy, and rival, as thou hast already 
oone, the best efforts of the dramatic poets of Greece. The cetkurnue, 
(***m*) is here put figuratively for tragedy. 12. Ceeropio. Equiva- 
lent to Jhtko, and alluding to Cecrops as the founder of Athens. 

13 — 23. 13. Insigne moetfis, &c " Distinguished source of aid to 
the sorrowful accused." Alluding to his abilities as an advocate. — 
14. CenmdenU curia, " To the senate asking thy advice." It was the 
ooty of the consul or presiding magistrate to ask the opinions of the 
individual senators (eonrulere senatum.) Here, however, the poet very 
beautifully assigns to the senate itself the office of him who presided 
<*er their deliberations, and in making them ask the individual opinion 
of Pollio, represents them as following with implicit confidence nis di- 
recting and counselling voice. — 16. DalmaHeo triumph*. Pollio tnV 
unpbed A. U. C. 715, over the Parthini. an Illyrianrace, in the vicinity 
rf Eradamnua. — 17. Jam nunc mtnaci, fee The poet fancies himself 
listening to the recital of Pollio's poem, and to be hurried on by the 
inimated and graphic periods of his friend into the midst of combats. — 
19. Fugaees tenet equos, &c. " Terrifies the flying steeds, and spreads 
rtarm over the countenances of their riders." The zeugma in tenet is 
vorthy of attention.— 21. Audkt magnot, , &c "Already methinks I' 
ear the cry of mighty leaders, stained with no inglorious dust" — 23. 
* euneta Urrarum, fee. " And see the whole world subdued, except the 
nyielding soul of Cato." After euneta understand loea. Cato the 
oonger is alluded to, who put an end to his existence at Utica. 

25.— 40. 25. Juno et deorum, fee "Juno, anl whosoever of tftt 
81 

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MB EXPLANATORY MOTE*,— BOOK D. ODE n. 

gods, more friendly to the people of Africa, unable to resist the power 
of the fates, had retired from a land they could not then avenge, in aftei 
days offered up the descendants of the conqueiors as a sacrifice to the 
shade of Jugurtha." The victory at Thapsus, where Cesar triumphed 
over the remains of Pompey's party in Africa, and after which Cato put 
an end to his own existence at Utica, is here alluded to in language 
beautifully poetic Juno, and the other tutelary deities of Africa, com- 
pelled to bend to the loftier destinies of the Roman name in the Funic 
conflicts and in the war with Jugurtha, are supposed, in accordance with 
Che popular belief on such subjects, to have retired from the land which 
they found themselves unable to save. In a later age, however, taking 
advantage of the civil dissensions among the conquerors, they make the 
battle-field at Thapsus, where Roman met Roman, a vast place of sa- 
crifice, as it were, in which thousands were immolated to the manes of 
Jugurtha and the fallen fortunes of the land. — 29. Qvu nan Latino, && 
The poet, as an inducement for Poilio to persevere, enlarges in glowing 
colours on the lofty and extensive nature of the subject, which occupies 
the attention of his friend.— St. Att&himque Jtfeojis, &c " And the 
sound of the downfall of Italy, heard even by the distant nations of the 
East" Under the term Mtdxt there is a special reference to the Par- 
thians, the bitterest foes to the Roman name. — 34. Dauniet cttda. 
"The blood of Romans." Daunt* is here put for Italtt or Romano. 
Compare note on Ode 1 . 28. 1 3.-37. Sed ru rettclu, &c. " But do not, 
bold muse, abandon sportive themes, and resume the task of the Cean 
dirge," L e. never again boldly presume to direct thy feeble effort* towards 
subjects of so crave and mournful a character. The expression Cm 
Mania refers to Simonides, the famous bard of Ceos, distinguished as a 
writer of mournful elegy. — 39. Dion** sub antro. "Beneath sotae ctve 
sacred to Venus." Dione was the mother of Venus, whence the epithet 
Diofuxus applied to the latter goddess and what concerned her.— 40. 
LeviorcpUclro. " Of a lighter strain." — Compare note on Ode 1. 26. 11. 



Ons 2. The poet shows that the mere possession of riches can 
never bestow real happiness. Those alone are truly happy and truly 
wise who know how to enjoy, in a becoming manner, the gifts which 
Fortune may bestow, since otherwise present wealth only gives rise to 
an eager desire for more. 

The ode is addressed to Crispin* SaUustius, nephew to the historian, 
and is intended, in fact, as a high encomium on bis own wise employ- 
ment of the ample fortune left him by his uncle. Naturally of a retired 
and philosophic character, Sallust had remained content with the eques- 
trian rank in which he was born, declining all the offers of advancement 
that were made him by Augustus. 

1 — 12. 1. JVYdZtu argento color. " Silver has no brilliancy."— 2. /*»• 
mice lamna nisi temperato, &c " Thou foe to wealth, unless it shine by 
moderate use." Lamna (for lamina) properly denotes plates of gold or 
silver, L e. coined money or wealth in general. — 5. Extento atvo. " To 
distant ages." — Procvlettu. C. Proculeius Varro Muraena, a Roman 
knight, and the intimate friend of Augustus. He is here praised for 
having shared his estate with his two brothers who liad lost all their 
property for siding with Pompey in the civil wars.— 6. Aofiu mfntrt*, 
fcc "Well known for his paternal affection towards bis brethren."— 



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EXPLANATORY NOTES. — NOOK II. OD1 III. 38§ 

7. Penna fmiucnt* sotvi. '' On an untiring pinion." Literally, on a pinion 
fearing to be tired or relaxed. The allusion is a figurative one, and re- 
fers to a pinion guarding against being enfeebled. — 11. Gadibus. Gades, 
now Cadiz? in Spain. — Uterque Pcenus. Alluding to the Carthaginian 
power, both at home and along the coast of Spain. Thus we have the 
Poem in Africa, and the Bastuli Poeni along the lower part of the Me- 
diterranean coast in the Spanish peninsula. — 12. Uni. Understand 
ftfti. 

13 — 23. 13. Crescet indulgent sibi y &LC. " The direful dropsy increas- 
es by self indulgence." Compare the remark of the scholiast : "J2*l 
auteai hydropico proprium ut quanlo amplius Inherit, tanto amplius st'tiai." 
The avaricious man is here compared to one who is suffering under a 
dropsy. In either case there is the same hankering after what only serves 
to aggravate the nature of the disease.— 15. Aquosus languor. The 
dropsy (W/h#^) takes its name from the circumstance of water (Urns) be- 
ing the most visible cause of the distemper, as well as from the pallid hue 
which overspreads the countenance (ty) of the sufferer. It arises in fact 
from too lax a tone of the solids, whereby digestion is weakened, and 
all the parts are filled beyond measure. — 1 7. Cyri actio. By the " throne 
of Cyrus," is here meant the Parthian empire. Compare note on Ode 1, 
2. EL—Pkrohaten. Compare note on Ode 1. 26. 5.— 18. Dissident pie- 
hi. " Dissenting from the crowd." — 19. Virtus. " True wisdom." — 
Poptdutnque Jtdsist &c "And teaches the populace to disuse false names 
for things." — 22. Propriomque lourunu " And the neverfading laurol." 
— 23. Oculo irrttorto. "With a steady gaze," i. e. without an envious 
look* Not regarding them with the sidelong glance of envy, but with 
the steady gaze of calm indifference. 



Ode 3. Addressed to €L Dellius, and recommending a calm enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of existence, since death, sooner or later will bring 
ail to an end. The individual to whom the ode is inscribed was remark- 
able for his fickle and vacillating character; and so often did he change 
sides during the civil contest which took place after the death of Caesar, 
as to receive from Messala the appellation of desvitorem beUorum eivili- 
urn; a pleasant allusion to the Roman desuUores, who rode two horses 
joined together, leaping quickly from the one to the other. Compare 
.Sensco, ( Suasor. p. 7.) " BelHssbnam tamen rem Dellius dixit, quern Mes- 
sala Corvinus desullorem beUorum cwilium vocat, quia ab Ddtabdla ad Cos- - 
stum transiturus salutem stiri paetus est, si DolabeUam occidisset; et a Cas- 
sis demde transwit ad Antoniam : novissume ab Antonio transfugU ad Casa- 
rem." Consult also Velleius Paterculus, 2. 84. and Dio Cassius. 49. 39. 

2 — 8. 2. Jfon seeus in bonis, &c. " As well as one restrained from 
immoderate joy in prosperity." — 4. MorUure. "Who at some time or 
other must end thy existence." Dacier well observes, that the whole 
beauty and force otthis strophe consists in the single word tnorUure, which 
is not only an epithet, but a reason to confirm the poet's advice.— 6. In 
remoto gramme. "In some grassy retreat '*— Dtei Festos. Days among 
the Romans were distinguished into three general divisions, the Dies Fes- 
ft, Dies Prqfesti, and Dies JntereisL The Dies Festi, " Holy days," were 
consecrated to religious purposes ; the Dies Pro/esti were given to the 
common business of life, and the Dies Intercisi were half holidays, di» 



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ISO EXPLANATORY KOTSS.— BOOK IL ODK IT. 

▼ided between sacred and ordinary occupations. The Dies Fasti, on I he 
other hand, were those on which it was lawful (fas) for the Pnetor to sit 
in judgment. All other days were called Dies Jftfasti, or " Non-court 
days." Compare CromHe, Gymnasium, vol. 8. p. 56. 3d erf.— 8. Ail*, 
riore nets Falerni. " With the old Falernian," i. e. the choicest wine, 
which was placed in the farthest part of the vault or crypt! marked with 
its date and growth. 

9—19. 9. Quajpinus ingens, &c. " Where the tall pine and silver pop- 
lar love to unite m forming with their branches an hospitable shade." 
The poet is probably describing some beautiful spot in the pleasure- 
grounds of Dellius.— 11. Et obUquo labonU, &c. "And the swiftly 
moving water strives to run murmuring along in its winding channel. 1 * 
The beautiful selection of terms in labor** and trepidart, is worthy of 
all praise. — 13. Jftm&um brevis rosa. "Of the too short-lived rose.* 1 — 
15. Res. "Your circumstances."— Sororum. The Fates. — 17. Co- 
empHs. " Bought up on all sides." — Demo. The term domus here de- 
notes that part of the villa occupied by the proprietor himself, while 
villa designates the other buildings and appurtenances of the estate. 
Hence we may render the words et domo viUaque as follows : " and 
from thy lordly mansion and estate." — 18. Flaws Tiberis. Compare 
note on Ode 1. *. 13.— 19. Exstruetis m attum. " Piled up on high." 

«1— 88. 21. Disjesne prisco, ftc "It matters not whether thou 
dwellest beneath the light of heaven, blessed with riches and descended 
from Inachus of old, or in narrow circumstances and of the lowliest 
birth, since in either event thou art the destined victim of unrelenting 
Orcus." The expression prisco notes ab Inacko is equivalent to anJtoms- 
imm sttrpe ortimdvs, Inachus having been, according to the common ac- 
count, the most ancient king of Argos.— 25. Omnes eodem cogtmur. 
" We are all driven towards Uie same quarter." Alluding to the pas- 
sage of the shades, under the guidance of Mercury, to the other world. 
— Omnium versatur tenia, &c. " The lots of all are shaken in the urn, 
destined sooner or later to come forth, and place us in the bark for an 
eternal exile." The urn here alluded to is that held by Necessity in 
the lower world. Some editions place a comma after urna, making it 
the nominative to versatur ; and urn* omnium will then signify " the urn 
containing the destinies of all." But the construction is too harsh ; and 
the caesura, which would then be requisite for lengthening the final syl- 
lable of unto, is of doubtful application for such a purpose. — 28. Cfmbet. 
The dative, by a Grocism, for the ablative cymba. 



Ode 4. Addressed to Xanthius Phoceus, a native probably of 
Greece. 

1—14. 1. Ancillet. The allusion here is perhaps to a slave taken 
m war. — 3. 8erva Briseis. " Briseis, though a slave." The daughter 
of Brises or Briseus, made captive by Achilles when he took the city of 
Lyrnessus. (11. 2. 690.) She had been led, by ber father, from Pedasua, 
her native place, to espouse Mynas, king of Lyrnessus. — 6. Teemess*. 
To be pronounced Te*cmesset. Compare note on Ode 1. 10. 1. Tec- 
cmessa, the daughter of Teleutas, a Phrygian prince, was taken captive 
when the Greeks ravaged the countries in the neighbourhood of Troy, 



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BXPLAJTATOmT KOTES. — BOOK IL ODE T. VL SSI 

Sbe fell to ths lot of Ajax, the son of Telamon, and bocame the mother 
of Eurysaces. who reigned in Salamis after hie paternal gi and father.— 
7. Strides. Agamemnon. — 8. Virrbu rapt*. Cassandra, violated by 
the Oilean Ajax, in the temple of Minerva. — 9. Barbara furm*. The 
Trojans and their allies.— 10. Theseolo vietere. Achilles.— 11. ToUt, a 
Greoism for ad tolUndum. — 13. AVsciat on. Equrvalent to /orfotte.— 
Aesft parent*. "Noble parents."— 14. Flaw. " Golden-haired"— 
DeeeremL u May be an honour to." 

15—22. \5. Penates Mquoe. "The offended Penates," L e. the mis- 
fortunes of her house. Alluding to her fall from high birth to slavery. 
—17. De sceletta ptebe. " From the worthless crowd."— 2 1 . Tereiae *n- 
it* The tunic came down a little below the knees before, and to the 
middle of the legs behind. That worn by slaves, however, was still 
shorter, and displayed the entire leg to the view. — 22. Integer* " Free 
from passion." — Fuge tuspkari, fee. " Avoid being jealous of one whose 
age is hastening onward to bring its eighth lustrum to a close." A lus- 
trum was a period of five years, so that the poet must now have been 
in hie fortieth year. The phrase ctaufere, or cendert, lustrum, properly 
refers to the sacrifice called SuooetauriMa or SoUtauriHa, which doted the 
census, the review of the people taking place every lustrum, or at the 
end of every five years. 



Ode 5. Addressed to Lalage. 

1—22. 1. Jugwn. "The marriage yoke."— 8. Munia compans. 
"The duties of a partner."— 5. Circa virentes est compos. " Is busied 
amid the grassy plains," i. e. is turned towards and wholly engrossed by 
them. — 10. Janxtibi tteufot, fee " Soon will changing Autumn tinge for 
thee the livid clusters with a purple hue."— 17. DUeeta. Understand 
satfom.— 18. Jlbo tie humero nUens, fee " Shining as brightly with her 
Cur shoulder, as the unclouded moon upon the midnight sea." — 22. Mire 
togaec* heepitee, " Even the most sagacious strangers." 



Ode 8. The poet expresses a wish to spend the remainder of his 
days, along with his friend Septimius, either amid the groves of Tibur, 
or the fair fields of Tarentum. 

The individual to whom the ode is addressed was a member of the 
Equestrian order, and had fought in the same ranks with Horace during 
the civil contest. Hence the language of Porphyrion : "&eptfnrfvm» 
eqintemRmmumjamicumeteommitUo^ From 

the words of Horace (Epist 1. 3. 9 — 14.) he appears to have been also 
a votary of the Muses, and another scholiast remarks of him : " Titiue 
8eptimhu hfrica earmina et tragmdiat scripsit, Jlugusti tempore : eed Hbri 
ejue mdti extant. 19 

1 — 2. 1. Gadee aditure mecrnn. " Who art ready to go with me to 
Gadee, (if requisite*)" We must not imagine that any actual departure, 
either for Gades or the other quarters mentioned in this stanza, was 
contemplated by the poet. The language of the text is to be taken 
merely as a general eulogium on the tried friendship of Septimus. As 

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89t ftXFLANATORT HOT £S.— BOOK B. ODE TO. 

respects Gades, compare Ode 3. 2. 11.— 2. JEt Canto&rwmfcukdum, fcc 
M And against the Cantabrian untaught as yet to endure our yoke* 
The Cantab ri were a warlike nation of Spain, extending over what is 
at present Biscay and part of Asturias. Their resistance to the Roman 
arms was long, and stubborn, and hence the language of Horace in re- 
lation to them, Ode 3. 8. 22. " Cantaber sera domitus catena." Augus- 
tus marched against them A. U. C. 729, and during his con6nement by 
sickness at Tarraco, they were defeated and reduced to partial subjec- 
tion by his lieutenant C. Antistius. (Compare Dio Cassius 53. 25.) In 
the following year they rebelled, the moment Augustus had retired from 
Spain, but the insurrection was speedily repressed (Dio Cass. 53. 29.) 
Their restless spirit, however, soon urged them on to fresh disorders, 
and after the lapse of a few years (A. U. C. 734.) those of them who 
had been sold into slavery, having slain their masters, returned home and 
induced many of their countrymen to revolt. They were subdued b] 
Agrippa, but at the expense of many li ves,(*vx***f axo6a\&* rSy *rpan*T* v . 
The punishment inflicted on them was consequently severe : nearly al 
of military age were put to death, and the rest of the nation, after being 
deprived of their arms, were compelled to remove from the mountainous 
country and settle in the plains. (Dio Cass. 54. 1 1.) The present ode 
appears to have been written previous to their final subjugation. 

3 — II." 3. Barbaras Syrtes. " The barbarian Syrtes." Alluding to 
me two well-known gulfs on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, the Svrtia 
Major, or Gulf of SWra, and the Syrtis Minor, or Gulf of Cabes. The 
term barbarus refers to the rude and uncivilized tribes in the vicinity. — 
Maura. By synecdoche for Africa undo. — 5. Tibur, ArgeoposUum colcno. 
Compare note on Ode 1. 7. 13. — 7. Sit modus lasso, &c "May it be a 
limit of wandering unto me, wearied out with the fatigues of ocean, land, 
and military service.*' The genitives marts, viarum, and militia, axe put 
by a Gnecism for ablatives. — 9. Parcot iniqua. a The rigorous fates." — 
ProhibenL "Exclude me."— 10. Duke peUitis ovibus. " Pleasing to the 
sheep covered with skins." The sheep that fed along the banks of the 
Galesus, and the valley of Aulon, had a wool so fine that they were cover- 
ed with skins to protect their fleeces from injury. The same expedient 
was resorted to in the case of the Attic sheep.— 11. Laconi Pfudanla. 
Alluding to the story of Phalantus and the Parthenii, who came as a colo- 
ny from Sparta to Tarenium, about 700, B. C. 

13--22. 13. Mihi ridel. "Possesses charms for me."— 14. Vbi mm 
Hymetto, &c " Where the honey yields not to that of Hyraettas, and 
the olive vies with the produce of the verdant Venafrum." — Hymttto* 
Hymettus was a mountain in Attica, famed for its honey, which is still 
in high repute among the modern Greeks. It has two summits, one an- 
ciently called Hymettus, now Trelotovni; the other, Anydroe, (or the dry 
Hymettus) now Lamprovomi. — 16. Venafro. Venafrum was the last citj 
or Campania to the north, and near the river Vultumus, It was celebra- 
ted for its olives and oil. The modern name is Venafro, — 17. Tepidasqua 
brumas. "And mild winters." — 18. Jupiter. Taken for the climate ct 
the region, or the sky. — 19. Fertili. " Rich in the gifts of the vintage-** 
The common text has fertilis. Aulon was a ridge and valley in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tarentuni, and very productive. The modern name is Terra 
di Melone. The term aulon itself is of Greek origin (ab\*v,) and de- 
notes any narrow valley or pass. — 19. Minimum invidet. " Is far from 
envying," i. e. is not inferior to.— 24. Beata colics. "Those delightful 
hills."— 22. Ibi to calentcm, &c "There shalt thou sprinkle, with \hm 

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■XPLAsTATOftY HOTlSv— -BOOK IL OD1 TIL 3SS 

tesr due to his memory, the warm ashes of the poet, thy friend.*— 
Cdtnten. Alluding to their being still warm from the funeral pile. 



0»« 7. Addressed to Pompeius, a friend of the poet's, who had fought 
on tie same side with him at the battle of PhilippL The poet returned to 
Rome, but Pompeius continued in arms,- and was only restored to his na- 
tive country, when the peace concluded between the triumvirs and Sextua 
Pompey enabled the exiles and proscribed of the republican party to re- 
visit their homes. The bard indulges in the present effusion on the resto- 
ration of his friend. 

Who this friend was is far from being clearly ascertained. Most com- 
mentators make him to have been Pompeius Grosphus, a Roman knighL 
and freedman of Pompey the Great If this opinion be correct, be will 
be the same with the individual to whom the sixteenth ode of the present 
book is inscribed, and who is also mentioned in Epist 1. 12. 23. Vender- 
bourg, however, is in favour of Pompeius Varus. " Les MSS." observes 
this editor, " ne sont point d' accord sur les noms de cet ami de notre poete. 
J'ai cm long temps avec Sanadon, et MM. Wetzel et Mitscherlich, devoir 
le confoodre avec le Pompeius Grosphus de [' Ode 16 de ce livre, et de 
i'epitre 12. du liv. 1. Mais je pense aujourd'huiavec les anciens commenta- 
teurs, suivia en cela par Dacier et M. Voss, que Pompeius Varus etoient , 
sea nom et surnom veritables." 

1—8. 1. O tape meeum, &c The order of construction is as fol- 
lows : Pompei, prime meorum sodaUum, tape deduct* mecum in vltimum 
taunts, BrtUo duct militUt, quia redonovU te Quit-item dH$ potriis Iloloque 
codo 7—Tempua m uUimum deducie. " Involved in the greatest danger." 
3. Qiat te redonavit Qidritem, "Who has restored thee as a Roman 
eitiiea ?" The name Quirifmhere implies a full return to all the rights 
sad privileges of citizenship, which had been forfeited by his bearing 
arms against the established authority of the triumvirate. — 6. Cum 
q*o marantcmy &c " Along with whom I have often broken the linger- 
ing day with wine." Compare note on Ode 1. 1. 20. — 8. Malobathro 
Ssrio. " With Syrian malobathrum." Pliny (H. A". 12. 26.) mentions 
three kinds of nudobathrum, the Syrian, ./Egyptian, and Indian, of which 
the last was the best The Indian, being conveyed across the deserts 
of Syria by the caravan-trade to the Mediterranean coast, received from* 
the Romans, in common with the first-mentioned species, the appella- 
tion of " Syrian." Some diversity of opinion, however, exists with 
regard to this production. Pliny describes it as follows: "InpalwHbus 
gigni tradunt Untie modo, odoratius eroco, nigricans seabrarnque, quodam talis 
putu. Minus probatur candidum. Cclerrime ritum m vehatate sentiL 
Sapor ejus nardo timilit debet esse tub lingua. Odor vero in vino sitfferve- 
fcti anUcedit alios." Some have supposed it to be the same with the 
betle or betre, for an account of which consult De Maries Uistoire Gene- 
rate de T Indc, vol 1. p. 69. Malte-Brun, however, thinks that it was 
probably a compound extract of a number of plants with odoriferous 
leaves, such as the laurel called in Malabar Famala, and the nymphea 
called Famar* in Sanscrit ; the .termination bathrum being from patro, 
the Indian word for a leaf. (System of Geography, vol 3. p. 33. Am. ed.) 
Weston's opinion is different According to this writer the malobathrum 
is called in Persian sadedj Hindi or sadedj of India, (Materia Medic* K*» 
ktrinOfp, 148. FortkaL 1775.) and the term is composed of two Anbio 



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SM «WLA»ATOET STOTM.— BOOK II. ODE TIL 

words, sat l et s t or e or sire, moaning on aromatic possessing wealth, 01 
a valuable perfume. 

$—13. 9l Team PkUippos stnsi, &c Compare " Life of Horace," 
page viii, of this volume. — ReKctm non bene parmula. " My afaield being 
ingloriously abandoned."— II. Quvm frtct* virtus. "When valour 
itself was overcome." A manly and withal true eulogium on the spirit 
and bravery of the republican forces. The better troops were in reality 
on the side of Brutus and Caserns, although Fortune declared for Oeta- 
vianus and Antony. — 12. Turpe, " Polluted with gore."— Seism* led- 
ger* meats. Compare the Homerie form of expression, (It 2. 41.) 
aesrftf h uptsjew iiH bister* ymUar. — 13. Mereurius, An imitation of 
the imagery of the Iliad. As in the battles of Homer heroes are often 
carried away by protecting deities from the dangers of the fight, so, on the 
present occasion, Mercury, who presided over arts and sciences, and 
especially over the music of the lyre, is made to befriend the poet, and to 
save him from the dangers ofthe conflict Compare Ode 2. 17. 29. where 
Mercury is styled " eustos Mercur iahum vhvrum." 

14 — 23. 14. Pauoaere. " In a thick cloud." Compare the Ho- 
meric form, ¥** wAAj.— 15. Terunusw beOum, &c " Thee the wave 
of battle, again swallowing up, bore back to the war amid its foaming 
waters."— 17. OUigatmn dupenu M Thy votive sacrifice," L e. due to 
the fulfilment of thy vow." He had vowed a sacrifice to Jove in case 
he escaped the dangers of the war.— 20. Cadis, The Roman Cuius 
was equivalent to 48 fextsrti, or 27 English quarts. It was of earthen 
ware.— 21. ObHvioso Mastieo. « With oblivious Masslc" i. e. care- 
dispellinff. The Massic was the best growth among the Faleroian 
wines. It waa produced on the southern declivities of the range of hills 
in the neighbourhood of the ancient Sinueasa. A mountain near the 
site of Sinueasa is still called Monte Massic*.— 2*. Cibaria. The ofts- 
rutm was a large species of drinking cup, shaped like the follicule or pod 
of the Egyptian bean, which is the primitive meaning of the term. It 
was larger below than abova — 23, Cemckuu Vases or receptacles for 
perfumes, shaped like shells. The term may here be rendered "sheik." 
•-24. Aph. Compare note on Ode 1. 36. 16. 

25—27. 25. Quern Venus, be The ancients at their feasts ap- 
pointed a person to preside by throwing the dice, whom they called tr- 
otter Mien*, (evsvMidfxvr) " Master of the feast" He directed every 
thing at pleasure. In playing at games of chance they used three tes- 
sera, and four t*M. The tester* had six sides, marked I. II. III. IV. V. 
VI. The fab* had four sides longwise, for the two ends were not re- 
garded. On one side was marked one point (urn**, an ace, called Cbatt,; 
and on the opposite side six (Seme;) while on the two other sides were 
three and four, (termo at quaternio.) The highest or most fortunate 
throw waa called Venus, and determined the direction of the feast It 
waa, of the tessera, three sixes ; ofthe faff, when all of them came oot 
different numbers. The worst or lowest throw was termed Conks, and 
was, of the tessera, three aces; and of the taH, when they were all the 
same. Compare Jteits, ad Lueion, Am. — sol. 5. p. 568, ed. Bip. Sudan, 
Aug. 71. et Crushts ad he. and the Dissertation " De T*lis, n quoted by 
Oesner, The*. L. L. and by BaUey, in his edition of Fcrceiini, Lex. Tel. 
JLat— 26. AW ero *an«a, &c. "I will revel as wildly s« the Thra- 
ciana." The Edoni or Edones were a well-known Thracien tribe on 
the banks of the Strymon. Their name is often used by the Greek 

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EXCLAMATORY WOTSS,— BOOK II. ODB till. IX. 836 

poets, to express the whole of the nation of which they formed a part: 
a ciuton? which Horace here imitates. — 27. Reeepio fwrere amice "To 
indulge in extravagance on the recovery of a friend." 



Oob. 8. Addressed to an inconstant female. 

l—*4. 1. Juris pejersU. " For thy perjury." It was the popular 
belief, that perjury was sure to bring with it all manner of bodily infir- 
mities, and sometimes even premature death.— 4. Turpior. " Less 
pleasing." — 7. Juvenvm publico cure. "An object of admiration to all 
our youth." Literally " a common source of care on Oe part of our 
youths." — 9. Exptdit matris eineres, &c "It proves to thee a source of 
•ctaal advantage, to deceive the ashes of thy mother that lie buried in 
the tomb." — Far from being injurious, the perjury of Barine, according 
to the poet, is decidedly favourable to her; since she comes forth love- 
lier than ever after her violated faith, even though the oaths she has 
taken have been of the most binding character. — 10. Taciturna. " As 
they glide silently along."— 14. SimpUces. "Good natured."— 18. Ser- 
t*w novo. M A new herd of slaves." — 19. hnpuz. Equivalent to per- 
/*r*.— 21. Juvencis. Put for JUUs.— 23. Rctardct maritos. "Alienate 
the enactions of their husbands."— 24. •furs. " Attraction." 



Odk 9. Addressed to T. Yalgius Itufus, inconsolable at the loss of 
b» son Mystes, who had been taken from him by an untimely death. 
The bard counsels his friend to cease from his unavailing sorrow, and to 
sing with him the praises of Augustus. 

The individual to whom the ode is inscribed was himself a poet, and is 
mentioned by Tibullus (4. 1. 180.) in terms of high commendation: 
" Vdgius ; aterno provwr tun alter Homero,* It is to the illusion of friend- 
ship, most probably, that we must ascribe this lofty eulogium, since Gluin- 
tifian makes no mention whatever of the writer in question. Horace 
names him among those by whom he wishes his productions to be ap- 
proved. (Serm. 1. 10. 82.) 

1 — 7. 1. Jfon semper, kc The expressions, semper, usque, and menses 
per emus*, in this and the succeeding stanza, convey a delicate reproof of 
the incessant sorrow in which the bereaved parent so unavailingly indulges. 
— HispUotin agros. M On the rough fields." The epithet hisoidus properly 
refers to the effect produced on the surface of the ground by the .action 
of the descending rains. It approximates here very closely to the term 
tqualidus. — 2. Autmare Caspium, he "Nor do varying blasts continual- 
ly disturb the Caspian Sea." According to Malte-Brun, the north and 
south winds, acquiring strength from the elevation of the shores of the 
Caspian, added to the facility of their motion along the surface of the 
water, exercise a powerful influence in varying the level at the opposite 
extremities. Hence the variations have a range of from four to eight feet, 
and powerful currents are generated both with the rising and subsiding of 



the winds. (System of Geography, vol. 2. p. 313.)— 4. Jbrmtniis in oris, 
" On the borders of Armenia." The allusion is to the northern confines. 

on all sides by loi 
srned with perpeti 
is so very intense 

igitized by GoOgk 



Armenia forms a very elevated plain, surrounded on all sides by lofty 
mountains, of which Ararat and Kohi-seiban are crowned with perpetual 
snow, Tne cold in the high districts of the country is so very i 



9|t BSPLAMATOftT. MOTES.— SOO* D. OM X. 

to leave only three months for the season of vegetation, mcloding and- 
time and harvest. Compare Maltc-Brun, System of Geography, voi. 1 p. 
103. — 7. Qiitrce/a Gargani. u The oak-groves of Garganus." The daw 
of mount Garganus, now Monte S. Angela, runs along a part of the coast 
of Apulia, and finally terminates in the Promonlorium Garganum, now 
Punts di Fiesta, forming a bold projection into the Adriatic 

9 — 10. 9. Tu semper urgues, &c " And vet thoo art ever in mournful 
strains pressing close upon the footsteps of toy Mystes torn from thee by 
the hand of death." Urgues is here used as a more emphatic and impres- 
sive term than, the common proscqueris. — 10. Jfte tiki vespera, &c '• 3or 
do thy affectionate sorrows cease when Vesper rises, nor when he fleet 
from before th£ rapidly ascending bud." The phrase Vespero swgaUt 
marks the evening period, when Vesper (the planet Venus) appears to 
the east of the sun, and imparts its mild radiance after that luminary hu 
set m On the other hand, the expression fugienU solem indicates the morn* 
ing, in allusion to that portion of the year, when the same planet appear! 
to the west of the sun, and rises before him. The poet ihen means to 
designate the evening and morning, and to convey the idea that the son 
rows of Valgius admit of no cessation or repose, but continue unremitted 
throughout the night as well as day. The planet Venus, when it goes 
before the sun, is called, in strictness, Lucifer, or the morning star ; but 
when it follows the sun it is termed Hesperus or Vesper, and by us the 
evening star. 

13—23. 13. Ter #vo functus senex. " The ased warrior who lived three 
generations.' 1 Alluding to Nestor. Homer makes Nestor to have passed 
through two generations and to be ruling, at the time of the Trojan war, 
among a tliird — ] 4. J&ntilochum. Antilochus, son of Nestor, was slain in de- 
fence of his father, by Memnon. (Horn. OcL 4. 188.)— 15. Trvilunu Troilus, 
son of Priam, was slain by Achilles. ( Virg. JEn. 1. 474.) — 16. Fhrygia- 
Put for Trojana. — 17. Dtsme mollium, &c "Cease then these un- 
manly complainta.'! Prose Latinity would require, in the place of this 
Gnecism, the ablative querelis or the infinitive queru — IS. JVbea dugusti 
tropaxu Alluding to the successful operations of Augustus with the 
Armenians and Parlhians, and to the repulse of the Geloni, who had 
crossed the Danube and committed ravages in the Roman territories. — SO. 
Rigidum Nipkaten. «« The ice-clad Nipnates." The ancient geographers 
gave the name of Nipnates to a range of mountains in Armenia, forming 
part of the great chain of Taurus, and lying to the south-east of the Arsissa 
palus or Lake Van. Their summits are covered with snow throughout 
the whole year, and to this circumstance the name Niphates contains an 
allusion (Hi^drm, quasi vifwti** ** snowy.")— 21. Medxun JUtmcn, && 
M And how the Parthian river, added to the list of conquered nations, rolls 
humbler waves." By the Parthian river is meant the Euphrates. The 
expression gentibus additum victis is equivalent merely to inpopuli Romani 
potestatem redaction. — 23. Intraque proscription, &c "And how the 
Geloni roam within the limits prescribed to them, along their diminished 

Elaine." The Geloni, a Sarmatian race, having crossed the Danube and 
lid waste the confines of the empire in that quarter, were attacked and 
driven across the river by Lentulus, the lieutenant of Augustus. Hence 
the use of the term prascriptum, in allusion to the Danube being inter- 
posed as a barrier by their conquerors, and hence, too, the check given to 
their inroads, which were generally made by them on horseback, is alluded 
to in the expression, cxiguts equitart campis. 



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EXMLAHATOmT WOTES.— *0*E IL •»■ X. XL Uf 

Om 10. Addressed tolicuriusVarro Manns, brother of Proculeius 
Varro Murena mentioned in the second Ode (v. 5.) of the present book. 
Of s restless and turbulent spirit, and constantly forming new schemes 
of ambition, Ucurius was a total stranger to the pleasure inseparable 
from a life of moderation and content It is the object of the poet, there* 
lore, to portray in vivid colours, the security and happiness ever atten- 
dant upon such a state of existence. 

The salutary advice of the bard proved, however, of no avail. Lici 
nios had before this lost his all in the civil contest, and had been relieved 
by (he noble generosity of Proculeius. Uninstrncted by the experience 
of the past, he now engaged in a conspiracy against Augustas, and was 
banished and afterwards put to death, notwithstanding all the interest 
of Proculeius, and Maecenas, who had married his sister Terentia. 

1—41. 1. Rtcthu. " More consistently with reason." — Ntqut al 
torn semper arguendo. "By neither always pursuing the main ocean," 
L e. by neither always, launching but boldly into the deep. — 3. Amino* 
pnmendo litm iniqttum. " By keeping too near the perilous shore."— 
5. Awemm qmsquis medsoeriUUem, &c The change of meanioff in carat 
(which is required, however, more by the idiom of our own language 
than by that of the Latin,) is worthy of notice. The whole passage may 
be paraphrased as follows : " Whoever makes choice of the golden mean, 
safe from all the ills of poverty {tutus), is not compelled to dwell amid 
(card) the wretchedness of some miserable abode ; while, on the other 
hand, moderate in his desires (soorfa*), he needs not {card) the splendid 
palace, the object of envy."— 9. Sctphu. « More frequently" than trees 
of lower size. Some editions have tortus. — 10. Et edict gravicre est*, 
fee " And lofty structures fall to the ground with heavier ruin," L e. 
than humble ones. — 11. Summu monies. " The highest mountains,"— 
14. Alteram sortem. " A change of condition." — Bene nrttpmrahtm pectus. 
u A well-regulated breast" — 15. Informes Menus. " Gloomy winters." 
—17. jfen si nude nunc, &c " If misfortune attend thee now, it will not 
also be thus hereafter." — 18. Quondam eithara tacentem, &c " Apollo 



oftentimes arouses with the lyre the silent muse, nor always bends bis 
bow." The idea intended to be conveyed is, that, as misfortune is not 
to last forever, so neither are the gods unchanging in their anger towards 
man. Apollo stands forth as the representative of Olympus, propitious 
when he strikes the lyre, offended when he bends the bow. — 19. Stuci- 
tot musam. Equivalent in fact to edit tunas, ntdsa eithara. — The epithet 
Jseenfcm refers merely to an interval of silence on the part of the muse, 
i. e. of anger on the part of the god. — SI. Mknosus atquefortU. " Spi- 
rited and firm.* 



Onn 1 1. Addressed to duincttus, an individual of timid character 
and constantly tormented with the anticipation of future evil to himastf- 
and his extensive possessions. The poet advises him to banish ta^sae*. 
gloomy thoughts from his mind, and give to hilarity the fleeting ^osus* 
of a brief existence. ^ipmoiM 

w£i .vtbtiirt 
1—33. 1. Quid bdlicosut Contaber,&c Compare note 4f|>Qift&*\I 
t. — 3. Hadria dimsus object*. "Separated from us by the. intervening 
Adriatic The poet does not mean that the foes here mehuotiednaTSset 
in possession of the opposite shores of the Adriatic sea ;.jsuehitf IsnppQth 
sttioa would be absurd. He merely intends to quiettoeseen^iQiimc** 

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MS UnAVAVOftT VOIBS. — BOM B. QK HI. 

true by a geiieralallueioo to the obstacles ^ Afelr*- 

jpUcr <» u#um,fcc "And be not solicitous about the wants of a life 
that asks but few things ibr its support."— 6. Jugftrsfre. Form***. 
—U.Qjtidmtertisminortmykc. " Why dost thou disquiet thy mind, 
unable to take in eternal designs ?" I. e. to extend its vision beyond the 
bounds of human existence*— 14. Sic tamers. " Thus at eesc w — 15. 
Cenof. Equivalent to dbttcenUt. " Beginning to." — 17. £mw. Bee* 
chus. Comparenoteon Ode 1.18.9.— 19. Re9*mgv*mrd*nU*,kc. "Will 
temper the cups of fiery Felernian with the stream that glides by ow 
side." The ancients generally drank their wine diluted with water, oa 
account of its strength. — 83. J» esmfmn Lsmmmb. Ac. " Having her 
hair tied up in a graceful knot, after the fashion of a Spartan female." 



One 19. Addressed to Maecenas. The poet, having been requested 
by his patron to sing the exploits of Augustus, declines attempting so 
arduous a theme, and exhorts Maecenas himself to make them the sub- 
ject of an historical narrative. 

1—0. 1. AWt. " Do not desire, I entreat."— Long* fir* ftcUs AW 
msfttia. Numantia is celebrated in history for offering so long a re 
sistance to the Roman arms. It was situate near the sources of the 
river Durius. ( JDeure) on a nans ground, and defended on three eidei 
by very thick woods and steep declivities. One path alone led down 
into the plain, and this was guarded by ditches and palisades. It was 
taken and destroyed by the younger Africanus, subsequently to the 
overthrow of Carthage. — 2. Sietdwn mart. The scene or frequent and 
bloody conquests between the fleets of Rome and Carthage.— 3. JtfoJtt- 
bus tUkora modis. " To the soft measures of my lyre."— 5. Sceef. 
"Fierce."-->N*fft*sm. " Impelled to excess," i. e. to lewdness. Al- 
luding to his attempt on the person of Hippodamia.— 7. TeUwris Jwe- 
ms. "The warrior-sons of earth." Referring to the giants. Twymtp 
—8. Periadumeontrtmuit. " In trembling alarm apprehended danger. 1 * 
An active intransitive verb with the accusative.— 0. Pedestribus kutoriu* 
"In prose narrative."— 11. Mdhu. "With more 8000088,'' i. e. than 
I can aspire to. — Fiat. Referring to the streets of Rome, but in parti- 
cular to the Pis Sacra, which led up to the capitol. 

13—88. 13. Lic ymni* . Bentley thinks that by Licymnia is here 
meant Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. — Donrnut. Equivalent here to 
emske. — 15. Bene muhds fidem amoribus. " Most faithful to recipro- 
cated love."— 17. Ferre pedem choris. " To join in the dance."— IS. 
Joes. " In sportive mirth." — Dare brmchta. Alluding to the movements 
of the dance, when those engaged in it either throw their arms around, 
or extend their hands to, one another.— 19. Nitidis. " In fair array." 
— SI. .Man fit, sua tenuit, &c. " Canst thou feel inclined to give a 
single one of the tresses of Licymnia for all that the rich Acbesmenes 
ever possessed," &c. Crtne is put in the ablative as marking the in- 
strument of exchange. — Jlchetmenes. The founder of the Persian mo- 
narchy, taken here to denote the opulence and power of the Kings of 
Persia in general. Acheemenes is supposed to be identical with Djem- 
schid.— M. JhU fringtds Phrygia Mvgdoniat opes. " Or the Mygdonian 
treasures of fertile Phrygia," i. e. the treasures (rich produce) of Myg- 
donian Phrygia. The epithet Mygdonian is applied to Phrygia, either 
in allusion to the Mygdones, a Thracian tribe, who settled in this coun* 

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UPLAMATOmi «OTSS<— MO* 1L ODE SOft, 30V 

try, or with reference to one of the ancient monarch! of the land. The 
former is probably the more correct opinion. — 25. fUgrantia. u Ar- 
dent."— £6. FactiL ** Easy to be overcome."— 28. JnUrdum rapere es 
capef. M Ib sometimes herself the first to snatch one." 



Odb 13. The poet, haying narrowly escaped destruction from the 
falling of a tree, indulges in strong and angry infectives against both the 
tree and the indrnduafwho planted and reared it The subject naturally 
feeds to serious reflections, and the bard sings of the world of spirits to 
which he had been almost a visitant. 

1—11. 1. We et nefuto, &c "O tree, whoever first planted thee, 
planted thee on an unlucky day, and with a sacrilegious hand reared thee 
lor the ruin of posterity and the disgrace of my grounds." With quictm- 
fue primum understand pasuit U. Rentier reads IUum 6 for IUe et, and 
places a semicolon after pagi in the fourth line. The passage, as altered 
by him, will then be translated as follows: "For my part fbelieve that 
he, whoever first planted thee," &c. and then in the fifth line, "I say, I 
believe that he both made away with the life of his parent," bc*—Jfcfasto 
Me. Compare note on Ode 2. 3. 6.-5. Crediderun. "For my part, I 
believe." The perfect subjunctive is here used with the force of a pre- 
sent, to express a softened assertion. — 6. Et penetralia, &c. "And 
sprinkled the inmost parts of bis dwelling with the blood of a guest slain 
in the night-season.'' To violate the ties of hospitality was ever deemed 
one of the greatest of crimes.— 8. Hie venena Colcha, &c He was wont 
to handle Uolchian poisons, and to perpetrate whatever wickedness is 
any where conceived." &c L e. all imaginable wickedness. The zeugma 
in tractavit (which is here the aorist) is worthy of notice. — Venena Colcha. 
The name and skill of Medea gate celebrity, among the poets, to the 
poisons of Colchis.— 11. Triste lignum. "Unlucky tree." Lignum 
marks contempt. — Cadueum equivalent here to eadentem, or casurum. 

1 3 — 18. 13. Quid quisquevUet, &c " Man is never sufficiently aware of 
the danger that he has every moment to avoid." — 14. Bosporum. Allud- 
ing to the Thracian Bosporus, which was considered peculiarly dangerous 
by the early mariners on account of the Cyanean rocks at the entrance 
of the Eusine. — 17. Sagittal et ederem fugam ParthL Compare note on 
Ode 1. 19. 11. — 18. Italum robur. " An Italian prison." The term robur 
appears to allude particularly to the well-known prison at Rome called 
TulHanum, It was originally built by Ancus Marthis, and afterwards 
enlarged by Servius Tullius, whence that part of it which was under 
ground, and built by him, received the name of Tullianum. Thus Varro 
(L. L. 4.) observes: "In hoe. pars qua sub terra Tullianum, ideo quod ad* 
iitum s Tullio rege." The full expression is " Tullianum robur" from its 
walls baring been originally of oak. In this prison, captive monarchs, 
after having been led through the streets of Rome in triumph, were con* 
fined, and either finally beheaded or starved to death. 

90—26. 20. Improyisa Icti vis, &c " The unforeseen attack of death 
has hurried off, and will continue to hurry off the nations of the world." 
— 21. Qusm pamefurva, &c. "How near were we to beholding the 
realms of sabls Proserpina." — 22. JwHcanUnu " Dispensing justice." 
. 7*23. Stdtsque diseretas piorum. " The separate abodes of the pious," 
i. e. the abodes of the good sooerated from those of the wicked. The 

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Mi ftXTLlVATOEY MOTES.— BOOK O. ODrXlV. 

allusion is to the Elysian fields.—*! JBaUb fidSbm stMercatan, fee 
" Sappho, complaining on her JEolian lyre of the damsels of her natne 
island!." Sappho, the famons poetess, was born at Mitvlene, in the 
island of Lesbos, and as she wrote in the jEdic dialect, which was that 
of her native island, Horace has designated her lyre by the epithet of 
« J2olian. M — 26. Et U $onanUm pUnhis auras &c u And thee, Alueu. 
sounding forth in deeper strains, with thy golden quill, the hardships of 
ocean, the hardships of exile, the hardships of war." Alcseus, a native 
of Mitylene, in the island of Lesbos, was contemporary with Sappho, 
Pittacus, and Stesichorus, (Cttnlon'f Fasti HdUnicL p. 6. 2d. erf.) and 
famed as well for his resistance to tyranny and his unsettled life, if 
for his lyric productions. Haying aided Pittacus to deliver his country 
from the tyrants which oppressed it, he quarrelled with this friend, when 
the people of Mitylene baa placed uncontroulled power in the hand\s of 
the latter, and some injurious verses which he composed against Pitta- 
cus, caused himself ami his adherents to be driven into exile. An en* 
deavour to return by force of arms proved unsuccessful, and Alcaeus 
fell into the power or his former friend, who, forgetting all that had past, 
generously granted him both life and freedom. In his odes Aksus 
treated of various topics. At one time he inveighed against tyrants: 
at another he deplored the misfortunes which had attended him, and the 
pains of exile : while, on other occasions, he celebrated the praises of 
Bacchus, and the goddess of Love. He wrote in the JEolic dialect. 

29—39. 29. Vtrumqxu aacro, &c. " The disembodied spirits listen 
with admiration to each, as they pour forth strains worthy of being heard 
in sacred silence." At the ancient sacred rites the most profound si- 
lence was required from all who stood around, both out of respect to the 
deity whom they were worshipping, as also lest some ill-omened ex- 
pression, casually uttered by any one of the crowd, should mar the so- 
lemnities of the day. Hence the phrase *' sacred silence," became even- 
tually equivalent to, end is here used generally as, "the deepest si- 
lence."— 30. Serf magia pugnos, &c. "But the gathering crowd, pressing 
with their shoulders to hear, drink in with more delight the narrative of 
conflicts and of tyrants driven from their thrones." The phrase "WW 
oure," (literally " drink in with the ear, 1 ') is remarkable for its lyric 
boldness. — 13. Ilfo carminibus stupens. "Lost in stupid astonishment 
at those strains." — 34. Demittit. "Hangs down."— Bdlva centictj*. 
Cerberus. Hesiod assigns him only fifty heads, (Theog. 312. ) Sopno- 
cles styles him * Aitov rptxpawv raiWa. (Track. 1114.) — 37. Q«m rf 
Promctheusy &c "Both Prometheus, too, and the father of Pelops, are 
lulled by the sweet melody into a forgetrulness of their sufferings. 1 ' 
Decipitur laborum is a Gnecism. By Pdopis parens is meant Tantalus. 
• 39. Orion. Consult note on Ode 3. 4. 71. 



Ode 14. Addressed to a rich but avaricious friend, whom anxiety for 
the future debarred from every kind of present pleasure. The poet de- 
picts, in strong and earnest language, the shortness of life, the certainty 
of death, and thus strives to inculcate his favourite Epicurean maxim, 
that existence should be enjoyed while it lasts. 

1 — 27. 1. Fugaca labuntur ami. "Fleeting years glide swiftly 
by." — 3. Instanti. "Rapidly advancing." Pressing on apace.— 
& A*** ri trscenit, &c. "No, my friend, it will purchase no delay, 

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UfLSJMTOftT VOTES. — BOOS II. ODE XT. Ml 

even though thou strive to appease the inexorable Pluto with three hun- 
dred bulls for every da y that passes ; Pluto, who oonfines,"fec. — 7. Ter 
smpivm Geryonen. " Geryon, monster of triple size." Alluding to the 
legend of Geryon slain "by Hercules. — Tityon, Tityos, son of Terra, 
attempting to offer violence to Latona, was slain by the arrows or 
Apollo and Diana. — 9. SciUcct omnibus enaviganda. "That stream 
which must be traversed by us alL" — 10. Terra tmsnere. "The bounty 
of the earth," — Reges, Equivalent here to dttritet, a common usage 
with Horace. — 18. Cocytos. One of the fabled rivers of the lower 
world. — Danai genus infame. Alluding to the story of the Danaides.— 
19. Damnatus longi laboris. "Condemned to eternal toil." — 93. Invisas 
eupressus. " The odious cypresses." The cypress is here said to be 
the only tree that will accompany its possessor to the grave, in allusion 
to the custom of placing cypresses around the funeral piles and the 
tombs of the departed. A branch of cypress was also placed at the 
door of the deceased, at least if he was a person of consequence, to 

ftrevent the Pontifex Maximus from entering, and thereby being poi- 
nted. This tree was sacred to Pluto, because when once cut it never 
grows again. Its dark foliage also renders it peculiarly proper for a 
funereal tree. — 84. Brevem aominum. " Their short lived master." — 
25. Dignior. "More worthy of enjoying than." — 26. Servata centum 
dovibus. "Guarded beneath a hundred keys." Equivalent merely to 
dilirtntiasime servata. — 27. Superbisvontificum potior c cent*. "Superior 
to that which is quaffed at the costly banquets of the pontiffs." The 
banquets of the pontiffs, and particularly of the Salii, were so splendid 
as to pass into a proverb.-rSome editions read ntperoum, agreeing with 
pamnunium, and the phrase will then denote the tesselated pavements 
of antiquity. 



Odk 15. The poet inveighs against the wanton and luxurious expen- 
diture of the age, and contrasts it with the strict frugality of earlier 
times. 

1 — 5. 1. Jam. "Soon." — Rerite moles. "Palace- like structures." — 
3. Luerino lacu. The Lucrine lake was in the vicinity of Baire, on the 
Campanian shore. It was, properly speaking, a part of the sea shut in 
by a dike thrown across a narrow inlet. The lake has entirely disap- 
peared, owing to a subterraneous eruption which took place in 1538, 
whereby the hill called Monte Jfuovo was raised, and the water displa- 
ced. This lake was famed for its oysters and other shell fish. — Stagna. 
"Fish-ponds." Equivalent here to piscina. — Platanusque coelebs, &c. 
"And the barren plane-tree shall take tha.place of the elms." Tho 
plane tree was merely ornamental, whereas the elms were useful for 
rearing the vines. Hence the meaning of the poet is, that utility shall 
be made to yield to the mere gratification of the eye. The plane tree 
was never employed for rearing the vine and hence is called Coelebs^ 
whereas the elm was chiefly used for this purpose. — 5. Violaria. " Beds 
of violets." — 6. Omnis copia narium. " All the riches of the smell," -i. e. 
every fragrant flower. — 7. Spargent olivetis odorem. " Shall scatter their 
perfume along the olive ground," i. e. the olive shall be made to give 
place to the violet, the myrtle, and every sweet scented plant 

9—80. 9. Fervidoe ictus. Understand soli*.— 10. JfonilaRomuK,Bui. 
••Such is not the rule of conduct prescribed by the examples of Romulus 



MS MXTLAWATORT MTII.- BOOK If. OOE XTL 

and the unshorn Cato, and by the simple lives of onr fathers." As regard* 
the epithet tnton«i, which is intended to designate the plain and austere 
manners of Cato, consult note Ode 1. 13. 41. — 13. PrhahuilUs, fcc. 
«• Their private fortunes were small, the public resources extensrre."— 
14. JVulIs dscsmnedis, Jec. "No portico, measured for private individu- 
als bj rods ten feet in length, received the cool breezes of the North." 
The allusion is to a portico so large in size as to be measured by rodi of 
these dimensions, as also to the custom, on the part of the Roman*, of 
having those portions of their villas that were to be occupied in summer 
facing the north. The apartments intended for winter were turned 
towari the sooth, or some adjacent point.~l 7. AVc/ortutfumy&c "Nor 
did the laws, while they ordered them to adorn then* towns at the pub- 
lic charge, and the temples of the jrods with new stone, permit them (in 
rearing their simple abodes) to reject the turf which chance might hive 
thrown in their way." The meaning of the poet is simply this : private 
abodes in those days were plain and unezpensive: the only ornamental 
structures were such as were erected for the purposes of the state or the 
worship of the gods. — SO. «ATo*o esse. The epithet novo merely refers 
to the circumstance of stone being in that early age anew (i. e. unusual) 
material for private abodes, and appropriated solely to edifices of a pub- 
lic nature. 



Ode 16. All men are anxious for a life of repose, but all do not 
pursue the true path for attaining this desirable end. It is to be foond 
neither in the possession of riches, nor in the enjoyment of public ho- 
nours. The contented man is alone successful in the search, and the 
more so from his constantly remembering that perfect happiness is no 
where to be found on earth. — Such is a faint outline of this beautiful 
ode, and which proves, we trust, how totally unfounded is the criticism 
of Lord Kaimes, {Elements, voil.p. 37.) with reference to what he is 
pleased to consider its want of connection. 

1—15. 1. Ottim. "For repose."— ImpotentL "Stormy." The com- 
mon text has UipatenH.—2. Prtsgut. Understand perieulo. The common 
reading is prmsus.— SimuL For rimul oc— 3. CondidU Lunam. " Has 
shrouded the moon from view." — Certa. "With steady lustre."— 5. 
Tkrace. The Greek nominative, Op***, for TArocta.— 6. Medi pserWrs 
decoru " The Parthians adorned with the quiver." Compare note on Ode 
1.3. 51. — 7. Grosphe turn gemmis, &c. In construing repeat the term otttcm. 
'Repose, O Grosphus, not to be purchased by gems, nor by purple, nor by 
gold."— 9. Gaxct. "The wealth of kings." Consularu Uctor. "The 
Ictor of the consul." Each consul was attended by twelve lictors. It 
was one of their duties to remove the crowd (turbam submovere) and clear 
the way for the magistrates whom they attended. — 1 1 . Curat laqueaU ctr- 
eum, &c. " The cares that hover around the splendid ceilings of the great" 
Ltautata ttcta is here rendered in general language, The phrase pro- 
perly refers to ceilings formed into raised work: and hollows by beams 
cutting each other at right angles. The beams and the interstices (/fnu) 
were adorned with rich carved work and with gilding or paintings. — 13. 
VivUurparvobene, &c. "That man lives happily on scanty means, whose 
paternal saltcellar glitters on his frugal board." In other words, that 
man is happy, who deviates not from the mode of life pursued by his 
forefathers, who retains their simple household furniture, and whose 



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BXTLAK ATOET MOTB8.- B OOK O. ODE XTH. SO 

dwelling b the abode not only of frugality hot of cleanliness. Pfarttwr 
u taken impersonally ; understand UlZ — 14. Salinum. The sa&num, or 
salt-bolder is here figuratively pot for any household utensil. A family 
salt-cellar was always kept with great care. Salt itself was held in great 
veneration, and was particularly used at sacrifices. — 15. Cuvido sordidu*. 
"Sordid avarice." 

17—26. 17. Quid brtvi forte*, &c "Why do we, whose strength 
is of short duration, aim at many things? Why do we change our 
awn, for lands warming beneath another sun? What exile from his 
country is an exile also from himself?" After nmiomus understand nos- 
tra (*dL terra), the ablative denoting the instrument of exchange.— 19. 
Patrim etna exsuL Some commentators regard the expression oalrfa 
exnd as pleonastic, and connect patriot with the previous clause, placing 
after it a mark of mterrogauon, and making it an ellipsis for patritt sole. 
—20. So quoque fugiL Referring to the cares and anxieties of the mind. 
—21. JRratas naves. " The brazen-beaked ^allies." The ancient ships 
of war usually had their beaks covered with plates of brass. — Viliosi 
rams. "Corroding care." — 83. Jlgente nimbos. "Ash drives onward 



the tempests."— 25. Latins in yrasens, &c " Let the mind that is con- 
tented with its present lot dislike disquieting itself about the.evenis of the 
future."— 86. Lento risu. "With a placid smile." With a calm, pbilo- 



90—38. 3a TWumvmmkndL "Wasted away the powers of Titbo- 
nos."— 32. Hero. " The changing fortune of the hour."— 34 Hinnitunu 
The last syllable befog cut off before apta by Synapheia and Ecthlipsis, 
m becomes the last syllable of the verse, and may consequently be made 
short.— 35. Apia quadrigis. " Fit for the chariot" The poet merely 
wishes to express the generous properties of the animal. The ancients 
gave the preference in respect of swiftness to mares. — The term quadriga 
properly denotes a chariot drawn by four horses, or mares. The Romans 
always yoked the animals that drew their race-chariots abreast. Nero 
drove a deeemjugis at Olympia, but this was an unusual extravagance. 
— Bis Afro murice tinder Vestments twice dyed were called dibapka 
(t£$*+m.) The object of this process was to communicate to the garment 
what was deemed the most valuable purple, resembling the colour ol 
clotted blood, and of a blackish, shining appearance. The purple of the 
ancients was obtained from the juice of a shell-fish called murex, and 
found at Tyre in Asia Minor; in Meninx, an island near the Syrtis 
minor; on the Gsstulian shore of the Atlantic ocean, in Africa, and at the 
Tasnarian promontory in the Peloponnesus. — 37. Parse rwa. Alluding 
to his Sabine farm. — 38. Spiritum Grow, &c " Some slight inspiration 
of the Grecian Muse," i. e. some little talent for lyric verse. 



Ode 1 7. Addressed to Maecenas, languishing under a protracted and 
painful malady, and expecting every moment a termination of his exis- 
tence. The poet seeks to call off the thoughts of his patron and friend 
from so painful a subject, and while he descants in strong and feeling 
language on the sincerity of his own attachment, and on his resolve to 
Accompany him to the grave, he seeks at the same time to inspire him 
with brighter hopes and with the prospect of recovery from the band ol 
disease. 

The constitution of Maecenas, naturally weak, had been impaired by 

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344 KXFLAMATORY MO TBS. — BOOK II. ODB XVSL 

effeminacy and luxurious living. " He had laboured," observes Mr. 
Dunlop, " from his youth under a perpetual fever ; and for many yean 
before iris death he suffered much from watchfulness, which was greatly 
aggravated by his domestic chagrins. Maecenas was fond of life and 
enjoyment ; and of life even without enjoyment He confesses, in Mine 
verses preserved by Seneca, that he would wish to live even under every 
accumulation of physical calamity. (Seneca. Epist. 101.) Henceneani- 
iously resorted to different remedies for the cure or relief of this distressing 
malady. Wine, soft music sounding at a distance, and various other con- 
trivances, were tried in vain. At length Antomus Musa, the imperial 
physician, obtained for him some alleviation of his complaint by means of 
the distant murmuring of (ailing water. But all these resources at last 
failed. The nervous and feverish disorder with which he was afflicted in- 
creased so dreadfully, that for three years before his death he never clos- 
ed his eyes." {History of Roman Literature, vol. 3. p. 42. Lend, ed.) 

Whether this ode was written shortly before his dissolution, or at 
some previous period cannot be ascertained, nor is it a point of much 
importance. 

1 — 14. 1. Quaretis. Alluding to the complaints of Maecenas at the 
dreaded approach of death. Consult Introductory Remarks to this ode. 
— 3. Obire. Understand mortem, or diem supremwn. — 5. Jtfe«s /Marios 
anima. " The one half of my existence.'* A fond expression of inti- 
mate friendship. — 6. Maturior vis. " Too early a blow," L e. an un- 
timely death. — Quid tnoror altera, &c '* Why do I, the remaining por- 
tion, linger here behind, neither equally dear to myself, nor surviving 
entire ?" — 8. Utramque duett ruinam. u Will bring ruin to us each." 
— 10. Sacramenlvm, A figurative allusion to the oath taken by the Ro- 
man soldiers, the terms of which were, that they would be faithful to their 
commander, and follow wherever he led, were it even to death. — 11. 
Ulcunque. Equivalent to quandocunque. — 14. Gyges. One of the giants 
that attempted to scale the heavens. He was hurled to Tartarus by the 
thunderbolts of Jove and there lay prostrate and in fetters. 

17— -28. 17. Adsf&cil. "Presides over my existence." The refer- 
ence is here to judicial astrology, according to which pretended science, 
the stars that appeared above the horizon at the moment of one's birth, as 
well as their particular positions with reference to each other, were sup- 
posed to exercise a decided influence upon, and to regulate, the life of 
the individual. — 18. Pars violentior, &c " The more dangerous portion 
of the natal hour." — 19. Capricornvs. The rising and setting of Capri- 
cornus was usually attended with storms. Compare Properties. 4. 1. 
107. Hence the epithet aquom* is sometimes applied to this constella- 
tion. In astrology, Libra was deemed favourable, while the influence 
of Scorpius and Capricorntu was regarded as malign. — 20. Utrumq** 
nostrum, &c. " Our respective horoscopes agree in a wonderful man- 
ner." The term horoscope is applied in astrology to the position of the 
stars at the moment of one's birth. Mitscherlich explains the idea of 
the poet as follows : " In quocunqiie Zo&aci sidere horoscopes mens fiurit 
inventus, licet diverso a tui koroscopi sidere, tamen horoscopus mens cum tea 
auam maxime consmtitit necesse est." — 21. Impio Scturno. u From bale- 
ful Saturn." — 22. Re/tdgevs. " Shining in direct opposition." — 26. La- 
tum ter crepuit sonum. 4I Thrice raised the cry of loy." Acclamations 
raised by the people on account of the safety" of Maecenas. Compare 
note on Ode 1. 20. 3.-28. SustxderaL For suslulisset. The indicative 
here imports an air of liveliness to the representation, though in the con- 
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EXFLAVATOEY KOTOS.— BOOK IL ODE XVIM. 346 

Actional clause tKe subjunctive is used. As regards the allusion of too 
poet, compare Ode 2. 13. 



Ode 18. The poet, while he censures the luxury and profusion of the 
age, describes himself as contented with little, acceptable to many friends, 
and far happier than those who were blessed with the gifts of fortune 
but ignorant of the true mode of enjoying them. 

1 — 7. 1. Avrenm lacunar. "Fretted ceiling overlaid with gold." 
Compare note on Ode 2. 16. 11. — 3. Trabes HymtUict. u Beams ot 
Hymettian marble." The term trabes here includes the architrave, 
frieze, cornice, &c The marble of Hymettus was held in high estima- 
tion by the Romans. Some editions have Hymettias, and in the follow- 
ing line recisa\ so that trabes recisa ultima Africa will refer to African 
marble, and Hymtttias cdumnas to Hymettian wood ; but the wood of 
Hymettus does not appear to have been thought valuable by the Romans. 
— Ultima reeUas Mica. Alluding to the Numidian marble. The kind 
most highly prized had a dark surface variegated with spots. — 6. AUalL 
Attalus the 3d, famed for his immense riches, led the kingdom of Per- 
gamus and all bis treasures by will to the Roman people ; at least, such 
was the construction which the latter put upon it. (Compare Diiker, ad 
Her. 2. 20.) After his death, Aristonicus, a natural son of Eumenes, 
father of Attalus, (Livu. 45. 19. Justin, 36. 4.) laid claim to the kingdom, 
but was defeated by the consul Perperna and carried to Rome, where 
he was put to death in prison. It is to him that the poet alludes under 
the appellation of harts ispwtus. — 7. JYec Loconicos mihi, &c. " Nor do 
female dependants, of no ignoble birth, spin for me the Spartan purple." 
The purple of Laconia, obtained in the vicinity of the Taenanan pro- 
montory, was the most highly prized. Compare note on Ode 2. 16. 35. 
—By honesta clientcs are meant female clients of free birth, and the 

Siithet henestes serves to illustrate the high rank of the patron for whom 
ey ply their labours. 

9 — 23 9. Jit fides et ingeni, &c. " But integrity is mine, and a liberal 
vein of talent" 13. Potentem omiewn. Alluding to Maecenas. — 14» 
Satis beatus, &c " Sufficiently happy with my Sabine farm alone."— 
15. Truditur dies die. The train of thought appears to be as follows: 
Contented with my slender fortune, T am the less solicitous to enlarge 
it, when I reflect on the short span of human existence. How foolishly 
then do they act, who, when day is chasing day in rapid succession, are 
led on by their eager avarice, or their fondness for display, to form plans 
on the very brink of the grave. — 16. PergurU interWe. " Hasten on- 
ward to their wane." — 17. Tu secanda marmora, &c. " And vet thou, on 
the very brink of the grave, art bargaining to have marble cut for an 
abode." Directly opposed to locate, in this sense, is the verb rtdimere, 
** to contract todo any thing," whence the term redemtor, u a contractor." 
. — 20. Marisque Batts, &c. Baiae, on the Campanian shore, was a fa* 
•rourite residence of the Roman nobility, and adorned with beautiful 
'villas. There were numerous warm springs also in its vicinity, which 
were considered to possess salutary properties for various disorders.— 
2 1. Svmmovere. " To push farther into the deep," i. e. to erect moles 
on which to build splendid structures amid the waters. — 22. Parum lo- 
c-uples, &c. " Not rich enough with the shore of the main land," i. e. 
; satisfied with the limits of the land. 



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MO UPLAN ATOM MOtlS*--MOK tL ODE XIX* 

13— 40. 83. Qt*V7 fUMliufii^lUs. « What shaH I say of this, that 
thou even removes! the neighbouring land marks ?" i. e. Why need I 
Ceil of thy removing the land marks of thy neighbour's possessions. 
The allusion is to the rich man's encroaching on the grounds of an infe- 
rior. — 24. Ultra talis. " Lcapest over." The verb soito is here used to 
express the contemptuous disregard of the powerful man for the rights 
of his dependants. Hence aali* ultra may be freely rendered, " con- 
temnest."— 86. Avarus, " Promoted bv cuoiditv"--27. Fermi. "Bern* 



temnest."— 86. Jtoarus. "Prompted by cupidity."— 87. Forms. 
ing, each."— 28. SonHdos. M Squalid." hi the habiliments of extreme 
poverty. — 29. Nulla eertior lanun, &c " And yet no home swifts the rich 
master with greater certainty than the destined limit of rapacious Orcns." 
Fhu beautifully marks the fast limit of our earthly career. Some edi- 
tions have seat instead of fine, and the use of the latter term in the fe- 
minine gender has been made probably the ground for the change. Bat 
finis is used in the feminine by some of the best writers. — 32. Qwd afire 
iendis ? " Why strivest thou for more ?" Death must overtake thee in 
the midst of thy course.— -Jleqma teUui. " The impartial earth."— 34. 
Regumque wens. The allusion is to the wealthy and powerful.— So- 
teUesOrei. Alluding to Charon.— 36. CalUdmm Pnmethea, Alluding to 
some fabulous legend respecting Prometheus which baa not come down 
to us.— 37. TantaU genu*. Pelops, Atreos, Thyestes, Agamemnon, 
Orestes.— 40. Moratus. The common text has wears*. 



Onn 19. Celebrating, in animated language, the praises of Bacchus, 
and imitated, very probably, from some Greek Dithyrambic Ode. Then 
is nothing, however, in the piece itself, to countenance the opinion that 
it was composed for some festival in honour of Bacchus. 

1 — 18. 1. Carndnadocenttm. " Dictating strains," i. e. teaching how 
to celebrate bis praises in song. Compare the Greek form of expression 
itidemuv e>*>a. As the strains mentioned in the text are supposed to have 
reference to the mysteries of the god, the scene is hence laid in res w ti i 
rupibus, " amid rocks far distant from the haunts of men."— 4. JcuUs. 
" Attentively listening." Literally, " pricked up to listen."— 5. JSsee ! 
The poet now feels himself under the powerful influence of the god, 
and breaks forth into the well-known cry of the Bacchantes, when they 
celebrate the orgies. — RecenH mens trepidat metu, &c " My mind trem- 
bles with recent dread, and, my bosom being filled with the inspiration 
of Bacchus, is agitated with troubled joy." Both trepidat and lotahs* 
refer to mens, and turbidtan is to be construed as equivalent to tmrbids. 
The arrangement of the whole clause is purposely involved, that the 
words may, by their order, yield a more marked echo to the sense.— 
Gravi mttuende tkurso. Bacchus was thought to inspire with fury by 
hurling his thyrsus. — 9. Fas pervtcoees, &c "It is allowed me to an* 
of the the stubbornly-raging bacchantes," i. e. my piety toward the goo 
requires that I sing of, &c. — 10. Viniqwfonttm, &c. The poet enume- 
rates the gifts bestowed upon man in earlier ages, by the miraculouf 
powers of the god. At his presence all nature rejoices, and, under bis 
potent influence, the earth, struck by the thyrsi of the Bacchantes, yields 
wine and milk, while honey flows from the trees. The imagery is here 
decidedly Oriental, and must remind us of that employed in many parts 
of tho sacred writings.— 12. /Jersre. " To tell again and again or."— 
14- Honorem. Equivalent to ornamentum or rfecttt. The allusion is lo 
urn crown of Ariadne {corona boreaUs) t <m* of me constellations, consist* 



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IXFLAffATORT M0T1S.— BOOK II. OD« 3tt. 347 

hg of nine stars. The epithet fteste, applied to Ariadne, refers to her 
hiring been translated to -the skies, and made one of the " blessed" 
immortals. — PeniheL Alluding to the legend of Pentheus, king of 
Thebes, who was torn in pieces by his own mother and her sisters, and 
his palace overthrown by Bacchus.—- 16. Lueurgu Lycurgus, king of 
the Edones in Thrace, punished for having driven the infant Bacchus 
from his kingdom. — 1 & Tu flectis amnes, &c. " Thou tumest backward 
the courses of rivers, thou swayest the billows of the Indian sea." Al- 
luding to the wonders performed by Bacchus, in his fabled conquest of 
India and other regions of the east. The rivers here meant are the 
Orontes and Hydaspes. — 18. Tu seperaUs, &c. " On the lonely moun* 
tain tops, moist with wine, thou confinest, without harm to them, the 
locks or the Bacchantes with a knot of vipers," i. e. under thy influence, 
the Bacchantes tie up their locks, &c — Bistonidum. Literally, " of the 
female Bistones." Here, however, equivalent to Bacchanal. 

S3— 31. 33. LeonU ungu&us. Bacchus was fabled to have assumed 
on this occasion the form of a lion. — 25. Qwmquam chords, &c. 
" Though said to be fitter for dances and festive mirth."— 26. Jfbn sat 
isonm. " Not equally well-suited."— 27. Scd idem, &c. " Yet, on 
that occasion, thou, the same deity, didst become the arbiter of peace 
tad of war." The poet means to convey the idea, that the intervention 
of Bacchus alone put an end to the conflict Had not Bacchus lent his 
aid, the battle must have been longer in its duration, and different perhaps 
in its issue. — 29. Intent. " Without offering to harm." Bacchus de- 
scended to the shades for the purpose of bringing back his mother Se- 
mele.— -Jhtreo cornu decorum. A figurative illustration of the power of 
the god. The horn was the well-known emblem of power among the 
ancients.— 31. Et recedenHs trUtngui, &c. The power or the god triumphs 
over the fierce guardian of the shades, who allows egress to none tnat 
have once entered the world of spirits. 



Ode 20. The bard presages his own immortality. Transformed into 
a swan, he will soar away from the abodes of men, nor need the empty 
honours of a tomb. 

1—23. 1 Mn utUata, fee, M A bard of twofold form, I shall be borne 
through the liquid air on no common, no feeble pinion." The epithet 
bi/ormis alludes to his transformation from a human being to a swan, 
which is to take place on the approach of death. Then, becomuifr the 
favoured bird of Apollo, he will soar aloft on strong pinions beyond the 
reach of envy and detraction. — 1 Invidsaque major. "And, beyond the 
reach of envy."— 5. Pauperum sanguU parenhtm, u Though the offspring 
of hnmble parents."— 6. .Yon ego quern vocas, &c " 1, whom thou salutest, 
O Maecenas, with the title of beloved friend, shall never die." The read- 
ing of this paragraph is much contested. According to that adopted in our 
text, the meaning of the poet is, that the friendship of Maecenas will be 
one of his surest passports to the praises of postenty. — DUecte is taken, 
as the grammarians call it. materially. — 9. Jam jam residunt, &c "Now, 
even now, the rough skin is settling on my legs." The transformation is 
already begun : my legs are becoming those of a swan. — 11. Supema. 
" Above." The neuter of the adjective used adverbially. Quod ad «*- 
perna corporis membra attmet — Jrascunturque leva phema. "And the 
downy plumage is fonning."— 14. Bospori. Consult note on Ode, % 

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349 BXFLAM ATOftY MOTES,— *OOK m. ODB I. 

13. 14.— 15. Svrtesqw GaztuUs. Consult note on Ode, 1. SI. 4.— Cmm* 
ales. " A bird of melodious note." Consult note on Ode, 1. 6. 1—16. 
Hyperbortosque compos. "And the Hyperborean fields," i. e. the far- 
thest plains of the north. — 17. Et qui dissimulat, &c Alluding to the Par- 
thian. The Marsi were regarded as the bravest portion or the Roman 
armies, and hence Jdarsct is here equivalent to Romance Consult note 
on Ode, 1. 8. 39.— 18. Dacus. Consult note on Ode, 1. 35. 9.— 19. Gdonu 
Consult note on Ode, 2. 9. 23.— PerUus Ibcr. « The learned Spaniard." 
The Spaniards imbibed a literary taste from the Romans, as these last 
had from the Greeks.— SO. Rhodanique potor. The native of GauL— 81 
Turpes. "Unmanly." — 23. Supervaeuos. The poet will need no tomb: 
death will never claim him for his own, since he is destined to live forever 
in the praises' of posterity. 



BOOK III. 



Ode 1. The general train of thought in this beautiful Ode is simply 
as follows : True happiness consists not in the possession of power, 
of public honours, or or extensive riches, but in a tranquil and contented 
mind. 

1—4. 1. Odi profanum vulgus, &c. " I hate the uninitiated crowJ, 
and I keep them at a distance." Speaking as the priest of the Muses, 
and being about to disclose their sacred mysteries (in other words, the 
precepts of true wisdom) to the favoured few, the poet imitates the form of 
language by which the uninitiated and profane were directed to retire from 
the mystic tites of the gods. The rules of a happy life cannot be com- 
prehended, and may be abused, by the crowd. — 2. FaveU Unguis. "Pre- 
serve a religious silence." Literally, " favour me with your ears." "We 
have here another form of words, by which silence and attention were en- 
joined on the true worshippers. This was required, not only from a prin- 
ciple of religious respect, but also lest some ill-omened expression might 
casually fall from those who were present, and mar the solemnities of 
the occasion. — Carmina non print audita. " Strains before unheard." 
There appears to be even here an allusion to the language and forms of 
the mysteries in which new and important truths were promised to be dis- 
closed.— 4. Virginibits puerisque canto. The poet supposes himself to be 
dictating his strains to a chorus of virgins and youths. Stripped of its 
Igurative garb, the idea intended to be conveyed will be simply this ; that 
Jje bard wishes his precepts of a happy life to be carefully treasured up by 
Jie young. 

6—14. 5. Regum timendorum, &c. The poet now unfolds his subject. 
Kings, he observes, are elevated far above the ordinary ranks of men, bat 
Jove is mightier than Kings themselves, and can in an instant humble 
.heir power in the dust. Royalty, therefore, carries with it no peculiar 
claims to the enjoyment of happiness. — tn nroprios greges. "Over their 
awn flocks." Kings are the shepherds of tneir people. — 8. Cuncla super- 
tilio moventis. "Who shakes the universe with his nod." Compare 
Homer, JI. 1. 528.-9. Est utviroirir, &c. "It happens that one mesa 
arranges his trees at greater distances in the trenches than another," k *» 



y Google 



EX*LAK ATORT MOTES.— BOOK IIL ODK 1. 94$ 

sb wider domains. The Romans were accustomed to plant their 
Vines, olive-trees, &c, in trenches or small pits. Some editions have 
KsIq for Esl: "Grant that one man," &c. or "Suppose that."— 10. I lie 
gcrurosior dtseendot, &c. "That this one descends into the Campus Mar- 
tius a nobler applicant for office." — 12. Moribus hie mdiorqtu Jama, &c. 
Allading to the norms homo, or man of ignoble birth. — 14. JEqua lege 
Jfecessitas, &c "Still, Necessity, by an impartial law, determines the 
lots of the high and the lowly ; the capacious urn keeps in constant agita- 
tion the names of all." Necessity is here represented holding her capa- 
cious urn containing the names of all. She keeps the urn in constant 
agitation, aud the lots that fly from it every instant are the signals of death 
to the individuals whose names are inscribed on them. — The train of 
thought, commencing with the third stanza, is as follows : Neither ex- 
tensive possessions, nor elevated birth, nor purity of character, nor crowds 
of dependants, are in themselves sufficient to procure lasting felicity, since 
death sooner or later must close the scene, and bring all our schemes of 
interest and ambition to an end. 

17 — 31. 17. Districtus ensis. An allusion to the well-known story 
of Damocles. The connection in the train of ideas between this and 
the preceding stanza, is as follows : Independently of the stern necessity 
of death, the wealthy and the powerful are prevented by the cares of 
riches and ambition from attaining to the happiness which they seek.— 
18. JVbn Sievlct doves, &c. " The most exquisite viands will create no 
pleasing relish in him, over whose impious neck," &c. The expression 
Siculat dopes is equivalent here to exquisUissima epukc. The luxury of 
the Sicilians in their banquets became proverbial. — 20. Avium ciihara- 
pu cantus. " The melody of birds and of the lyre." — 24. Won Zephyris 
agitata Tempt. " She disdains nol Tempe, fanned by the breezes of the 
west" Tempe is here put for any beautiful and shady vaie. Consult 
note on Ode 1. 7. 4. — 25. Desidtrantem quod satis est, &c. According 
to the poet, the man " who desires merely what is sufficient for his 
wants," is free from all the cares that bring disquiet to those who are ei- 
ther already wealthy, or are eager in the pursuit of gain. His repose is 
neither disturbed by shipwrecks, nor by losses in agricultural pursuits. — ■ 
-ftrcjuri. Arcturus is a star of the first magnitude, in the constellation 
of Bootes, near the tail of the Great Bear, (ijurror, oipA.) Both its rising 
and setting were accompanied by storms. — 28. Hadi. The singular 
for the plural. The hadi, or kids, are two stars on the arm of Auriga. 
Their rising is attended by stormy weather, as is also their setting.*— 
— 30. Jttendax. " Which disappoints his expectations." — Aquas. "The 
excessive rains."-— 31. Torrenlia agros sidera. " The influence of the 
stars parching the fields."* Alluding particularly to Sirius, or the dog- 
star, at the nsing of which' the trees were apt to contract a kind of 
blight, or blast, termed sideraHo, and occasioned by the excessive heat 
of the sun. 

35—47. 33. Contracta pisces, &c. In order to prove how little the 
lere possession of riches can administer to happiness,' the poet now 
adverts to the various expedients practised by the wealthy, for the pur- 
poee of banishing disauiet from their breasts, and of removing the sated 
feelings that continually oppressed them. They erect the splendid villa 
amid the waters of the ocean, but fear, and the threats of conscience, 
become also its inmates. They journey to foreign climes, but gloomy 
care accompanies them by sea and by land. They array themselves in 
the costly purple, but it only hides an aching heart; nor can the win© of 

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fttt EX* LAW! TORT X0TM.— -BOOK HI. ODB H. 

Falcrnns, or the perfumes of the East, bring repose sod pleasure to thai 
minds. Why then, exclaims the bard, shall I exchange my life ofsimpls 
happiness for the splendid but deceitful pageantry of the rich? — M. J«to 
t* dtum motions* " By the moles built out into the deep." Consult Dote 
on Ode 2. 18. 80. — Frequent redemtor cum famuHs. u Many a contractor 
with his attendant workmen." Consult note on Ode 2. 18. 18.— & 
CcRmtnta. By ceementa are here meant rough and broken stones, is they 
come from the quarry, used for the purpose of filling up, and of no£Ktl 
size. — 36. Terra fattidkmu. "Loathing the land," i. e. disdaining 
the limits of the land. Compare Ode 2. 19. 22. Parwn locupUt esntf- 
ntnie rtpo. — 37. Timor et Mitut. " Fear and the threats of conscience." 
—41. Phryghu Upit. Referring to the marble of Synnada, in Phryeia, 
which was held in high estimation by the Romans. It was of a white 
colour, variegated with purple spots.— 42. Purjwrvrumridereclarurws- 
" The use of purple coverings, brighter than any star.'* With psrpsrf 
mm supply eesttum et Mtrapdanan, and construe donor as if agreeing 
with them in case. — 43. Falerna vitis. Consult note on Ode 1. 20. 9.— 
44. Jjch&meniumve cottwn. " Or Eastern nard." ^c&««uitiwm in equi- 
valent literally to Penicum (i. e. Parthkum). Consult notes on Odei 
12. 21. and 1. 2. 22.-45. Inoidendit. " Only calculated to excite to* 
onyy of others." — Novo ritu. " In a new style of magnificence. 9 *— 47. 
Cur vtUe permutem Sobina. " ^h/ 8na ^ * exchange my Sabine vale fin 
more troublesome riches." i. e. for riches that only bring with them t 
proportionate increase or care and trouble. Valle, as marking the «• 
strument of exchange, is put in the ablative. 



One 2. ( The poet exhorts his luxurious countrymen to restore tvl 
strict discipline of former days, and train up the young to an acquaint* 
ance with the manly virtues which once graced the Roman name. 

1 — 17 1. Angxtstam amici, &c. "Let the Roman youth, robust of 
frame { learn cheerfully to endure, amid severe military service, the hard 
privations of a soldier's life." The expression amici paH is somewhat 
analogous to the Greek AyawrrVs ttyur- The common text Iras tunc*.-* 
5. Sub dtoo. " In the open air," i. e. in the field. — Trepidis i» r**«i. 
" When danger threatens his country." The poet means, that, when 
his country calls, the young soldier is to obey the summons with ala- 
crity, and to shrink from no exposure to the elements.— 7. Matrma bel* 
lantU tyranni. " The consort of some warring monarch." Bdlamtu is 
here equivalent to cum Populo Romano bettutn gerenHe. — 8. EtaduUa 
virgo. " And his virgin daughter, of nubile years."— 9. Suspirtt, ekeu ! 
ne rudu agminum, &c. *' Heave a sigh, and say, Ah ! let not the prince, 
affianced to our line, unexperienced as he is in arms, provoke," kc 
By tpotmu regnu is here meant a young lover of royal origin, betrothed 
to the daughter.— 13. Dulce et decorum, &c Connect the train of ideal 
as follows : Bravely then let the Roman warrior contend against the foe, 
remembering that, " it is sweet and glorious to die for one's country."— 
17. Virtus repvlscR ntscia, Sec. The Roman youth must not, however, 
confine his attention to martial prowess alone. He must also seek after 
true virtue, and the firm precepts of true philosophy. When he has 
succeeded in this, his will be a moral magistracy, that lies not in the 
gift of the crowd, and in aiming at which he will never experience a dis- 
graceful repnlse. His will be a feeling of moral worth, which, as it de- 
pends not *n the breath of popular favour, can neither be given nor takes 

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BXPLANATOftT HOTEfl.— BOOK in. ODI Ilk 851 

away by the fickle multitude.— Secure*. A figurative allusion to the 
axes and fasces of the lictors, the emblems of office. 

f 1- -21. Virtus recludens, kc. The poet mentions another incitement 
to the possession of true virtue, the immortality which it confers. — 82. 
Xegata via. "Bva way denied to others," i. e. by means peculiarly 
her own. — 23. Coetusgue vulrares, kc. " And, soaring on rapid pinion, 
spurns the vulgar herd and the cloudy atmosphere of earth." — 25. Estet 
ftddi, kc. Thus far the allusion to virtue has been general in its nature. 
It now assumes a more special character. Let the Roman youth learn 
in particular the sure reward attendant on good faith, and the certain 
punishment that follejsvs its violation. — 26. Qui Ccreris sacrum, kc. 
Those who divulged the Mysteries were punished with death, and their 
property was confiscated. — 30. Incesto addidii integrum. "Involves the 
innocent with the guilty." — 31. RaroJinUesderdemsctUstum, &c "Rarely 
does punishment, though lame of foot, fail to overtake the wicked man 
moving on before her," i. e. justice though often slow is rare. 



Ode 3. The ode opens with the praises of justice and persevertng 
firmness. Their recompense is immortality. Of the truth of this remark 
splendid examples are cited, and, among others, mention being made of 
Romulus, the poet dwells on the circumstances which, to the eye of 
imagination, attended his apotheosis. The gods are assembled in solemn 
conclave to decide upon his admission to the skies. Juno, most hostile 
before to the line of -Eneas, now declares her assent Satisfied with past 
triumphs, she allows the founder of the eternal city to participate in the 
toys of Olympus. The lofty destinies of Rome are also shadowed forth, 
and the conquest of nations is promised to her arms. But the condition 
which accompanies this expression of her will is sternly mentioned. The 
city of Troy must never rase from its ashes. Should the descendants ot 
Romulus rebuild the detested city, the vengeance of the goddess will 
again be exerted for its downfall. 

It is a conjecture of Faber*s (EpUt. 2. 43.) that Horace wishes, in the 
present ode, to dissuade Augustus from executing a plan he had at this 
time in view, of transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Ilium, and 
of rebuilding the city of Pnam. . Suetonius ( ViL Iul.) speaks of a similar 
project in the time of Cesar. Zosimus, also, states that, in a later age, 
Constantino actually commenced building a new capital in the plain of 
Troy, but was soon induced by the superior situation of Byzantium to 
ibandon his project (Zee. 2. 30.) 

1—22. 1. Justum tl tenacem, kc " Not the wild fury of his fellow- 
arizens ordering evil measures to be pursued, not the look of the threat- 
ening tyrant, nor the southern blast, the stormy ruler of the restless 
Adriatic, nor the mighty hand of Jove wielding his thunderbolts, shakes 
from hie settled purpose the man who is just and firm in his resolve." In 
(his noble stanza, that firmness alone is praised which rests on the basis 
of integrity and justice. — 7. St fractus iUabatur orbis, kc "If the shat- 
tered heavens descend upon nun, the ruins will strike him remaining a 
stranger to fear."— 9. Hoc arte. " By this rule of conduct,*' i* * by inte- 
grity and firmness of purpose. — Vagus Hercules. "The roaming Her- 
cules." — 12. Purpureo ore. Referring either to the dark-red colour ot 
the nectar, or to the Roman oustom of adorning on solemn occasions, 
inch as triumphs, kc the laces of the gods with vermilion.— IS. Hu 

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SM KCPLAKTORT NOTES.— BOOK III. ODE in. 

sasreniem. ** For this deterring iminortality. w — 14. V exert. "Bore thee to 
the dues.* Bacchus is represented by the ancient fabulists, as returning 
in triumph from the conquest of India and the East in a chariot drawn by 
tigers. He is now described as having ascended in this same way to the 
skies by a singular species of apotheosis. — 16. Mortis equis, &c. Ob- 
serve the elegant variety of diction m the phrases, srcet altigit igneat ; 
fuoi safer Augustus recumbent; vexere Hgres; and Acheronta Jugu\ all 
expressive of the same idea, the attaining of immortality. — 17. Gratvn 
ekcuta, &c "After Juno had uttered what was pleasing to the gods 
deliberating in council.'* — 18. //ion, /Hon, &c An abrupt but beauiifal 
commencement, intended to portray the exulting feelings or the triumphant 
Juno. The order of construction is as follows : 4udexjatatis tftcestusese, 
ef mutter peregruuiyVertitinpulverem Men, /lion, domnatum mUd eastdqut 
JsTinervoj, cum peputo et fraudulent*) duee, ex quo Laomedon destUuU sea) 
facta mereede. — 19. FataHs Incestusque judex, &c. "A judge, the fated 
author of his country's ruin, and impure in his desires, and a female from 
a foreign land." ADoding to Paris and Helen, and the apple of discoid. 
—91. DestUuit deosy &c " Defrauded the gods of their stipulated re- 
ward." Alluding to the fable of Laomedon's having refused to Apollo 
and Neptune their promised recompense for building the walls of Troy. 
—88. MUdcamUsque domnatum Minerwt. " Consigned for punishment to 
me and the spotless Minerva." Condemned by the gods, and given orer 
to these two deities for punishment The idea is borrowed from the 
Roman law by which an insolvent debtor was delivered over into the 
power of his creditors. 

85—48. 25. Lacon* splendid adulter*. " Displays his gaudy pertoo 
to the Spartan adulteress."— *9. JfoslrU duehmsedtiumibus. " Protracted 
by our dissentions." — 31. Invisum nepotem. Romulus, grand son to 
Juno through his father Mars. — Troia saeerdos. Ilia.— 34. Ditcerc 
"To learn to know." . The common text has ducere, "to quaff"— 
37. Dum longus inter, &c "Provided a long tract of ocean rage be- 
tween Ilium and Rome." Provided Rome be separated from the plain 
of Troy by a wide expanse of intervening waters, and the Romans re- 
build not the city of their forefathers. Consult Introductory Remarks. 
' —88. Bxules. The Romans are here meant, in accordance with the 
popular belief that they were the descendants of .£neas and the Tro- 
jans, and exiles consequently from the land of Troy, the abode of then- 
forefathers.— 39. QMobbet In parte. " In whatever other quarter it may 
please them to dwell."— 40. Busto utsultet "Trample upon the tomb." 
—49. CWent " Conceal therein."— 43. Fulgens. "In all ita splendour." 
—44. Dare jura. "To give laws."— 45. Horrenda. "An object of 
dread."— 46. Medius liquor, "The intervening waters."— 48. Ana. 
-Understand AegyptL 

49—70. 49. Aurum urepertunu " The gold of the mine." frrtper- 
tum is here to be taken as a general epithet of aurum. The common 
translation, " as yet undiscovered," involves an absurdity. — 61. Quasi 
cogere, &o> " Than in bending it to human purposes, with a riphl band 
plundering every thing of a sacred character." The expression o*me 
sacrum raptente dextra is only another definition for boundless cupidity, 
which respects not even the most sacred objects. Among these objects, 
cold is enumerated, and with singular felicity. It should be held sacred 
by man, it should be allowed to repose untouched in the mine, consi- 
dering the dreadful evils that invariably accompany its use.— 53. <i*- 
cunquemundo,**. "Whatever limit bounds the world."— 64. Fuers 



EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK 111. ODE IT. 363 

gestiens, &c " Eagerly desiring to visit that quarter, where the fires of 
the sun rage with uncontrolled fury, and that, where mists and rains 
exercise a continual sway." We have endeavoured to express the 
zeugma in debacchentnr, without losing sight at the same time of the 
peculiar force and beauty of the term. The allusion is to the torrid and 
frigid zones. Supply the ellipsis in the text as follows : visere earn par- 
tem qua parte, &c. — Hoe lege. u On this condition." — Jfimium pa. The 
->iety here alluded to is that, which, according to ancient ideas, was due 
Jrom a colony to its parent city. — 61. Mite lugvbri. " Under evil aus- 
pices. — 62. Fortuna. "The evil fortune." — 65. Jtiunuaeneus. "A brazen 
wall," i. e. the strongest of ramparts. — 66. Auctore. Equivalent to 
eondiicre. — 70. Desine pervicax, &c. " Cease boldly to relate the dis- 
courses of the gods, and to degrade lofty themes by lowly measures." 



pi, 

fit 



Ode 4. The object of the poet, in this ode, is to celebrate the praises 
of Augustus for his fostering patronage of letters. The piece opens 
with an invocation to the Muse. To this succeeds an enumeration of 
the benefits conferred on the bard, from his earliest years, by the deities 
of Helicon ; under whose protecting influence, no evil, he asserts, can 
ever approach him. The name of Augustus is then introduced. If 
the humble poet is defended from harm by the daughters of Mnemosyne, 
much more will the exalted Caesar experience their favouring aid ; ana 
he will also give to the world an illustrious example, of the beneficial 
effects resulting from power when controlled and regulated by wisdom 
and moderation. 

1 — 80. 1. Die longum melot. " Give utterance to a long melodious 
strain." — Regina. A general term of honour, unless we refer it to He 
siod, Theog. 79. where Calliope is described as arar^cptorrfrv k**oi*9 
(Vl*v*dt*v.)— 3. Voce acuta. "With clear and tuneful accents."— 4. Fi- 
dibue eitketraque. For Jidibus citkarce. u On the strings of Apollo's 
lyre." — 5. Auditis? "Do you bear her?" The poet fancies that the 
Muse, having heard his invocation, has descended from the skies, and 
is pouring forth a melodious strain. Hence the question, put to those 
who are supposed to be standing around, whether they also hear the 
accents of the goddess. Fea, one of the modern commentators on Ho- 
race, gives on conjecture Audiris 1 in the sense of " Are you heard by 
me ?" " Do you answer my invocation ?" — AmabUia tneonio. " A fond 
enthusiasm." — 7. Amotruz quos et , &c. A beautiful zeugma. "Through 
which the pleasing waters glide and refreshing breezes blow." — 9. Fa- 
smIoso. " Celebrated in fable."— Vulture. Mount Voltur, now Monte 
Vulture, was situated in the neighbourhood of Venusia, the poet's na- 
tive place.— 10. JAdricis Apulia. "Of my native Apulia."— 11. Ludo 
fa&gatwnupu somno. " Wearied with play and oppressed with sleep*" 
— 13. Jtfirum quod foret, &c " Which might well be a source of won* 
4er, ace"— 14. Cdsoe nidum Acherontice. " The nest of the lofty Ache- 
rontia." Acherontia, now Acerenza, was situated on a hill difficult of 
access, south of Forentum, in Apulia. Its lofty situation gains for it 
from the poet the beautiful epithet of nidum. — 15. Saltueque Bantinos. 
Bantia, a town of Apulia, lay to the south-east ofVenusia. — 16. ForentL 
Forentum, now Forenza, lay about eight miles south of Venusia, and 
an the other side of mount Vultur. The epithet sutitOfe, "lowly," has 
Deference to its situation near the base of the mountain. — 20. Jfon tine 
Ms animeeus. " Deriving courage from the manifest protection of the 
gods." The deities here alluded: to are the Muses. r - 

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854 EXPLANATORY WOTES.— BOOK III. IT. 

21 — 36. 21. Vuter, Camoena. " Under your protection, ye Mem.* 
—21. Arduos Sabvuu. " The lofty country of the Sabine*." Alluding 
to the situation of his farm in the mountainous territory of the Sabine* 
—23. Prantsit. Preen este, nowPafajfruiOj was situate about twenty-three 
miles from Rome, in a south-east direction. The epithet Jrigidum, in 
the teat, alludes to the* coolness of its temperature, — Tibur sustains. 
"The sloping Tibur." This place was situated on the slope of a hilL 
Consult note on Ode, 1. 7. 13. — 24. Liquids Baiau "Bais with its 
waters. 19 Consult note on Ode, 2. 18. 20. — 26. Philippic versa aeies rdn. 
44 The army routed at Philippe" Consult "Life of Horace/* p. viu. 
Philippi was situate in Thrace, near the gold and silver mines of Mount 
Pangssus. It received its name from Philip of Macedon, who founded 
this city on the site of the old Thasian colony of Crenides. Here were 
fought the celebrated conflicts, two in number, which resulted in the de- 
feat of Brutus and Cassius. The interval between the two battles wis 
about twenty days. — 27. Devota arbor. " The accursed tree." Consult 
Ode, 2. 13. — 23. Paiinurus. A promontory on the coast of Lucanii, 
now Capo dt Palintaro. Tradition ascribed the name to Paiinurus, the 
pilot of JEnets. ( Ptrgtf, JEn. 6. 380.) It was noted for shipwrecks.— 
29. Utcwupu. Put for qxumdocuturue. — 30. Bosvorum. Consult note on 
Ode, 2. 13. 14—32. LUtoris AuyrtL The epithet Jksyrn is here equi- 
valent to SwiB. The name Syria itself, which has been transmitted to 
us by the Greeks, is a corruption or abridgment of Assyria, and was 
first adopted by the Ionians who frequented these coasts after the Assy- 
rians of Nineveh had made this country a part of their empire. The 
allusion in the text appears to be to the more inland deserts, the Syria 
Palmyrena so&udtne* of Pliny, H. Jf. 5. 24.-33. Britannot hospikbus 
ferot. Acron, in his scholia on this ode, informs us that the Britons 
were said to sacrifice strangers.— 34. Concanum. The Concani were a 
Cantabrian tribe in Spain. As a proof of their ferocity the poet men- 
tions their drinking the blood of horses intermixed with their liquor. — 
35. Gelonos. Consult note on Ode, 2. 9. 23.-36. ScytMcum antrum. The 
Tanais, or Don. 

38—64, 39. Fessas cohorttt abdidit omidis. Alluding to the military 
colonies planted by Augustus, at the close of the civil wars. Some edi- 
tions htLvereddidil for abdidit, which will then refer merely to the disband- 
ing of his forces.— 40. Pierio antro, a figurative allusion to the charms 
of literary leisure. Pieria, originally a part of Thrace, formed subse- 
quently the northern part of Macedonia, on the eastern side. It was 
fabled to have been the first seat of the Muses.— 41. Vos lent eeiutfnmt, 
&c " You, ye benign deities, both inspire Cesar with peaceful counsels, 
and rejoice in having done so." A complimentary allusion to the mild 
and liberal policy of Augustus, and his patronage of letters and the 
arts.— In reading metrically consilium et must be pronounced consil-yeL — 
44. JFWmtne natiderU caduco. " Swept away with his descending thun- 
derbolt." Some editions read corusco, " gleaming," for caduco. — 50, H- 
dens brachxU. " Proudly trusting in their might" Proudly relying on 
the strength of their arms.— 51. Fralres. Otus and Ephtalies. The al- 
lusion is now to the giants, who attempted to scale the heavens. — 52. 



Pelioiu Mount Pelion in Thessalv. — dlympo. Olympus, on the coast 
of northern Thessaly, separated from Ossa by the vale of Terapc— 53» 
Sed quid Typhoeus, &c. The mightiest of the giants are here enume- 
rated The Titans and giants are frequently confounded by the ancient 
writers. — 68. flwe acidus stetit, &c. " In this quarter stood Vulcan, 
burning for the fight; in that, Juno, with all a matron's dignity.** 

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EXFLAHATOKT KOT«iw— BOOK UL ODS ▼. 966 

The tsrm matrma, analagous here to votvU, and intended to designate 
the majesty and dignity of the queen of heaven, conveyed a much 
stronger idea to a Roman than to a modern ear. — 61. Rorepuro Castalut. 
u In the limpid waters of Castalia." The Castalian fount, on Parnassus, 
was tacred to Apollo.— £3. Lycuz dunuta. " The thickets of Lycia." — 
61 Jfitalem sifoam. " Bis natal wood," on Mount Cynthus, in the 
island of DeIo&—64. Dclius el Patareus Apollo. * " Apollo, god of Deloe 
and of Patara." The city of Patara, in Lycia, was situate on the 
southern coast, below the mouth of the Xanthus. It was celebrated 
for an oracle of Apollo, and that deity was said to reside here- during 
ail months of the year, and during the remaining six at Delos. (Ftrg 
Am. 4. 143.— Serv. ad fee.) 

65—79. 65. Vis consiH expers, &c "Force devoid of judgment sinks 
imderitaown weight."— 66. Tempcratam. "When under its controiil," 
i. e. when regulated by judgment. Understand consilio. — ProvehwU in 
nupa. u Increase."— 69. Gyges. Gyges. Cottus. and Briareus, sons of 
CeeloB and Terra, were hurled by their father to Tartarus. Jupiter, how- 
ever, brought them back to the light of day, and was aided by them m 
overthrowing the Titans. Such is the mythological narrative of Heeiod 
{Tktog. 61 7. teqq.) Horace evidently confounds this cosmogonical fable 
with one of later date. The CenHmani are of a much earlier creation than 
the rebellious giants, and fight on the side of the cods ; whereas, in the 
present passage, Horace seems to identify one of their number with these 
verj giants. — 71. Orion, The well-known hunter and giant of early fable. 
—73. Injecta monstru. A Gnecisro for st injectam esse ddeij &c. M Earth 
crieves at being cast upon the monsters of her own production." An al» 
lason to the overthrow and punishment of the giants. (TnywtifA Ence- 
ladiu was buried under Sicily, Poly botes under riisyrua, torn off by Nep* 
tune from the isle of Cos, Otus under Crete, &c. (AvoUod. 1. 6. 2.)— 
Partus. The Titans are now meant, who were also the sons of Terra, 
and whom Jupiter hurled to Tartarus. — 75. Ncc peredit imporitam, &c. 
"Nor does the rapid fire consume Aetna placed upon Enceladus," i. e. 
nor is Enceladus lightened of his load. Pindar (Pyth. 1. 31.) and Aeschy- 
lus (Prom. v. 373.) place Typhoeus under this mountain. — 77. Tityi. 
Tityos was slain by Apollo and Diana, for attempting violence towards 
Latona. — 78. Ales. The vulture. — Jfequitia additus custos. " Added as 
the constant avenger of his guilt." — 79. Amatorem Pirilhoum. "The 
amorous Pirithoua," i. e. who sought to gain Proserpina to his love. Pin- 
tboua, accompanied by Theseus, descended to Hades for the purpose ot 
carrying off Proserpina. He was seized by Pluto and bound to a rock 
with "countless fetters," (trecenlis eatenis.) His punishment however is 
given differently by other writers. 



Ons 5. The ode opens with a complimentary allusion to the power of 
Augustus, and to his having wrested the Roman standards from the hands 
of the Parthians. The bard then dwells for a time upon the disgraceful 
defeat of Crassus, after which the noble example of Regulusis introduced, 
and a tacit comparison is then made during the rest of the piece between 
the high-toned principles of the virtuous Roman, and the strict discipline 
of Augustus. 

1 — 3. 1. Cetlo tonantum, &c M We believe from his thundering that 
Jove reigns in the skies." Compare Lucan, 3. 319. seqq. — 2. Prase** 

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9BS EXFIAHATOET KOTBtv— BOOK ID. ODE V. 

diirtu, Ice. Having stated the common grounds on which the belief of 
Jupiter's divinity is founded, the poet now proceeds, in accordance with 
the flattery of the age, to name Augustus as a M deity upon earth, 1 ' 
(srasens dims,) assigning, as a proof of this, bis triumph over the nation! 
of the farthest east and west, especially his having wrested from the P*r- 
thians, by the mere terror of his name, the standards so disgracefully tost 
by the Romaa Crassus.— 3. JitiecHs Britannia, &c. "The Britons and 
the formidable Partbians being added to his sway." According to Sfobo 
some of the princes of Britain sent embassies and presents to Augustus, 
and placed a large portion of the island under his control. It was not, 
however, reduced to a Roman province until the time of Claudius. What 
Horace adds respecting the Parthians is adorned with the exaggeration ol 
poetry. This nation was not, in fact, added by Augustus to toe empire 
of Rome, they only surrendered, through dread of the Roman power, the 
standards taken from Crassus. 
.• 
5— IS. 5. MUesne Crasti, &c « Has the soldier of Crassus lived, a 
degraded husband, with a barbarian spouse?" An allusion to the 
soldiers of Crassus made captives by the Parthians, and who, to save 
their lives, had intermarried with females of that nation. Hence the 
peculiar force of vixit, which is well explained by one of the scholiasts ; 
"uxore* a vicloribtu accelerant, ut vilam mtrerenhtr." To constitute a 
lawful marriage among the Romans, it was required that both the con- 
tracting parties be citizens and free. There was no legitimate mania? e 
between slaves, nor was a Roman citizen permitted to marry a slave, a 
barbarian, or a foreigner generally. Such a connection was called cat- 
nubium, not tnatrimonkm. — 7. Pro curia, mversunu mores/ "Ah! 
senate of my country, and degenerate principles of the dav !" The poet 
mourns over the want of spirit on the part of the senate, in allowing the 
disgraceful defeat of Crassus to remain so long unavenged, and over the 
stain fixed on the martial character of Rome by this connection of her 
captive soldiery with their barbarian conquerors. Such a view of the 
subject carries with it a tacit but flattering eulogium on the successful 
operations of Augustus. — 8. Sub rege Jiedo. " Beneath a Parthian 
king/' — Morsus et Jfypxtlus. The Marsians and Apulians, the bravest 
portion of the Roman armies, are here taken to denote the Roman sol- 
diers generally. — 10. AnciHorum. The andiia were "the sacred shields* 
carried round in procession by the Salii or priests of Mars. — Et nowAm 
el toga. " And of the name and attire of a R oman." The toga was the 
distinguishing part of the Roman dress, and the badge of a ciuzen. — 1 1. 
JBternaeue Vesta. Alluding to the sacred fire kept constantly burning 
by the Vestal virgins in the temple of the goddess.— 12. Incolund Jotttt 
urbe Roma. " The capital and the Roman city being safe," i. e. though 
the Roman power remained still superior to its foes. Jove is here put 
for Jove CapUolinOj equivalent in fact to CapiteUo, 

13 — 38. 13. Hoe eaverat, &c The example of Regulus is nowdted, 
who foresaw the evil effects that would result to his country, if the Ro- 
man soldier was allowed to place his hopes of safety any where but in 
arms. Hence the vanquished commander recommends to his country- 
men, not to accept the terms offered by the Carthaginians, and, by re- 
ceiving back the Roman captives, establish a precedent pregnant with 
ruin to a future age. The soldier must either conquer or die ; he must 
not expect that, by becoming a captive, he will have a chance of being 
ransomed and thus restored to his country,— 14. Dissenbentis conditio*!***, 
*c " Abhorring the foul terms proposed by Carthage, and a precedent 

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SXHAIUTOml MOTKflr-MOK III. ODE VI. Stf 

it with nun to a future age." Alluding to the terms of accoan- 
tion, of which he himself was the bearer, and which he advised hie 
countrymen to reject. The Carthaginians wished peace and a mutual 
ransoming of prisoners. — 1 7. Si rum pertrent, &c " If the captive youth 
were not to perish unlamented." The common reading is periret, which 
kijures the metre. — 20. MUUibus. " From our soldiery."— 23. Pvrta** 
que wen efosos, fee. " And the gates of the foe standing open, and the 
fields once ravaged by our soldiery now cultivated by tneir hands." 
Regulus, previous to his overthrow, had spread terror to the very gates 
of Carthage. — 25. Jhtro repensus, fee. Strong and bitter irony. ** The 
soldier after being ransomed by gold will no doubt return a braver man \ n 
—28. Medicate fuco. " When once stained by the dye."— 29. Vent 
virtus. " True valour."— 30. Deteriorilnu. Understand onto*. "In 
minds which have become degraded by cowardice." — 35. Inert. To 
be rendered as an adverb, " ingloriously." — Timuitque mortem, ace " And 
has feared death from that very quarter, whence, with far more propriety,' 
he might have obtained an exemption from servitude." He should have 
trusted to his arms ; they would have saved him from captivity. Vitam 
is here equivalent to talutcm. The common text has a period after mor- 
tem, and reads Hie in place of Hinc, in the next line.— 38. Pacem et du- 
etto miscteiL " He has confounded peace, too, with war." He has sur- 
rendered with his arms in bis hands, and has sought peace in the heat 
of action from his foe by a tame submission. 

40 — 55. 40. Probrosis alitor Italia minis. u Rendered more glorious by 
the disgraceful downfall of Italy."— 42. Ut capitis minor . " As one no 
longer a freeman." Among the Romans, any loss of liberty or of the 
rights of a citizen was called Deminutio Capitis. — 45. Donee labantet, Jtc. 
M Until, as an adviser, he confirmed the wavering minds of the fathers by 
counsel never given on any previous occasion," i. e. until he settled the 
wavering minds of the senatora by becoming the author of advice before 
unheard. Regulus advised the Komans strenuously to prosecute the 
war, and leave him to his fate.— 49. Jltqw sciebat, &c. There is consid- 
erable doubt respecting the story of the Bufferings of Regulus. Consult 
LemmrieriM Clou. Diet. Jnthon's erf. 1833. *. e.— 52. Reditu*. The plu- 
ral nere beautifully marks his frequent attempts to return, and the 
endeavours of the crowd to oppose his design. Abstract nouns are fire* 
quently used in the plural in Latin, where our own idiom does not allow 
of it, to denote a repetition of the same act, or the existence of the same 
quality in different subjects. — 63. Longa negoHa. " The tedious con- 
cerns." — 55. Venafranot in ogrot. Consult note on Ode, 2* 6. 16.— 56. 
Lmeedamonium Tarenhm. Consult note on Ode, 2. 6. 11. 



Ode 6. Addressed to the corrupt and dissolute Romans of his age, 
wd ascribing the national calamities, which had befallen them, to the 
•offer of the gods at their abandonment of public and private virtue. To 
aeighten the picture of present corruption, a view is taken of the simple 
manners which marked the earlier days of Rome. 

Although no mention is made of Augustus in this piece, yet it would 
teem to have been written at the time when that emperor was actively 
encaged in restraining the tide of public and private corruption ; when, 
asj Suetonius informs us, (int. Jhig. 30.) he was rebuilding the sacred 
edifices which had'either been destroyed by fire or suffered to fall to ruin, 
erliile by the Lex Julia, " De adulterus," and the Lex Papia Poppee, 

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80S ■XPLAMATO&Y MOTES. —BOOK ID. ODE VI. 

** De meritandis ordiniboa," he was striving to reform the moral condi- 
tion of his people. Hence it may be conjectured that the poet wishes 
to celebrate, in the present ode, the civic virtues of the monarch. 

1—11. 1. Delicto majorwn,&c " Though guiltless of them, thou 
shsit atone, O Roman, for the crimes of thy fe there." The crimes here 
aUoded to have reference principally to the excesses of the civil wars. 
The offences of the parents are visited on their children. — 3. Jitdtt. 
"The shrines.* 1 Equivalent here to ddubra.— 4. Foeda nigro, &c The 
statues of the gods, in the temples, were apt to contract impurities from 
the smoke of the altars, &c. Hence the custom of annually washing 
them in running water or the nearest sea, a rite which, according to the 
poet, had been long interrupted by the neglect of the Romans. — 5. /**• 
ptras. " Thou boldest the reins of empire."— 6. Hine omne prineipam % 
fcc "From them derive the commencement of every undertaking, to 
them ascribe its issue. "—In metrical reading, pronounce principhcm tat, 
in this line, as it written princip~yuc 8. Htspaia. Put for ItaHtt. Con- 
sult note on Ode 1. 36. 4. — 9. Monases et Pacori mantis. Alluding to 
two Parthian commanders who had proved victorious over the Romans. 
MonoBses, more commonly known by the name of Surena, is the same 
that defeated Crassus. Pacorus was the son of Orodes, the Parthian 
monarch, and defeated Didius Saxa, the lieutenant of Marc Antony.— 
10. Nonauspicatos contudit impetus. " Have crushed our inauspicious 
efforts." — 11. El adjecisse pradam, &c "And proudly smile in having 
added the spoils of Romans to their military ornaments of scanty she 
before." By torqtus are meant, among the Roman writers, golden 
chains, which went round the neck, bestowed as military rewards. The 
term is here applied in a general sense to the Parthians, while the epi- 
thet exigtds implies the inferior military fame of this nation previous to 
their victories over the Romans. 

13—45. 13. Occupctam nditknibut. M Embroiled in dvU dissensions." 
— According to the poet, the weakness consequent on disunion had 
almost given the capital over into the hands of its foes. — 14. Daeus ei 
JEtkiops. An allusion to the approaching conflict between Augustus 
and Antony. By the term JEthiops are meant the ^Egyptians generally. 
As regards the Dacians, Dio Casstus (51. 28.) states, that they had sent 
ambassadors to Augustus, but, not obtaining what they wished, had there- 
upon inclined to the side of Antony. According to Suetonius (vtf. •frg*. 
21.) their incursions were checked by Augustus, and three of then* leaders 
slam. — 17. Jfuptias inquinavere. "Have polluted the purity of the nup- 
tial compact." Compare the account given by Hemeccius of the Lex 
Julia, u De adulterio," and the remarks of the same writer relative to the 
laws against this offence prior to the time of Augustus, (Jintiq. Rom. 
Ub. 4. Hi. 18. § 5\.—e<L Haubold. p. 782.) Consult also Suefonuu, rtt. 
JIug. 34. — 20. In patriam popvlumque. The term patriam contains sn 
allusion to public calamities,' while populum, on the other hand, refers to 
such as are of a private nature, the loss of property, of rank, of charac- 
ter, &c, — 21. Molus Ionicos. The dances of the Ionians were noted for 
their wanton character. — 22. Fingitur artibvs. "Is trained up to seduc- 
tive arts." Artibua is the dative, by a Gnecism, for ad arte*. — 24. De to 
neroungtd. " From her very childhood." — 33. His parenttbus, "From 
parents such as these."— 35. Cecidit. "Smote."— 37. Jhuficorum «t&- 
turn. The best portion of the Roman troops were obtained from me 
Rustic tribes, as being most inured to toiL— 38. SabelHs legimibvs. The 
simple manners of earlier times remained longest in force among lbs 

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UFLANATORT MOTES.—- MOK III. ODE TIL MB. Sit 

fiafames, and the tribes descended from them.— 48. Et jug* dement, fte. 
Compare the Greek terms £oe*A«w and ^wAtmk.— 44. .As/tiM. " Bringing 
on." Restoring.— 45. Damfioaa <tt». " Wasting tune." Dies is most 
commonly masculine when used to denote a particular day, and feminine 
when it is spoken of the duration of time. 



Ode 7. Addressed to Asterie, and exhorting her to continue faithful 
to the absent Gyges, and beware of the addresses of her neighbour 
Enipeus. 

1—32. 1. Candidi Favonii. " The fair breezes of Spring." The epithet 
ow&ft' is here applied to the breezes of Spring, from their dispelling the ' 
dark clouds and storms of winter.— 3. Thyna mtrce beatutn. " Enriched 
with Bithynian merchandise."— 4. Fide. The old form of the genitive 
w fiidr-6. Oricum. A town and harbour of Epirus, not far from 
Apollonia and the mouth of the Aous. It was much frequented by the 
Romans in their communication with Greece, being very conveniently 
situated for that purpose from its proximity to Hydruntum and Brundi- 
num.— €. Post insana Copra sidera. " After the raffing stars of the goat 
have risen.* 9 Capra is a star of the first magnitude, m the shoulder of 
Auriga; two smaller stars, in his left hand, mark the kadi or kids. Both 
the rising and setting of Capra were attended by storms. The allusion, 
howerer, is here to its rising, since its setting took place in that part of the 
year (Calends of January) when the sea was closed against navigation. — 
& Htapita, Referring to Chloe.— 10. Tuts ignibus. "With the same love 
that thou hast for him."— 13. Mutter perfida. " His false spouse.' 9 Al- 
luding to Antes, as Homer calls the wife of Proetus. or Sthenobea, as 
others give the name. — 14. Falsi* criminibus. "By false accusations.* 1 - • 
17. Pctne datum Pelt a Tartaro. "TbatPeleus narrowly escaped death." 
The story of Peleus is similar in many respects to that of Bellerophon. 
Consult, as to both, Lemprieres Class. Diet. ed. Jnthcn, 1833.— 18. Mag- 
nusem Hippduten. Acastus, the husband of Hippolyte, was king ot 
Magnesia in Thessaly. Hence the epithet Magnessam in the text Apc4- 
lodoras calls the female in question Astydamea. — 19. Peccart docentes 
kutorias movet " Recounts pieces of history that are merely the lessons 
of rice."— 21. IcarL For IcarU. Understand maris. — 22. Integer. 
M Uncorrupted." — 25. Flectere. A Grcecism for JUctendL — 26. JEque 
touvjatur. "fs equally conspicuous." — 28. Tusco alvec Alluding to 
the Tiber, which rises in Etruria. In reading this line, pronounce alveo 
•s if written alv~ya.— 32. Duranu u Cruel. w DifficUu. " Inflexible." 



One 8. Horace had invited Maecenas to attend a festal celebration 
on the Calends of March. As the Matronalia took place on this same 
<t*y, the poet very naturally anticipates the surprise of his friend on the 
occasion. " Wonderest thou, Maecenas, what I, an unmarried man, 
have to do with a day kept sacred by the matrons of Rome? — On this 
▼ery day my life was endangered by the railing of a tree, and its annual 
morn always brings with it feelings of grateful recollection for my pro- 
vidential deliveiance." 

1—10. 1. Jlf artUs eoelebs, fcc "Maecenas, learned in the antiquities 
of Greece and Rome, dost thou wonder what I, an unmarried man, in* 

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JtO BXP1.AXAT0EI HOTBS.— SOOK 111. ODB Till. 

tend to do on the Calends of March, what these flowers meu^ane 
this censer," &c Strmmus answers here, in some respect, to the Greek 
jrftm, while by uterque lingua are meant, literally, the Greek and Roman 
tongues.— 7. Libero. In a previous ode, (2. 17. 27.) the bard attribute! 
his preservation to Faunus, out now Bacchus is named as the author of 
his deliverance. There is a peculiar propriety iu this. Bacchus is net 
only the protector of poets, but also, m a special sense, one of the goda 
of the country and of gardens, since to him are ascribed the discovery 
and culture of the vine and of apples. ( Thcocr. 2. 1 20. — Warlon ad 1m. 
—Jlthenants, 3. 23.) — Diss festus. Consult note on Ode 2. 3. 6. — 10. 
CorHesm adsfrtcfum, &c. " Shall remove the cork, secured with pitch, 
from the jar which began to drink in the smoke in the consulship of 
Tullus." Amphora,^ the dative, is put by a Gnecism for ab amphon. 
As regards the shape of the ancient amphorct, consult Henderson'* 
History of Wines. When the wine-vessels were filled, and the dis- 
turbance of the liquor had subsided, the covers or stoppers were se- 
cured with plaster, or a coating of pitch mixed with the ashes of the vine, 
so as to exclude ail communication with the external air. After this, 
the wines were mellowed by the application of smoke, which was pre* 
vented, by the ample coating of pitch or plaster on the wine- vessel, from 
penetrating so far as to vitiate the genuine taste of the liquor. Previously, 
however, to depositing the amphorae in the wine-vault or apotheca, it 
was usual to put upon them a label or mark indicative of the vintages, 
and of the names of the consuls in authority at the time, in order that, 
when they were taken out, their age and growth might be easily recog- 
nised. It by the consulship of Tullus, mentioned in the text, be meant 
that of L. Yolcatius Tullus, who had M. JEmilius Lepidus for his col- 
league, A. TJ. C. 688, and if the present ode, as would appear from verse 
17. seqq. was composed A. TJ. C. 734. the wine offered by Horace to 
his friend musfhave been more than forty-six years old. 

13 — 25. 13. Sums Macenas, &c. " Drink, dear Maecenas, a hun- 
dred cups to the health of thy friend." A cup drained to the health, 
or in honour of any individual, was styled, in the Latin idiom, his cup 
(ejus poculum) ; hence the language of the text, cyathos amici.—Cyalhes 
centum. Referring merely to a large number. — 15. Perfer in lucm. 
u Prolong till day-light."— 17. MiUs cwiles, &c. " Dismiss those cares, 
which, as a statesman, thou feelest for the welfare of Rome." An al- 
lusion to the office of Prafectus xtrbis, which Maecenas held during the 
absence of Augustus in Egypt— 18. Dad Cotisonis agmen. The in- 
roads of the Dacians, under their king Cotiso, were checked by Lentu- 
us, the lieutenant of Augustus. (Suet. VU. Jiur. 21.— JFTor. 4. 11 18.) 
Compare, as regards Dacia itself, the note on Ode 1. 35. 9. — 19. Med*s 
kifestus sibu "The Parthians, turning their hostilities against them- 
selves, are at variance in destructive conflicts." Consult note on Odt 
1.26.3.-22. Sera domitus catena. « Subdued after long-protracted con 
test" The Cantabrians were reduced to subjection by Agripna, the 
same year in which this ode was composed (A TJ. C. 734.), after baring 
resisted the power of the Romans, in various ways, for more than two 
nundred years. Consult note on Ode 2. 6. 2.-23. Jam Scyth* tea* 
&c "The Scythians now think of retiring from our frontiers, with 
sow unbent" By the Scythians are here meant the barbarous tribes 
to the vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Geloni, whosa 
inroads had been checked by Lentulus. Consult note on Ode 2. 9. 23. 
—25. Jftfligens ne qua, &c. Refraining, amid social retirement, fro« 
overweening solicitude, lest the people any where feel the pressure ol 

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hXFlAVATO&Y MOTS*.— SOOK UL ODB X. IX. Ml 

snl, seize wilii joy the gifts of the present moment, and bid adieu lor a 
time to grave pursuits." The common text haa a comma after kboret, and 
is the 26th line gives Puree privates ntmtust emere. The term negHgen* 
will then be joined in construction with psrce, and negUgene pmrce will 
then be equivalent to parte alone, " Since thou art a private person, be 
set too solicitous lest," Ac The epithet srieatu*, as applied by the 
poet to Maecenas, is then to be explained by a reference to the Roman 
wage, which designated all individuals, except the emperor, as prwtiL 
The whole reading, however, is decidedly bad According to tne lee- . 
tioD adopted in our text, negligent saver* is a Gtaacism for negUgene co- 



Out 9. A beautiful Amoebean Ode, rep r esen ting the reconciliation of 
two lovers. 

3—24. 8. Potior. "More favoured."— 3. Dabat. " Was accustomed 
to throw."— 4. Persarum vigvL, Ac. " I lived happier than the monafch 
of the Persians,'' i. e. I was happier than the richest and most powermt of. 
kings.— 6. Ma. " For another!*— 7. MvlH nombds. " Of distinguished 
&me .»— 8. Ilia. The mother of Romulus and Remus.— 10. Dvicet 
beta modotj Ac. " Skilled in sweet measures, and mispress of the lyre.* 
—12. Aninuz ewperetitu "Her surviving soul."— 13. Torre* face muhuu 
"Boms with the torch of mutual love."— 14. TAurwt* OrntfL « Of the 
Thorian Ornytus." Tburium, or Thurii, was a city of Lucania, on the 
eoast of the Sinus Tarentinus, erected by an Athenian colony, near the 
ale of Sybaris which had been destroyed by the forces of Crotona.— 17. 
Prise* Venue. « Chir old affection."— 18. Diductos, "Us, IongpartatL n — 
SI. Store mdekrior. "Brighter in beauty than any star."— 88. Levior 
ccrtiee. " Lighter than cork." Alluding to his inconstant and fickle dis- 
poaitkm.— /mprofto. « Stormy."— 84. Tecumvivereametn.be. "Yet 
with thee I shall love to live, with thee I shall cheerfully die," Supply 
fasten, es required by quamquam which precedes. 



Ons 10. A Specimen of the songs called *opo«X«w^pabv the Greeks 
and which answered in some respects to the modern serenade. 

1— 80. 1. Extremum Tannin, Ac. tl Didst thou drink, Lyce, of the 
Ikmnstant Tanais," i. e. wert thou a native of the Scythian wilds.— 8, 
8<*9o nupim vim. "Wedded to a barbarian husband."— 3. InccUe. 
"Which have made that land the place of their sbode." The poet means 
by the expressive term ineeUe to designate the northern blast as continual- 
[ 7 nging m the wilds of Scy thia— 4. Plorares. " Thou wooldst regret" 
—5. Jfenma inter pulchra, &c. Referring to the trees planted within the 
enclosure of the implwiwn. This was a court-yard, or open space in 
the middle of a Roman house, generally without any covering at the top* 
and surrounded on all sides by buildings. Trees were frequently planted 
here, and more particularly the laurel — 7. SenHs uf posUae, 6c " And 
thou perceivest now Jove, by his pure influence, hardens the fallen snows," 
i a and thou perceivest how the clear, dry air, hardens the fallen snows. 
—9. Jfe ewrente rota, &c " Lest, while the wheel is revolving, the rope 
en a sudden fly back." An allusion to some mechanical contrivance for 
raising heavy weights, and which consists of a wheel with a^rope passing 



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B6t BXPLAMATORT BOTES.— -SOOK IB. OOB XI. 

in a groove akng fa outer edge. Should the weight of the mass tint w to 
be raised prove too heavy, the rope, unable to resist, snaps asunder and 
flies back, being drawn down by the body intended to be elevated. The 
application of this image to Lyee, is pleasing and natural. " Be not too 
haughty and disdainful, lest thou fall on a sudden from thy present state, 
lest thou be abandoned by those who are now crowding around, a herd oi 
willing slaves."— 12. Tyrrhenue parent. The morals of the Etrurians, if 
we believe Theopompus, as cited by Atheneus, (12. 3.) were extremely 
corrupt — 14. Ttnetut viola. As the Romans and Greeks were generally 
of a swarthy or olife complexion, their paleness was rather a yellowness 
than a whiteness.— 15. Pieria. Consult note on Ode, & I 40.— 80 
Patten*. "Able to endure." 



One 11. Addressed to Lyde, an obdurate fair one. 



their destined places. Eustathius, however, ascribes this to Amphion 
conjointly with his brother Zethus.— -3. TtHudo. "O shell." Consult 
Bote on Ode 1. 10. 6. — Resonart tepUm, &c " Skilled in sending forth 
sweet music with thy seven strings." Ccd&da retonare by a Grecism 
for callida m rteanando. — 5. Jfec laquav oUm, &c u Once, neither vocal nor 
gifted with the power to please, now acceptable both to the tables of the 
rich and the temples of the gods. — 10. Ludit extvUim. " Snorts, bound- 
ing along." — 13. Tu pott* tigree, &c. An allusion to the legend of 
Orpheus. — 14. Cemitee. " As thy companions," i. e. in thy train. — 15. 
BiandientL u Soothing bis anger by the sweetness of thy notes."— 16. 
Jhda. « Of Pluto's hall." Orpheus descended with his lyre to the 
shades, for the purpose of regaining his Eurydice. — 17. Fwiale caput. 
" His every head, like those of the Furies."— 18. JEatueU " Rolls forth 
Its hot volumes."— 19. Teter. "Deadly." "Pestilential."— Sanies. 
M Poisonous matter. "—22. Stetit urna patthun, fcc. " Tbe vase of eacn 
stood for a moment dry," i. e. the Danaides ceased for a moment from 
their toil. — 26. Et inane lymph**, &c. "And the vessel empty of wa- 
ter, from its escaping through the bottom." Dotium is here taken as 
a general term for the vessel or receptacle, which the daughters of Da- 
naus were condemned to fill, and the bottom of which, being perforated 
with numerous holes, allowed tbe water constantly to escape. 

30 — 51 30. Mm quid potuere majus, &c. " For, what greater crime 
could they commit ?" Understand sceku. — 33. Una de multU. Allu- 
ding to Hypermnestra, who spared her husband Lynceus. — Face nupH- 
ali digna. At the ancient marriages; the bride was escorted from ner 
father's bouse to that of her husband, amid the light of torches.— 34. 
Perjurum fiat in parentem. &c. " Proved gloriously false to her perju- 
red parent" The Danaides were bound by an oath, which their pa- 
rent had imposed, to destroy their husbands on the night of their nup- 
tials. Hypermnestra alone broke that engagement, and saved the life 
of Lynceus. The epithet perjurum, as applied to Danaus, alludes to 
his violation of good faith toward his sons-in-law.— 35. Virgo. Consult 
Heyne, ad JtpcUod. 2. 1. 5.-39. Socerum et sceUstaSy&c. fi Escape by 
secret flight from thy father-in-law and my wicked sisters." FaUe m 

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KXPLAMATOET XOTES^-eOOX m. ODI XH. XIII. 3*3 

here equivalent to the Greek JUfc. — 41 . ATeeta. " Having got into their 
power.*'— 44. Jfeque infra clatutra tenebe. « Nor will I keep thee here 
in confinement," i. e. nor will I keep thee confined in this thy nuptial cham- 
ber, until others come and slay thee.— 45. Me pater sctcu, &c Hyperm- 
nestra was imprisoned by her father, but afterwards, on a reconciliation 
taking place, was re-united to Lynceus. — 51. Memorem quantum. " A 
mournful epitaph, recording the story of our fate." 



Ode 18. The bard laments the unhappy fate of Neobule. whose affec- 
tion for the young Hebrus had exposed her to the angry eludings of an 
offended relative. 

1—10. 1. Miserarwnest. M It is for unhappy maidens,*' Le. Unhappy 
are the maidens who, &c — 3. Lovers. The stem conjugation ; the older 
form for Unare. — JhU exantniun, &c. " Or else to be half-dead with 
alarm, dreading the lashes of an uncle's tongue." i e. Or, in case they 
do indulge the tender passion, and do seek to lead a life of hilarity, to be 
constantly disauieted by the dread of some morose uncle who chances 
to be the guardian of their persons. The severity of uncles was prover- 
bial. Compare Erasmus CML p. 463, ed. Stepk. "Ne sis patriots mihi t n 
and Ernesto, Clot. Cte. t. «. Po*ruttt.--4. Operoectque Minerva studium. 
" And all inclination for the labours of Minerva." Literally : " All affec- 
tion for we industrious Minerva." — 5. Lipareu "Of Lipara." Lipara. 
now Liparif the largest of the Insula* <£omb, off the coasts of Italy and 
Sicily. — 6. Unetoe humeros. The ancients anointed themselves previously 
to their engaging in gymnastic exercises, and bathed after these were 
ended. The arrangement of the common text is consequently erroneous, 
in placing the line beginning with Simxd vnctos after segni ptde victus. — 
4. BeUerophcnte. Alluding to the fable of Bellerophon and Pegasus. — 
8. Cat** jaculari. A Gnvcism for catue jaculandu — 10. CeUr arcto tali- 
tantem, Ice. M Active in surprising the boar that lurks amid the deep 
thicket" Ceier exeipere for uler in exeipiendo or ad exeipiendwn. 



Ode 13. A sacrifice is promised to the fountain of Bandusia and an 
immortalizing in verse. 

1 — 15. 1. O fans Bandusia. The true form of the name is here 
given. The common text has Blandusut. The Blandnsian fount was 
situate within the precincts of the poet's Sabine farm, and not far from 
his dwelling. — Sjdendidior vitro. " Clearer than glass."— 3. Donabtris. 
"Thou shaft be jnfted," i. e. in sacrifice.— 6. Frustra. sc. »tas eum Ve- 
neri et prmliis destinat— 6. Nam gelidos inficiet, &c. The altars on 
which sacrifices were offered to fountains, were placed in their immediate 
vicinity, and constructed of turf — 9. Te flagrante atrox, &c. "Thee the 
fierce season of the blazing dog-star does not affect" Literally, " knows 
not how to affect" Consult note on Ode 1. 17. 7. — 13. Fie$ nobUiwn 
to qvoquefontium. " Thou too shalt become one of the famous foun- 
tains." By the nobiUs jbntee are meant Hippocrene. Dirce, Aiethusa, 
4c The construction net nobiliwn /outturn is imitated from the Greek. 
—14. Me dicente. u While I tell o£" i. e. while I celebrate in song.— 1* 
Loquaces lympha turn. u Thy prattling waters." 
34 



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Wft BSFLAJfATO*T XOTBS— BOOK HI. ODE SIT. 

Odb 14 On the expected retain of Augustus from Ids expedition 
•gainst the Cantabri. The noet proclaim* a festal day in honour of so 
joyous an event, and while the consort and the sister of Augustus, ac- 
companied by the Roman females, are directed to go forth and meet 
their prince, he himself proposes to celebrate the day at his own abode 
with wine and festivity. 

What made the return of die emperor peculiarly gratifying to the 
Roman people, was the circumstance of his having been attacked by 
sickness during his absence, and confined for a time at the city of Tar- 
raco. 



1.— 6. 1. HercuUs rite, &c u Augustus. O Romans, who so lately 
was said, after the manner of Hercules, to nave sought for the laurel to 
be purchased only with the risk of death, now,'* &c The conquests of 
Augustus over remote nations are here compared with the labours of 
the fabled Hercules, and as the latter, after the overthrow of Gerron, 
returned in triumph from Spain to Italy, so Augustus now comes from 
the same distant ouarter victorious over his barbarian foes. The ex- 

{>ression merle venmem petUsss Ismnsm, refers simply to the exposure of 
ife in the achieving of victory. Compare the remark of Acron. 
" Mortis contempt* Urns victoria qwtritor & InumpW."— 5. Unico gimdens 
thxditr morito, &c " Let the consort who exults in a peerleea husband, 
go forth to offer sacrifices to the just deities of heaven,* The allusion 
is to Livia, the consort of Augustus. As regards the passage itself 
two things are deserving of attention ; the first is the use of unite, in 
the sense of praestanHssimo, on which point consult Hemsius, md OvuL 
JtfeL 3. 454 : the second is the meaning we must assign to operate which 
is here taken by a poetic idiom for %U epereter. On this latter subject 
compare Tibullus, 2. 1. 9. erf Hetpte. Ftrgtf, Gem. 1. $35. erf. Heywe, and 
the comments of Milscherlich and Dormg on the present passage. — 6. 
Justis divis. The gods are here styled "lust" from their granting to 
Augustus the success which his valour deserved. This of course is 
mere flattery. Augustus was never remarkable either for personal bra- 
very, or military talents. 

7 — 28. 7. Soror dari ducts. Octavia, the sister of Augustus. — Decent 
svppUce eilte. " Bearing, as becomes them, the suppliant fillet* Ac- 
cording to the scholiast on Sophocles (Oerf. T. 3.) petitioners among 
the Greeks usually carried boughs wrapped around with fillets of wool 
Sometimes the hands were covered with these fillets, not only among 
the Greeks but also among the Romans. — 9. Ptrgmum. " Of the young 
married females," whose husbands were returning in safety from the 
war. Compare, as regards this usage of Virgo, Ode, 2. 8. 23. Virg. 
EcL 6. 47. Ov. Her. 1. 115.— JVtyer. Referring to the recent termina- 
tion of the Cantabrian conflict — 10. Foe, pueri, &c " Do you, ye 
boys, and yet unmarried damsels, refrain from ill-omened words. 1 * 
Some editions read experts^ and make virum the accusative, by which 
lection pucllajmn virum experts* is made to refer to those but lately mar- 
ried. — 14. Twnvltom. The term tumutius properly denotes a war in 
Italy or an invasion by the Gauls. It is here { however, taken for any 
dangerous war either at home or in the vicinity of Italy. — 17. Pete «a- 
guentum et coronas. Consult note on Ode 1. 17- 27. — 18. Etcsdsm 
Marti, &c «« And a cask that remembers the Marsian war," i a. » 
cask containing old wine made during the period of the Marsian or so- 
cial war. This war prevailed from A. U.C. 660 to 662, and if the pra 



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UFLAWATOar MOTES. — BOOK III. ODE ST. EVL 3ft 

•entode was written, A. U. C. 730, as is generally supposed, the contents 
of the cask must have been from 67 to 69 years old. — 19. Spartocum ti 
fas, &c "If a vessel of it has been able in any way to escape the 
raring Spartacus." With qvA understand rations. Que for aHqua, in 
the nominative, violates the metre. Spartacus was the leader of the 
gladiators in the Servile war. — 21. Jfrgvtm. " The sweet-singing." — 83. 
Myrrkeum. "Perfumed with Myrrh." Some commentators errone- 
ously refer this epithet to the dark colour of the hair. — 87. Hoe. Allud- 
ing to the conduct of the porter. — Ferrem, For tutusenu—28. ConauU 
PUoico. Plancus was consul with M. Aemilius Lepidus, A. U. C. 711 
at which period Horace was about 83 years of age. 



Ode 15. The poet advises Chloris, now in her old age, to pursue em 
ployroents more consistent with her years. 

8—15. 8. Figemodum. "Set bounds,— 3. FamoiU. "Infamous."— 
6. Et sttllis nebulam, &c " And to diffuse a cloud amid those brilliant 
stars," L e. to spread the dark cloud of age and deformity amid those 
bright stars of youth and beauty.— 10. Thyias. " The female Bacchant." 
Compare Ode 8. 19. 9. — 14. Luceriam, Luceria was a city of Apulia, 
in the interior of Daunia, and about twelve miles to the south-west of 
Arpi. It was noted for the excellence of its wool. The modern name of 
the place is Lueera. — 15. AVc Jtos purpureut rosct. Alluding to the gar* 
lands worn at entertainments. 



Ode 16. This piece turns on the poet's favourite topic, thai happiness 
consists not in abundant possessions, but in a contented mind. 

1 — 19. 1. Inclusam DanaeM. The story of Danae and Acrisius ts 
well known. — Turns aenea, Apollodorus merely mentions a brazen 
chamber, constructed underground, m which Danae was immured. (8. 4. 
1.) Later writers make this a tower, and some represent Danae as having 
been confined in a building of this description when about to become a 
mother. (Heyne ad dpotiod. L e.) — 3. Mwnicrant. For rmmnssmt.—A. 
AdtUteris. For amatoribiu. — 5. Jlcrishm. Acrisius was father of Danae, 
and kirn; of Argos in the Peloponnesus. — 6. Cutiodem pavidum. Allud- 
ing to ms dread of the fulfilment of the oracle. — 7. Fore enim, &c. Un- 
derstand sxubanL — 8. Ccnverto in oretium. By the term prttium in the 
...... , .. ... jfabfe a -■ - 



5 of tfwmm, the poet hints at the true solution of the fable, the bribery 
of the guards. — 9. ire omaL "Loves to make its way." Jimat is here 
equivalent to the Greek *<Xe?, and much stronger than the Latin soUt. — 
10. Saxa. "The strongest barriers."— 11. JlugurU Jlrgivi. Alluding to 
the story of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. — 18. Ob lucrum. " From a thirst 
for gold." — 14. Vir Macedo. Philip, father of Alexander. Compare the 
expression of Demosthenes, Maxc&to ia/hp. How much this monarch 
effected by bribery is known to all. — 15. Munera natrium, &c Horace is 
thought to allude here to Menodorus, or Menas, who was noted for fre- 
quently chancing sides in the war between Sextus Pompeius and the 
triumvirs. — 18. Savos. "Rough." Some, however, make sieves here 
equivalent to fortes. — 17. CrescenUm acquttur, &c. The connection in 
the train of ideas is this : and yet powerful as gold is in triumphing over 
difficulties, and in accomplishing what perhaps no other human power 

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EXPLANATORY MOTES,— BOOK III- ODE JUL 

could effect, still it most be carefully shunned by those, who wish total 
a happy life, for "care ever follows after increasing riches as well at tin 
craving desire for more extensive possessions.'' — 19. Late covurptctom, ex. 



a happy lifej for "care ever follows after incressmg riches as well at the 
craving desire for more extensive possessions." — 19. Late covurptctom, ex. 
• To raise the far conspicuous head," L e. to seek after the splendour and 



honours which wealth bestows on its votaries! and to make these the 
source of vain-glorious boasting. 

23—43. 22. Plum. For Undo pforu.— JW cupUntixan, &c The rich 
and the contented are here made to occupy two opposite encampments.— 
23. Akiut. Best explained by a paraphrase : "Divested of every desire 
for more than fortune has bestowed." — 24 Ltnquere gtstio. u I take de- 
light in abandoning." — 25. Coniemto domtntu, &c " More conspicuous 
as the possessor of a fortune contemned by the great" — 30. Stgetis certs 
fides meet, "A sure reliance on my crop," L e. the certainty of a good 
crop. — 31. Ful$jerUem tmserio, &c "Yield a pleasure unknown to him 
who is distinguished for bis wide domains in fertile Africa." Literally, 
" escapee the observation of him, who," &c Fallit is here used for the 
Greek \*v$4vu. As regards the expression fertiHs Jijricte, consult note 
on Ode 1. 1. 10.— 52. Sorte beatior. "Happier in lot am 1." Understand 
sum. The common text places a period after eeotior, and a comma after 
falUL, a harsh and inelegant reading, if it even be correct Latin. — 33. Co- 
labroc, &c. An allusion to the honey of Tarentum. Consult note on Ode 
2. 6. 14—34. JVee Letstrygonia Bacchus, &c " Nor the wine ripens for 
me in a Lestrygonian jar." An allusion to the Formian wine. Forma, 
was regarded by the ancients, as having been the abode and capital of 
the Lestrygones. — 35. GaiUeis paseuis. The pastures of Cisalpine Gaul 
are meant — 37. Itnporhma lonun, &c " Yet the pinching of contracted 
means is far away." Consult note on Ode 1. 12. 43. — 39. Contracts 
melius, &c. " I shall extend more wisely my humble income by contract- 
ing my desires, than if I were to join the realm of Alyattes to the 
Mygdonian plains," L e. than if Lydia and Phrygia were mine. Alyattes 
was king of Lydia and father of Croesus. As regards the epithet '* My- 
donian" applied to Phrygia, consult note on Ode 2. 12. 22.— -43. Bene esse 
Understand eu " Happy is the man on whom the deity has bestowed 
with a sparing hand wnat is sufficient for his wants." 



Odb 17. The bard, warned by the crow of to-morrow's storm, ex- 
horts bis friend Lamia to devote the day, when it shall arrive, to joyouk 
banquets. 

The individual to whom this ode is addressed, had signalized himself 
in the war with the Cantabri as one of the lieutenants of Augustus. 
His family claimed descent from Lamus, son of Neptune, and the most 
ancient monarch of the Laestrygones, a people alluded to in the pre- 
ceding ode (v. 34) 

1 — 16. 1. Vetusto nobtiis, &c " Nobly descended from ancient La- 
mus." — 2. Priorts hinc Lamias denominates. "That thy earlier ances- 
tors of the Lamian line were named from him." We have included all 
from line 2 to 6 within brackets, as savouring strongly of interpolation, 
from its awkward position. — 3. Et mpofum, etc. " And since the whole 
race of their descendants,inentioned in recording annals, derive their 
origin from him as the founder of their house." The Fasti were public 
registers or chronicles, under the care of the Pontifex Maxirous and bis 
college, in which were marked from year to year what days wen fasts 



y Google 



IXFLJJUTOKT VOTES.— BOOK IB. ODC XVIII* 907 

and what atforti. In the Fasti were also recorded the names of the 
magistrates, particularly of the consuls, an account of the triumphs that 
were celebrated, &c. (Compare Stgontus, Fasti Cons.) Hence the 

Silendour of the Lamian line in being often mentioned in the annals of 
ome.— 6. Formiorvm. Consult note on Ode 3. 16. 34. — 7. Et innan- 
fem, &c " And the Liris, where it flows into the sea through the terri- 
tory of Mintunue." The poet wishes to convey the idea that Lorn as 
ruled, not only over Formue, but also over the Minturnian territory. 
In exprearing this, allusion is made to the nymph Marica, who had a 
grove and temple near Minturn®, and the words Marica Htora are used 
at a designation for the region around the city itself. Minturnae was a 
place of great antiquity, on the banks of the Liris, and only three or 
four miles from its mouth. The country around abounded with marshes. 
The nymph Marica is supposed by some to have been the mother of 
Latinos, and by others thought to nave been Circe. — 9. Late fynmntts, 
"A monarch of extensive sway." — 12. Aqua augur comix. Compare 
Orid, Jbn. 3. 6. 34 "Pluvuz graculus augur aqwt." — 13. Jinnosa. 
Hesiod (farm. 50.) assigns to the crow, for the duration of its existence, 
nine ages of men. {Poet. Miiu cd. Gaisf. sol. l.p. 189.)— Dwn pctis. 
Understand et. — 14. Cras genivm mcro, &c. " On the morrow, thou 
ahalt honour thy genius with wine." According to the popular belief 
of antiquity, every individual had a genius {Sat/un) or tutelary sntrit, 
which was supposed to take care of the person during the whole of 
life.— 16. Operum sohttis. " Released from their labours." A Graecism 
faaboperesolutis. 



Ops 18. The poet invokes the presence of Faunus, and seeks to 
propitiate the favour of the god toward his fields and flocks. He then 
describes the rustic hilarity of the day, made sacred, at the commence- 
ment of winter, to this rural divinity. — Faunus had two festivals (Fau- 
**&), one on the Nones (5th) of December, after all the produce of the 
year had been stored away, and when the god was invoked* to protect it, 
nna to give health and fecundity to the flocks and herds ; and another 
in the beginning of the Spring when the same deity was propitiated by 
sacrifices, that he might preserve and foster the grain committed to the 
earth. This second celebration took place on the Ides (13th) of Feb* 
Juary. 

1 — 15. 1. Fauno. Consult note on Ode 1. 17. 2.-2. Lends incedas. 
M Mayest thou move benignant"— Abecaque partis, &c. " And mayest 
thou depart propitious to the young offspring of my flocks." The poet 
invokes the favour of the god on the young of his flocks as being more 
exposed to the casualties of disease. — 5. Pleno anno. " At the close of 
every year." — 7. Vetus era. On which sacrifices have been made to 
Faunus for many a year. A pleasing memorial of the piety of the bard. 
—10. Mnat Deeembre*. Consult Introductory Remarks. — 1 1. Festus in 
profit, Ac. u The village, celebrating thy festal day, enjoys a respite 
from toil in the grassy meads, along with the idle ox." — 13. Inter outfaces, 
fcc. Alluding to the security enjoyed by the flocks, under the protect- 
ing care of the god. — 14. SpargU agrestes 9 &c. Ab in Italy the trees do 
not shed their leaves until December, the poet converts this into a spe- 
cies of natural phenomenon in honour of Faanus, as if the trees, touched 
by his divinity, poured down their leaves to cover his path. It was cus- 
tomary among the ancients, to scatter leaves and flowers on tho ground 

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NB tXFJUAJCATORT MOTBS.— BOOK BI. OBI XIX. 

in honour of distinguished personage*. Compare Vvrgk\ Edog. 5. 4ft 
"Sjwjrtotatmum/aiu*."--15. Gourfet mewsm, &c. An allusion to the 
rustic dances which always formed part of the celebration. 



Ode 19. A party of friends, among whom was Horace, intended to 
celebrate, by a feast of contribution (£n>*)r tne t*o*nt appointment of 
Murena to the office of augur. Telephus, one of the number, was con- 
spicuous for his literary labours, and had been for sometime occupied in 
composing a history of Greece. At a meeting of these friends, held if 
a matter of course in order to make arrangements for the approachinj 
banquet, it may be supposed that Telephus, wholly engrossed with ha 
pursuits, had introduced some topic of an historical nature, much to the 
annoyance of the bard. The latter, therefore, breaks out, as it were, 
with an exhortation to his companion, to abandon matters so foreign to 
the subject under discussion, and attend to things of more immediate 
importance. Presently, fancying himself already in the midst of the 
feast, he issues his edicts as symposiarch, and regulates the number of 
cups to be drunk in honour of the Moon, of Night, and of the augur Mu- 
rena. Then as if impatient of delay, he bids the music begin, and or- 
ders the roses to be scattered. The ode terminates with a gay allusion 
to Telephus. 

1—1 1. 1. Inacho. Consult note on Ode 9. S. 21.— 8. Coin*. The 
last of the Athenian kings. If we believe the received chronology, Ina- 
chus founded the kingdom of Argos about 1856 B. C. and Codrus was 
slain about 1070 B. C. The interval therefore will be 786 years.— 3. 
Genus dead The Aeacidee, or descendents of Aeacus, were Peteus, 
Telamon, Achilles, Teucer, Ajax, &c — 6. Ckmm eadum, " A cask of 
Chi an wine." The Chian is described by some ancient writers, as s 
thick, luscious wine, and that which pew on the craggy heights of Ariu- 
sium, extending three hundred stadia along the coast, is extolled by 
Strata as the best of the Greek wines.— 6. Mereenwr. " We may buy." 
— Q,uu aquam temperet ignibu*. Alluding to the hot drinks so customary 
among the Romans. — 7. Quota. Supply towns.-— 8. Pelirnis cream fn- 
goribus. "I may fence myself against the pinching cold,'' i. e. cold tt 
piercing as that felt in the country of the Peligni. The territory of the 
Peligni was small and mountainous, and was separated from that of the 
Marsi, on the west, by the Apocrines. It was noted for the coldness of 
its climate. — 9. Da lunm propere newt, &c. " Boy, give me quickly t 
sup in honour of the new moon." Understand pocitiiim, and consult 
note on Ode 3. 8. 13. — 1 1 . Tribus out novem, &c. " Let our goblets be 
mixed with three or with nine cups, according to the temperaments ot 
those who drink." In order to understand this passage, we must bear 
in mind, that the poculum was the goblet out of wnich each guest drank, 
while the cyathw was a small measure used for diluting the wine with 
water, or for mixing the two in certain proportions. Twelve of these 
cyathi wont to the Stxtarius. Horace, as symposiarch, or master of the 
feast, issues his edict, which is well expressed by the imperative form 
mUcentor, and prescribes the proportions in which the wine and water 
are to be mixed on the present occasion. For the hard drinkers, there- 
fore, among whom he classes the poets, of the twelve cyathi that compose 
the sexJorttu, nine will be of wine and three of water ; while for the more 
temperate, for those who are friends to the Graces, the proportion on the 
contrary, will be nine eyatki of water to three of wine. In the I ' ~ 



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KXTLUUTOftT HOT/BS.—BOOE III. ODE XX. XXI. SCt 

here given there ie more or lees allusion to the mystic notions of the day, 
as both three aod nine were held sacred. 

13 — 86. 13. Jtfwjss imparts. . " The Moses uneven in number." — 14. 
Atmmtus votes. u The enraptured bard."— 18. Berecynti*. Consult note 
on Ode, 1. 30. 5. The Berecyntian or Phrygian flute was of a crooked 
form, whence it is sometimes called cornu. — 21. Parcentes dexteras. "De- 
laying hands." With pareentee understand deripere, I e. hands delaying to 
sene the instrument, mentioned by the bard. — 24. Vicina. M Our fair young 
neighbour.'' — Ab» hahUU. " 111 suited," i. e. in point of years. — 25. Spissn 
is nitidum coma, &c The connection is ss follows : Tne old and morose 
Lycos fails, ss may well be expected, in securing the affections of her to 
whom he is united. But thee, Telephus, in the bloom of manhood, thy 
Rhode loves, because her years are matched with thine. — 26. Puro. 
-Bright." 

Ode 20. Addressed to Pyrrhus. 

1 — 15. 1. Jdoveas. " Thou art trying to remove* Put for amoveas, — 
3. Inaudax, Equivalent to tinddut. — 6. Insignem. Equivalent to sis! 
csvwm, /orms being understood. — 7. Grande certanien. Put in apposition 
with Jfearckum. u About to prove the cause of a fearful contest." — 
9. Interim dam ftf*&c. 'Phis at first view appears to clash with inaudax 
in the 3rd line. That epithet, however, is applied to Pyrrhus, not in the 
commencement of the contest, but a little after, (paulo pott.) — 1 1. Arbiter 
pnrnee. Alluding to Nearchus. — Pontine wudo t &c In allusion to his 
mamerence as regards the issue of the contest. — 13. Leni rccreare vento, 
Jkc According to the best commentators, the allusion is here to ajlaoettum, 
or fen, which the youth holds in his hand. This spoils, however, the 
beauty of the image. — 15. Atrau. According to Homer, (11. 2. 673.) the 
handsomest of the Greeks who fought against Troy, excepting Achillea 
— Jtquoaa raptus ab Ida, Alluding to Ganymede. As regards aquosa, 
compare the Homeric 1&i mXratfof, wt&favea. 



Ode 21. M. Valerius Messala Corvinus having promised to sup with 
the poet, the latter full of joy at the expected meeting, addresses an am- 
phora of old wine, which is to honour the occasion with its contents. 
To the praise of this choice liquor succeed encomiums on wine in general. 
The ode is thought to have been written A. U. C. 723, when Corvinus 
was in his first consulship. 

1 — 1 1. 1. O note mseum, &c " O jar, whose contents were brought 
into existence with me during the consulship of Manlius," Nat*, though 
joined in grammatical construction with testa, is to be construed as sn 
epithefcfor the contents of the vessel Manlius Torquatus was consul 
A. U. C. 689, and Messala entered on his first consulate A. U . C. 723, 
the wine therefore of which Horace speaks must have been thirty years 
old.— 4. 8eu /sdfem, pia, somnwn. "Or, with kindly feelings, gentle 
eieep." The epithet pis must not be taken in immediate construction 
with testa. — 5. Quocunque nomine. Equivalent to in quemeunque Jinan, 
« for whatever end."— 6. Maveridigna bono die. "Worthy of being 
moved on a festal day," i. e. of being moved from thy place on a day like 
this) devoted to festivity. — 7. Descends. The wine is to come down from 

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170 Et*LA* ATOET If OTES.— BOO* III. ODt 1HL «XIU. 

the norrevut, or 4t*04**. Consult note on Ode, 3. 88. 7»— 8 LwifiA&n 
"Mellowed by age."— 9. QtcAnmumi Soerttffcif model s t i tnuAu . 
" Though he is deeply imbued with the tenets of the Socratic school," 
i. e. hen drunk deep of the streams of philosophy. The term model con- 
tains a figurative allusion to the subject of the Ode. — 10. Serntexiew. 
The method of instruction pursued by Socrates assumed the form of 
familiar conversation. The expression SocraticU sermonibus, however, 
refers more particularly to the tenets of the Academy, that school having 
been founded by Plato, one of the pupils of 'Socrates. — Herrita 
" Sternly."— 1 1. Jfarratur et prisei Catonis, &c " Even the austere old 
Cato is related to have often warmed under the influence of wine. 9 As 
regards the idiomatic expression CaUmit virtus, consult note on Ode I. 
3. 36. The reference is to the elder Cato, not to Cato of Utica, and the 
poet speaks merely of the enlivening effects of a cheerful glass. 

13.— 83. 13. Tulenetormentum &c "Thou frequently appliest gen- 
tle violence to a rugged temper," i. e. thou canst subdue, by thy gentle 
violence, dispositions cast in the most rugged mould. — 14. Sapiential 
" Of the guarded agd prudent."— 15. Jocoso Lycto. "By the aid of 
sportive Bacchus." — 18. Et addu carnm pauperl "And addeit 
confidence to him of humble means*" Pauper implies a want, not of (be 
necessaries, but of the comforts of life. The expression comua addu if 
one of a proverbial character. Consult note on Ode 8. 19. 29.— 19. 
Poet te. " After tasting of thee."— £0. Apices. " Tiaras." A particoltf 
allusion totho costume of Psrthiaand the EasL-^tfOtlvm. " Of foee in 
hostile array." — 21. Lata. " Propitious " — 22. Segnes nodum sohtrt 
Slow to loosen the bond of union." A GroBcism for segues ad sohend** 
nodum. The mention of the Graces alludes here to the propriety snd 
decorum that are to prevail throughout the banquet. — 23. Ftaera* J* 
tern*. "And the living lights." — ProducerU. "Snail prolong." Equro* 
lentin fact to convivium produeent. 



Ode 22. The poet, after briefly enumerating some of the attribute! 
of Diana, consecrates to the goddess a pine tree that shaded his rural 
abode, and promises a yearly sacrifice. 

1—7. 1. Montium cuttot, &c Compare Ode 1. 21. 8.-2. JUasrsa- 
tes vJtero. " Labouring with a mother's pangs." — PudUu. Equivalent 
here to jwvenet uxores. Compare Ode 3. 14. 10. — 3. Ter voeata. In al- 
lusion to her triple designation, Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and 
Hecate in the shades.— 4 Triformis, "Of triple form." Consult pre- 
ceding note. — Imminent etite, &c " Let the pine that hangs over my 
villa be sacred to thee." Tua is here equivalent to tibi sacra. Compare 
Virgil, JEn. 10. 423.-6. Per exactos annoe. "At the close of every 
▼ear." Compare Ode 3. 18. 5.-7. ObHquum meditanHs ictmm. Boars 
nave their tusks placed in such a manner, that they can only bite ob- 
liquely or side-ways. 

Ode 23. The bard addresses Phidyle, a resident in the country, 
whom the humble nature of her offerings to the gods had filled with 
neep solicitude. He bids her be of good cheer, assuring her thst the 
value of every sacrifice depends on the feelings bv which it is dictated, 
*md that one of the simplest and lowliest kind, If offered by a r— 

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UMAVlTOftT VOTES.— BOOK Uh ODB XXIT. 971 

tad pious heart, is more acceptable to heaven than the most costly ob» 
lations. 

1—80. 1. Santas* mmus. " Thy suppliant hands/ Literally, 
"thy hands with the palms turned upwards." This was the ordinary 
gesture of those who offered up prayers to the celestial deities*— 2. Ao*» 
code laws. ^ " At the new moon," i. e. at the beginning of every month. 
The allusion is to the oid mode of computing by lunar months.— 
3. Jftsewria, The final syllable of this tense is common : here it is 
long. — Et hornmfrugei " And with a portion of this year's produce.* 9 
Hornus ("of this year's growth' 1 ) is from the Greek iptvos, which is itself 
a derivative of £*«. — 5. Africwn, Consult note on Ode 1. 1. 15. Some 
commentators make the wind here mentioned identical with the modern 
Sirocco.— 6. SUrilem robigmem. "The blasting mildew."— 7. Dulcet 
sJwaat. " The sweet offspring of my flocks." Compare Ode 3. 18. 3. 
— 8. P&mifero grove temjms anno. " The sickly season in the autumn of 
the year." As regards the poetic usage bv which annus is frequently 
taken in the sense of a part, not of the whole year, compare Virgil, 
Eehg. 3. 57: Bar. Epod. 2. 39. Statins, Sylv. 1. 3. 8. &&— 9. tfam 
sms ntocU, fee. The construction is as follows: JVam victima, d%$ dew- 
Is, ova pateUwr nwaliJttgulo, inter quercus et Wees, out ereseU m AUxmi* 
kertu, Jmgef eerviee eecures vontifieum. The idea involved from the 9th 
to the 16th verse is this : Tne more costly victims shall fall for the pub- 
lic welfare ; thou hast need of bnt few and simple offerings to propi- 
tiate for thee the favour of the gods, — Algido. Consult note on Ode 
1. 21. 6. — 11. JUbanis in herbis, " amid Alban pastures," alluding to the 
pastures around Mons Albanus and the ancient scite of Alba Longa- 
— 13. Cerviet, " With the blood that streams from its-wounded neck." 
— Tt nihil et&tei, fee. "It is unnecessary for thee, if thou crown thy 
little Lares with rosemary and the pliant myrtle, to seek to propitiate 
their favour with the abundant slaughter of victims." The Lares stood 
in the atrium or hall of the dwelling. On festivals they were crowned 
with garlands and sacrifices were offered to thero. Consult note on 
Ode 1. 7. 11. — 16. Fragili. We have ventured to give the epithet/rs- 
gili here the meaning of "pliant," though it is due to candour to state, 
that this signification of the term has been much disputed. Consult 
Mitscherlicn ad. he, — 18. Won sumtwoea blandior hontia, fee. "Not ren- 
dered more acceptable by a costly sacrifice, it is wont to appease," &c 
i. e. it appeases the gods as effectually as if a costly sacrifice were of- 
fered. — 20. Farre sis et ealiente mica. " With the pious cake and the 
crackling salt." Alluding to the Baited cake (mold salsa,) composed of 
©ran or meal mixed with salt) which was sprinkled on the head of the ' 
rictim. 

Odb 24. The bard inveighs bitterly against the luxury and licentious- 
ness of the age, and against the unprincipled cupidity by which they were 
constantly accompanied. A contrast is drawn between the pure and sim- 
ple manners of barbarian nations and the unbridled corruption of his coun- 
trymen, and Augustus is implored to save the empire by interposing a bar- 
rier to the inundation of vice. 

1 — 15. 1. IntaeHs opuUntior, fee The construction is as follows: 
* Licet, opulentior intactu thesaurit Jhrabunx et divitis Indict, occupet omne 
Tj/rrkemm et Apulicwn mare tuis comenHe, tamen si dira NecessiUufigit," 
fee •* Though, wealthier than the yet unrifled treasures of tne Arabians 

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M IXTLAKATOftT HOTU.— MOB m. OD1 EOT. 

■ad of rich Indie, thou coverest with thy structures all the Tuscan 
and Apulian seas, still, if cruel Destiny once fixes her spikes of adamant 
in thy head, thou wilt not free thy breast from fear, thou wilt not extricat* 
thy life from the snares of death." The epithet intactus, applied to th« 
t r eas ui es of the East, refers to their being as yet free from the grasp of 
Roman power. — 3. Camentie. The terra cetmenta literally means "stood 
for filling up." Here, however, it refers to the structures reared on these 
artificial foundations. — 4. Tyrrhenian omne, &c. Tho Tyrrhenian denotes 
the lower, the Apulian, the upper or Adriatic, sea. — 6. Summis vcrtieibus. 
The meaning, which we have assigned to this expression, is sanctioned by 
some of the best commentators, and is undoubtedly the true one. Dacier, 
however, and others, understand by it the tops or pinnacles of villas. 
Sanadon applies it in a moral sense to the rich and powerful, ( M les fortune! 
les plus elevlee,") while Bentley takes verticibns to denote the heads ot 
spikes, so that summit verticibns will mean, according to him, " up to the 
very head," and the idea intended to be conveyed by the poet will be, 
*«ic clavos figit necessitas summis verticibus, ut nulla vi evelli possuit" 
—9. Campcstres meUut 8evthm t fee. "A happier life lead the Scythians, 
that roam along the plains, whose waggons drag, according to the custom 
of the race, their wandering abodes." An allusion to the Scythian mode 



of living in waggons. — 10. Rite. Compare the explanation of Doting: "«l 
Jfa*mmmotetvU*r<*io»--n. RipdiGeta. "The hardy Geto." The 
Oete originally occupied the tract ofcountry which had the Danube to the 



north, the range of Hanrnis to the south, the Euzine to the east, and the 
Crobyzian Thracians to the west It was within these limits mat Hero- 
dotus knew them. Afterwards, however, being dislodged, probably bj 
the Macedonian arms, they crossed the Danube, ana punned their 
Nomadic mode of life in the steppes between the Danube and the Tvras, or 
Dneieter. — 12. Immeta jugera. " Unmeasured acres," i. e. unmarked by 
boundaries. Alluding to the land being in common. — Libera* firuges d 
Cererem. u A harvest free to all." Cererem is here merely explanatory 
of /rages. — 14. «Yec cullura pfaceLJkc "Nor does a culture longer than 
an annual one please them." Alluding to their annual change of abode. 
Compare Cassar*8 account of the Germans, B. G. 6. 22.— 15. Dtfiauium- 
que laboribus, Itc " And a successor, upon equal terms, relieves bin 
who has ended his labours of a year." 

17—40. 17. BHc matre earentibue, fee. There the wife, a stranger to 
guilt, treats kindly the children of a previous marriage, deprived of a no* 
tier's care," i. e. is kind to her motherless stepchildren* — 19. Dotata «*»• 
jux. "The dowered spouse."— 20. Jrttido aduUero. "The gay adul- 
terer." — 21. Doe est magna parentium, fee. A noble sentence; but re- 
quiring, in order to be clearly understood, a translation bordering upon 
paraphrase. " With them, a rich dowry consists in the virtue instilled by 
parental instruction, and in chastity, shrinking from the addresses of an- 
other, whilo it firmly adheres to the marriage compact, as well as in tat 
conviction that to violate this compact is an offence against the laws of 
heaven, or that the punishment due to its commission is instant death."-- 
27. Paler Urbium tubscribi statute. " To be inscribed on the pedestals of 
statues as the Father of bis country." An allusion to Augustus, and to the 
title of Pater Patrice conferred on him by the public voice. — 2& Into** 
tarn ticentiam. " Our hitherto ungovernable licentiousness."— 30. Gem 
nutgenUis. "Illustrious for this to after-ages."-^Qtuitenu*. " Since.*— 
31. Virtutem incohunem, " Merit, while it remains with us," i. e. flloflfr 
ous men, while alive. — 32. Invidi. Compare the remark of the schoM 
"rare sua* per invidiam fit, utbonixdrifCumatnieHein^dtsiderentur^ 

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SXPLAMATORY MOTES.— BOOK Hi. ODE XXT. $78 

SI Ctdpa. "Crime."— 35. Sbu moribus. "Without public morals to 
enforce them." — 36. Si neque fervidis, &c An allusion to the torrid zone. 
Consult note on Ode, 1. 22. 22.-38. Jfec Bore* finitimttm lotus. "Nor 
the region bordering on the North." — 39. Polo. The common text has 
tela. — 40. Horrida callidU fee. "If the skilful mariners triumph over the 
stormy seas ? If narrow circumstances, now esteemed a great disgrace, 
bid us," fee, 

45—53 45. reZnosfeCavUoKuiiiy&c. The idea Intended to be con- 
veyed is this ; if we sincerely repent of the luxury and vice that have 
tarnished the Roman name, if we desire another and a better stale of 
things, let us either carry our superfluous wealth to the Capitol and con 
secrete it to the gods, or let us cast it as a thing accursed into the near- 
est sea. The words m CapUotium are thought by some to contain a 
flattering allusion to a remarkable act on the part of Augustus, in dedi 
eating a large amount of treasure to the Capitoline Jove. (Suet. Aug, 
30.)— 46. Paventium. "Of our applauding fellow-citriens."— 47. In 
mare proximxun. Things accursed were wont to be thrown into the sea, 
sr the nearest running water. — 49. MaUriem. "The germs." — 51. 
Eradenda. " Are to be eradicated.' 9 — 52. Tenermnknis. '* Enervated by 
indulgence." — 54. Jfctcit eguo, rudSs, &c " The freebom youth, trained 
up in ignorance of manly accomplishments, knows not how to retain his 
seat on the steed, and fears to hunt" Among the Romans, those who 
were born of parents that had always been free were styled tagrenw.-— 
57. Grctco troeno. The trochus (rpSxt) was a circle of brass or iron, set 
round with rings, and with which young men and boys used to amuse 
themselves. It was borrowed from the Greeks and resembled the mo- 
dern hoop.— 58. Seumalit." Or, if thou prefer." Vetila IcgUms eieo, All 
games oi chance were forbidden among the Romans except at the cele- 
bration of the Saturnalia. These laws, however were not strictly ob- 
served. 

59 — 62 59. Perjura patris fides. " His perjured and faithless parent" 
— 60. ConsorUtn, i oetum, et hospitem. " His co-heir, his partner, and 
the stranger with whom he deals." We have here given the explana- 
tion of Bentley. — 61. Indignoque pecuniom, &c " And hastens to amass 
wealth for an heir unworthy of enjoying it" — 62. Scilicet vrnprrobm cres- 
cmd duUfa, &c " Riches, dishonestly acquired, increase it is true, 
yet something or other is ever wanting to what seems an imperfect for- 
tune in the eyes of its possessor." 



Ode 25. A beautiful dithyrambic ode in honour of Augustus. The 
bard, full of poetic enthusiasm, fancies himself borne along amid woods 
and wilds to celebrate, in some distant cave, the praises ofthe monarch. 
Then, like another Bacchanalian, he awakes from the trance-like feel- 
ings into which he had been thrown, and gazes, with wonder upon the 
scenes that lie before him. An invocation to Bacchus succeeds, and 
allusion is again made to the strains in which the praises of Augustus 
axe to bo poured forth to the world. 

1 — 19. 1. fid plenum. "Full of thee," i. e. of thy inspiration.— 3. 
Vdox made nova. "Moving swiftly under the influence of an altered 
mind." Jfova refers to the change wrought by the inspiration ofthe god. 
QuUnu sntrw, &c The construction is as follows t " In quUm$ m»ri$ 

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S74 BXPLAJf ATORT MOTES.— BOOK ID. ODK XXTI. 

amdtar mectUtm* tnjerere, fee, — 5. M§dUana inserert. " Essaying Vo en* 
roll." Mediums refers to exercise and practice, on the part of the bard, 
before a full and perfect effort is publicly made. — 6. Conntfo Jbrit. Al- 
luding to the twelve DH Consentts or Major es. — 7. Dicam inrigntj &c 
M I will send forth a lofty strain, new, as yet unuttered by other lips." 
The pleonastic turn of expression in "recent adhucindictum ore atio? 
accords with the wild and irregular nature of the whole piece. — 6* A'os 
teau in jupt, &c. " So the Bacchanal, awakening from sleep, stands 
lost in stupid astonishment on the mountain-tops, beholding in the dis- 
tance the Hebrus, and Thrace white with snow, and Rhodope traversed 
by barbarian foot" The poet, recovering from the strong influence of 
the cod, and surveying with alarm the arduous nature of the theme to 
which he has dared to approach, compares himself to the Bacchant, 
whom the stern power of the deity, that she serves, has driven onward, 
in blind career, through many a strange and distant region. Awaken- 
ing from the deep slumber into which exhausted nature had at length 
been compelled to sink, she finds herself, when returning recollection 
comes to her aid, on the remote mountain-tops, far from her native 
scenes, and gazes m silent wonder on the prospect before her ; the dark 
Hebrus, the snow-clad fields of Thrace, and the chain of Rhodope rear- 
ing its summits to the skies. Few passages can be cited from any an* 
cient or modern writer containing more ofthe true spirit of poetry. — 10. 
Hebrum. The modern name of the Hebrus is the MarihuL — 12. Rhodopau 
Rhodope, now DervaU, was a Thracian chain, lying along the north- 
eastern borders of Macedonia. — 12. Ut mUd devio, Jfcc "How it delights 
me, as I wander far from the haunts of men." — 13. Vacuum nemas. 
" The lonely grove,"— 14. Jfaiadum potent, &c " O god ofthe Naiads, 
and ofthe Bacchantes, powerful enough to tear up," dec. — 19. Lenaet, 
u O god of the wine press." The epithet Lcnaus comes from the Greek 
Asvwfof. which is itself a derivative from Xv*fe "a wine press," — Mitacher- 
lich well explains the concluding idea of this ode, which lies couched undet 
the figurative language employed by the bard. " Ad argumentum carnu- 
nis, si postrema transfers*, erit : jProjectusUna qvidem audacta est, M- 
gustumedebrarc; gedauajactauUk" 

Ode 26. The bard, overcome by the arrogance and disdain of Chloe, 
resolves no longer to be led captive by the power of love. 

1 — 11. 1. VixipuelUs, &c The scene is laid in apart of the temple of 
Venus : and the bard, while uttering his invocation to the goddess, offers 
up to ner his lyre, together with the "funaliaf the "veetes," and the 
"harpct," as a soldier after the years of his military service are ended, 
consecrates his arms to the god of battles. It was customary with the 
ancients, when they discontinued any art, to offer up the instruments con- 
nected with it to the deity under whose auspices that art had been pursued. 
— 3. Jirma, What these were the poet himself mentions in the 7th 
verse. — Defimctum bello. " Discharged from the warfare of love." Com- 
pare Ovid, Jim. 1. 9. 1. "MUUat omnia amons, el habet sua castn Cu- 
pido." — 5. Lamm marina, &c "Which guards the left side of sea-born 
Venus." The wall, on which he intends to hang the instruments of his 
revelry, is to the left of the statue of the goddess, and to the right of the wor- 
shippers as they enter the temple. — 6. PortUt. Addressed to his attend- 
ants. — 7. Funalia. " Torches," carried before the young to light them 
to the scene of their revels. The term properly denotes torches made of 
■mall ropes or cords, and covered with wax or tallow. - Vccics. " Bait," 

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EXFLAHATOfcY N0TK9.— BOOK III. ODK XXVIL S75 

other of iron or wood, to force open their mistresses* doors if closed 
against them. — Harpas. " Swords," to be used against the doors if the 
nates proved insufficient They were well adapted for such a purpose, 
bcina heavy, short, and curved. We have here adopted Cuningam's 
reading. The common text has areus, and Bentley suggests securesque. 
—9. Bcatam. u Rich.'* Alluding to the flourishing commerce of tht 
island.— 10. Memphin. Memphis, a celebrated city of Egypt, on the left 
aide of the Nile, and, according to EPAnville, about fifteen miles above 
the apex of the Delta. It was the capital after Thebes. — Sithonia nive. 
Consult note on Ode 1. 18. 9.— 11. Sublimi fiageUo, &c " Give one 
blow with uplifted lash to the arrogant Chloe:" L e, chastise her with but 
one blow, and her arrogance will be humbled. 



Ode 27. Addressed to Galatea, whom the poet seeks to dissuade 
from a voyage which she intended to make during the stormy season of 
the year. The train of ideas is as follows : " I will not seek to deter 
thee from the journey on which thou art about to enter, by recounting 
evil omens ; I will rather pray to the gods that no danger may come 
nigh thee, and that thou mayest set out under the most favourable aus- 
pices. Yet, Galatea, though the auguries forbid not thy departure, 
think, I entreat, of the many perils which at this particular season are 
brooding over the deep. Beware lest the mild aspect of the deceitful 
ikies lead thee astray, and lest, like Europe, thou become the victim of 
thy own imprudence." The poet then dwells upon the story of Europe, 
and with this the ode terminates. 

1—15. 1. Impios parr*, &c u May the ill-omened cry of the noisy 
•creech-owl accompany the wicked on their way." The leading idee 
in the first three stanzas is as follows : Let evil omens accompany the 
wicked alone, and may those that attend the departure of her for whose 
•afety I am solicitous, bo favourable and happy ones. — 2. Agro Lanu- 
9tno. Lan avium was situate to the right of the Appian way, on a hill 
commanding an extensive prospect towards Antium and the sea. As 
the Appian way was the direct route to the port of Brundisium, the ani- 
mal mentioned in the text would cross the path of those who travelled 
in that direction. — 5. Rumpat et terpens, &c. " Let a serpent also in- 
terrupt the journey just begun, if, darting like an arrow athwart the 
way, it has terrified the horses." Mannus means properly a small' horse, 
or nag, and is thought to be a term of Gallic origin. — 7. Ego cut tinuba, 
4c. The construction is as follows : Providus auspex, suseitabo preea 
fltf, cut ego timebo, oscinem corvum ab ortu solit, antequam avis divina tm- 
mnenium imbrium repetat stantes valudes, "A provident augur, I will 
call forth by prayer, on account or her for whose safety I feel anxious, 
the croaking raven from the eastern heavens, before the bird that pre- 
sages approaching rains shall revisit the standing pools." Among 
the Romans, birds that gave omens by their notes were called Oscines, 
and those from whose flight auguries were drawn received the appella- 
tion of Preepetes. The cry of the raven, when heard from the east, was 
deemed favourable. — 10. Imbrium divina avis imminentum. The crow 
is here meant.— 13. Sis licet felix. "Mayest thou be happy." The 
train of ideas is as follows : I oppose not thy wishes, Galatea, It is per* 
mUUd thee, as far as depends on me, or on the omens which I an) 
taking, to be happy wherever it may please thee to dwell, — 15. Lmvm 
sta #. "A wood-pecker on the left" When the Romans made omer " 
85 



SM EXPLANATORY MOTES.— BOO* III. ODS XXVII. 

on the left unlucky, as in the present instance, they spoke in accordance 
with the Grecian custom. The Grecian auffurs, when they made ob- 
servations, kept their faces towards the north ; hence they had the east 
or lucky quarter of the heavens on their right hand, and the west on 
their left. On the contrary, the Romans, making observations with 
their faces to the south, had the east upon their left hand, and the west 
upon their right Both sinister and uevus, therefore have, when wo 
apeak Romano mare, the meaning of lucky, fortunate, && and the op 
posite import when we speak Greteo more. 

17—39. 17. Quanto trepidet hunultu, &c " With whai a loud and 
stormy noise the setting Orion hastens to his rest;" i. e. what tempest* 
are preparing to burst forth, now that Orion sets. Consult note on Ode 
1. 88. 31. — 19. Jfovi. Alluding to his own personal experience. He 
knows the dangers of the Adriatic because he has seen them. — Et quid 
oilnu peeeet Iapyx. u And how deceitful the serene lapyx is." As re- 
gards the epithet stout, compare Ode 1. 7. 15; and, with regard to the 
term Jopyr, consult note on Ode 1. 3. 4. — 21. Cacosmotw. " The dark 
commotions." — 24. Verbere. " Beneath the lashing of the surge." Un- 
derstand ftuctuum.— 25. Sic "With the same rashness."— Europe 
The Greek form for Europe.— 26. At scatentem belhds, &c " But, 
though bold before, she now grew pale at the deep, teeming with mon- 
itors, and at the fraud and danger that every where met the view." 
The term fraudee, in this passage, denotes properly danger resulting to 

* e part of another, a meaning 



•n individual from fraud and artifice on the \ f 

which we have endearoured to express. — 28. PaUuit. This verb here 
obtains a transitive force, because an action is implied, though not de- 
scribed in it. — Audax. Alluding to her rashness, at the outset, in trust* 
ingherselfto the back of the bull.— 30. DebUce Jtymphis. "Due to the 
nymphs." in fulfilment of a vow. — 31. JfocU rublustrx. "Amid the 
feebly-illumined night." The stars alone appearing in the heaven*. 
—33. Centum potentem vrbitnu. Compare Homer, IL 2. 649. — 35. Pie- 
Usque victa Jwrore. "And filial affection triumphed over by frantic 
folly." — 38. Vigilant. "In my waking senses." — 39. An viHo eoreittan, 
&c " Or, does some delusive image, which a dream, escaping from 
the ivory gate, brings with it, mock me still free from the stain of guilt T 
In the Odyssey (19. 562. seqq.), mention is made of two gates through 
which dreams issue, the one of horn, the other of ivory : the visions of 
the night that pass through the former are true ; through the latter, 
false. To this poetic imagery Horace here alludes. 

47—75. 47. Modo. "But a moment ago."— 48. Monstru A. mere 
expression of resentment and not referring, as some commentators hare 
supposed, to the circumstance of Jove's having been concealed under the 
form of the animal, since Europe, could not as yet be at all aware of this. 
—49. Impudent Kaut, &c " Shamelessly have I abandoned a father*! 
roof ; shamelessly do 1 delay the death that I deserve." — 54. Tnwra 
prvtda. The dative, by a Graecism, for the ablative. — Succus. u The 
tide of life."— 65. Speeiosa. " While still in the bloom of early years," 
and hence a more inviting prey. So nuda in the 52d line. — 57. Fin's 
Europe. She fancies she hears her father upbraiding her, and the ad- 
dress of the angry parent is continued to tlje word peUex in the 66th line. 
— Pater urg>et abeens. A pleasing oxymoron. The father of Europe 
appears as if present to her disordered mind, though in reality faraway, 
and angrily urges her to atone for her dishonour by a voluntary and 
imme d i a t e death. « Thy father, though fax away, angrily urging thee, 



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EXPLANATORY VOTES.— BOOK m. ODE XXVUL. 877 

I to exclaim." Tho student will mark tho zeugma in wguet, which 
is here equivalent to aeriter insistent clamat. — 59. Zona bene te secuteu 
M With the girdle that has luckily accompanied thee."— €l. Acuta lets, 
u Sharp with death," L e. on whose sharp projections death may easily 
he found. — 62. TewoctUUt crede vtlocu " Consign thyself to the rapid 
blast," >• «■ plunge headlong down. — 67. Remisso arcu. As indicative of 
having accomplished his object— 69. Ubi lusit satis. " When she had 
sufficiently indulged her mirth." — 70. Irorum caHdaque rixa. The ge- 
nitive, by a G racism, for the ablative. — 71. Quumtibi invisus, &c. Venus 
here alludes to the intended appearance of Jove in his proper form. — 73. 
Uxor mvicti Jams, &c. " Thou knowest not, it seems, that thou art the 
bride of resistless Jove." The nominative, with the infinitive, by a 
Grecian), the reference being to the same person that forms the subject 
of the verb. — 75. Serins orbit. u A division of the globe," Literally, "the 
globe, being divided." 



Ode 28. The poet, intending to celebrate the Neptunalia, or festival 
of Neptune, bids Lyde bring the choice Caecuban and join him in song*. 
— The female to whom the piece is addressed, is thought to have been 
the same with tlie one mentioned in the eleventh ode of this book, and it 
is supposed, by most commentators, that the entertainment took plaoa 
under her rooff We are inclined, however, to adopt the opinion, that the 
day was celebrated in the poet's abode, and that Lyde was now the su- 
perintendent of his household. 

1 — 16. 1. Festo die Jfeptuni. The Neptunalia, or festival of Nep- 
tune, took place on the 5th day before the Kalends of August (28th Ju- 
ly). — 2. Reconditum. "Stored far a way in the vault." The allusion is 
to old wine laid up in the farther part of the crypt Compare Ode 2. 3. 
8. — 3. Lyde strenua. "My active Lyde." Some commentators, by a 
change of punctuation, refer strenua, in an adverbial sense, to prime.— 
4. Jtfuniteoue adkibe, &c " And do violence to thy guarded wisdom," 
L e. bid farewell, for this once, to moderation in wine. The poet, by a 
pleasing figure, bids her storm the camp of sobriety, and drive away its 
accustomed defenders. — 5. hxcUnare sentis, &c. " Thou seest that the 
noontide is inclining towards the west," i. e. that the day begins to de- 
cline. — 7. Pareis deripere horreo f &c. u Dost thou delay to hurry down 
from the wine-room the lingering amphora of the Consul BibuJ us," Le. 
which contains wine made, as the mark declares, in the consulship of Bi- 
bulus, (A. XJ. C . 694.) The epithet eessantem beautifully expresses the im- 
patience of the poet himself. — The lighter wines, or such as lasted only 
from one vintage to another, were kept in cellars; but the stronger and 
more durable Kinds were transferred to another apartment, which the 
Greeks called **a04*i?, or siftdv, and the poet, on the present occasion, 
horreum. With the Romans, it was generally placed above the fumari- 
fim, or drying-kiln, in order that the vessels might be exposed to such a 
degree of smoke as was calculated to bring the wines to an early matu- 
rity. — 9. Invicem, "In alternate strain." The poet is to chauntthe 
praises of Neptune, and Lyde those of the Nereids. — 10. Virides. Al- 
luding tc the colour of the sea. — 12. Cynthia. Diana, an epithet derived 
from mount Cynthus in Delos, her native island. — 13. Sumrno carmine, 
Jtc. " At the conclusion of the strain, we will sing together of the god- 
dess, who," fee. The allusion is to Venus. — Onidon. Consult note on 
Ode 1. 30. 1.— 14. Fulgentes Cydadts. "The Cyclades conspicuous 

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378 MMTLAMATOUt MOTfcS. — BOOK III. OX>» ZXK. 

from afar." Consult note on Ode 1. 14. 80. — Papkon. Consult note on 
Ode 1. 30. 1.— 15. JuneHs oloribus. " With her yoked swans." In ber 
car drawn by swans. — 16. JHcetur merita, &c. " Night too shall be ce- 
lebrated, in a hymn due to her praise." The term nanUt is beautifully 
selected here, though much of its peculiar meaning is lost in a transla- 
tion. As the noma, or funeral dirge, marked the close of existence, to 
here the expression is applied to the hymn that ends tho banquet, and 
whose low and plaintive numbers invite to repose. - 



One S9. One of the most beautiful lyric productions of all antiquity. 
The bard invites his patron to spend a few days beneath his bumble roof, 
far from splendour and affluence, and from die noise and confusion of a 
crowded capital He bids him dismiss, for a season, that anxiety lor the 
public welfare, in which he was but too prone to indulge, and tells him to 
enjoy the blessings of the present hour, and leave the events of the future 
to the wisdom of the gods. That man, according to the poet, is alone truly 
ipv, who can say, as each evening closes around him, that he has en- 
d, in a becoming manner, the good things which the day has bestow- 
«u , nor can even Jove himself deprive him of this satisfaction. The surest 
aid against the mutability of Fortune is conscious integrity, and be who 
possesses this, need not tremble at the tempest that dissipates the wealth 
of the trader. 

1 — 19. I. Tyrrhenaregum progenies. *' Descendant of Etrurian rulers." 
Maecenas was descended from Elbiu 



ar 



>ius Votterrenu8,oneof the] 
of Etruria, who fell in the battle at the lake Vadimona, (A. U. C. 445.) 
— According to a popular tradition among the Romans, and the acco u nts 
of several ancient writers, Etruria received the germs of civilization from a 
Lydian colony. This emigration was probably a Pelasgic one. — TssC 
" In reserve for thee." — 2. Aon ante verso. u Never as yet turned to be 
emptied of any part of its contents," i. e. as yet unbroached. The al- 
lusion is to the simplest mode practised among the Romans for drawing 
off the contents of a wine-vessel, by inclining it to one side and thus pour- 
ing out the liquor.— 4. Balanus. "Perfume." The name baUmtu, or 
myrobalimum, was given by the ancients to a species of nut, from which a 
valuable unguent or perfume was extracted. — 5. Eripe U mora, "Snatch 
thyself from delay," i. e. from every thing in the city that may seek to de- 
tain thee there : from all the engrossing cares of public life.— 6. Ut semper 
udxtm. The common text has ne semper udum, which involves an absur- 
dity. How could Maecenas, at Rome, contemplate Tibur, which wan 
twelve or sixteen miles off? — Tibur. Consult note on Ode 1. 7. 11 — 
AesuUt declhe solum. " The sloping soil of Aesula." This town is sup- 
posed to have stood in the vicinity of Tibur, and from the language of tne 
poet must have been situate on the slope of a hill. — 8. TeUgonijugaparri* 
eida. Alluding to the ridge of hills on which Tusculum was situated. 
This city is said to have been founded by Telegonus, son of Ulysses and 
Circe, who came hither after having killed his father without knowing 
mm. — 9. FasUdiosam. " Productive only of disgust." The poet entreats 
nis patron to leave for a season that u abundance," which, when taunter* 
ruptedf is productive only of disgust — 10. Mciempropinquam. &c Al- 
luding to the magnificent villa of Maecenas, on the Esquiline hill, to which 
a tower adjoined remarkable for its height — 1 1. Beat* Roma. u Of opu- 
lent Rome.**— 13. Vices. " Change."— 14. Parvo sub lore. "Beneath 
the humble roof."— 16, Sine antes* st astro. "Without hang ings, and 



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EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK ni. ODB ZZBb 9tf 

irithout the parole covering of the coach.* Literally, u without hangings 
tod purple." The aulaa, or hangings, were suspended from the ceiling* 
and aide-walla of the banqueting rooms. — 16. SolUeUam expHeuertfitntem. 
"Have smoothed the anxious brow." Have removed or unfolded the 
wrinkles of care. — 17. Clams Andromeda pater. Cepheus ; the name of a 
constellation near the tail of the little bear. It rose on the 9th of July, 
and is here taken by the poet to mark the arrival of the summer heats. — 
Oeevllum ostendit ignem* Equivalent to oritur. — 18. Procyoru A con- 
stellation rising just before the dog-star. Hence its name UpeK^v (*pd 
ante and rfw cants) and its Latin appellation of antecanis.—\9. Stella 
tensi Ltonis. A star on the breast or Leo, rising on the 24th July. The 
am enters into Leo on the 20th of the same month. 

83-61 22. Horridi dumeta Silvanu "The thickets of the rough Sil- 
vanos." The epithet horridus refers to his crown of reeds and the rough 
line-branch which he carries in his hands. — 24. Ripatacittarna. A beau- 
tiful allusion to the stillness of the atmosphere. — 25. Tu civitatem quu 
heat status, &c. "Thou, in the mean time, art anxiously considering 
what condition of affaire may be most advantageous to the state." Al- 
luding to his office of Prafectus Urbis. — 27. Seres. The name by which 
the inhabitants of China were known to the Romans. — Regnata Baetra 
Cyro. "Baetra, ruled over by an eastern king." Baetra, the capital of 
Bactriana, is here put for the whole Parthian empire. — 28. Tanaisque 
ftcor*. "And the Tanais, whose banks are the seat of discord." Al- 
luding to the dissensions among the Parthtans. Consult note on Ode 3. 
& 19.— 29. Pruiens futuri, &c "A wise defy shrouds in gloomy night 
the events of the future, and smiles if a mortal is solicitous beyond the 
hw of his being." — 32. Quo d adest memento, &c " Remember to make a 
proper use of the present hour."— 33. Cetera. " The future." Referring 
to those things that are not under oar controul, but are subject to the ca- 
price of fortune or the power of destiny. ^ The mingled good and evil 
which the future has in store, and the vicissitudes of life generally, are 
compared to the course of a stream, at one time troubled^ at another calm 
and tranquil. — 41. IUe polens sui, &c "That man will live master of 
himself/'— 42. In diem. " Each day."— 43. Vixi. "I have Bved," i. e. 
I have enjoyed, as they should be enjoyed, the blessings of existence.— 
44. Oceupato. A zeugma operates in this verb : in the first clause it has 
the meaning of " to shroud," in the second "to illumine."— 46. Qwdcwi- 
V* retro est. " Whatever is gone by." — 47. DiffingeL infectumque reddet. 
14 Will he change and undo." — 49. Servo lata ne*olio t &c " Exulting in 
her cruel employment, and persisting in playing her haughty game." — 53. 
Mtnentem. " while she remains." — 54. Kesigno qua deiHt. " I resign 
*hat she once bestowed." Resigno is here used in the sense of rescribo, 
and the latter is a term borrowed from the Roman law. When an indi- 
vidual borrowed a sum of money, the amount received and the borrower's 
oapie were written in the banker's books ; and when the money was re- 
paid, another entry was made. Hence scribere nummos " to borrow ;" 
rricri*ere, "to pay back." — Jtfes virtute me involve The wise man 
*raps himself up in the mantle of his own integrity, and bids defiance to 
the storms and changes of fortune. — 57. Aon est tneum. " It is not for 
aw." It is no employment of mine. — 59. Et votis paeisci. " And to 
strive to bargain by mv vows." — 62. Turn. " At such a time as this."— 
tl Aura geminusque Pollux. " A favouring breeze, and the twin-brothers 
Castor and Pollux. Consult note on Ode 1. 3. 2. 



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BBI UTLaJUTOtT XOTKS.—BOOK IT. QOK L 

Oob 30. The poet's presage of immortality.— It is generally supposed 
that Horace intended this as a concluding piece for hia odes, ana with 
this opinion the account given by Suetonius appears to harmonise, since 
we are informed by this writer, in his life of the poet, that the fourth book 
of Odes was added, after a long interval of time, to the first three books, 
by older of Augustus. 

1 — 16. 1. Exegi numimentum, &c "I have reared a memorial of 
myself more enduring than brass." Compare the beautiful lines of Qnd, 
at the conclusion of the metamorphoses. "Jamquc opus exegi ovodnec 
Joeis ira, nee ignes," &c. — 2. Regaliqut situ> &c. " And loftier than tlie 
regal structure of the pyramids." — 3. Jmber cdax. " The corroding 
shower." — 4. Innumerabilis annorum aeries, &c u The countless series 
of years, and the flight of ages." — 7. LiHHnam. Venus Libitina, at 
Rome, was worshipped as the goddess that presided over funerals, "When 
Horace says, that he will escape Libitina, ne means the oblivion of the 
grave. — 7. Usque r teens. " Ever fresh, " i. e. ever blooming with the fresb 
graces of youth. — 8. Dum Capitotium> &c. Every month, according to 
Varro, solemn sacrifices were offered up in the Capitol. Hence the 
meaning of the poet is, that so long as this shall be done, so long will bis 
fame continue. To a Roman the Capitol seemed destined for eternity.— 
10. Dicar. To be joined in construction with prineeps deduxtste. "I 
shall be celebrated as the first that brought down"&c. — Jrufidus. A very 
rapid stream in Apulia, now the O/anlo. — 11. El qua pauper aqu<t y &c. 
" And where Daunus, scantily supplied with water, ruled over a rustic 
population." The allusion is still to Apulia, and the expression pauwr 
aqua refers to the summer heats of that country. Consult note on Ode 
I. 22. 13.— 12. RegnavU populorum. An imitation of the Greek idiom, 
frf c Xadv. — Ex humili pot ens. " I, become powerful from a lowly degree." 
Alluding to the humble origin and subsequent advancement of the bari 
— 13. JEoUum carmen. A general allusion to the lyric poets of Greece, 
but containing at the same time a more particular reference to Aiceus 
and Sappho, both writers in the ^Eolic dialect — 14. Deduxisse. A figure 
borrowed from the leading down of streams to irrigate the adjacent 
fields. The stream of Lyric verse is drawn down by Horace from tl* 
heights of Grecian poesy to irrigate and refresh the humbler literature of 
Rome.—l5. DtlphLa lauro. «• With Apollo's bays."— 16. Volen*. "Pro- 
pitiously.'' 



BOOK IT. 



Odb 1 The poet, after a lonq interval of time, gives to the world his 
fourth book of Odes, in compliance with the order of Augustus, and 
the following piece is intended as an introductory effusion. The Mother 
of the Loves is entreated to spare one whom age is now claiming for its 
own, and to transfer her empire to a worthier subject, the gay, and 
youthful, and accomplished Maximus. The invocation, however, only 
shows, and indeed is only meant to show, that advancing years had 
brought with them no change in the feelings and habits of the bard. 



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EXPLANATORY VOTES. — BOOK IT. 091 U. 381 

% — 36. 9. Bella. Compare Ode 3. 26. 2. 3. — Bona. Horace appears to 
Ultimate by this epithet, that the affection entertained for nimby Cinara, 
Was rather pure and disinterested than otherwise. Compare Epist, 1. 
14. 33. — 6. Circa lustra decern, fee. " To bend to thy sway one aged 
about ten lustra, now intractable to thy soft commands." A lustrum em > 
braced a period of five years. — 6. BlaruUz preces. " The soothing pray- 
ers." — 9. Tempestivius in domum, &c "More seasonably, moving 
swiftly onward with thy swans of fairest hue, shalt thou go to the homo 
of Paulus Maximus, there to revel." The allusion is probably to Pau- 
lus Fabius Maximus, who was afterwards consul with Gtuintus Aetius 
Tubero, A. XJ. C. 743. — In domwn iommissobere. The student will note 
this construction : the ablative in domo would imply that the goddess was 
already there. — 10. Purpureis ales ohribta. The allusion is to the chariot 
of Venus, drawn by swans ; and hence the term ales is, by a bold and 
beautiful figure, applied to the goddess herself, meaning literally 
" winged." As regards purpureis, it must be remarked that the ancients 
called any strons and vivid colour by the name of purpureus, because 
that was their richest colour. Thus we have purpurea coma, purpureus 
camltus, lumen iuventa purpureum, &c Compare Virgil, Aen. 1. 591. 
Albinovanus (El. 2. 62.) even goes so far as to apply the term to snow* 
The usage of modern poetry is not dissimilar. Thus Spencer, "the 
Morrow next appeared with purple hair," and Milton, " waves his purple 
wings." So also Gray, " the bloom of young desire and purple light of 
love." — 15. Et centum puer artiwn. u And a youth of an hundred ac- 
complishments."— 17. fyuandoqut. "Whenever." For Quandocunque. 
— PotenHar. " More successful than," i. e. triumphing over. — 20. Sub 
irabc cUrea. "Beneath a citron dome." The expression trabe citrea 
does not refer to the entire roof, but merely to that part which formed 
the centre, where the beams met, and which rose in the form of a buck- 
ler. An extravagant value was attached by the Romans to citron wood. 
— 32. Duces. " Shalt thou inhale." — Berecyntia. Consult note on Ode 
1. ia 13*— 24 Miztis carminibus. " With the mingled harmony."— 28. 
Salinm. Consult note on Ode 1. 36. 12^—30. Spes animi creduta mutuu 
" The credulous hope of mutual affection," i. e. the fond but fallacious 
hope that my affection will be returned.— -34 Kara. "Imperceptibly." 
35. Cur faevnda parum decoro, &c The order is, cur facunda lingua 
cadit inter verba parum decoro silentio. — A Synapheia takes place in decoro, 
the last syllable ro being elided before Inter at the beginning of the next 
line. — 36. Cadit. Cade has here the meaning of " to falter." 



Ode 8. The Sygambri, Usipetes, and Tenctheri, who dwelt beyond 
the Rhine, having made frequent inroads into the Roman territory, Au- 
gustus proceeded against them, and, by the mere terror of bis name, 
compelled them to sue for peace. {Dio Cassius, 54. 20. — vol. l.p. 750. 
ea\ Rtimar.) Horace is therefore requested by lulus Antonius, the 
same year in which this event took place, (A. U. C. 738.) to celebrate 
in Pindaric strain the successful expedition of the emperor and his ex- 
pected return to the capital. The poet, however, declines the task, and 
alleges want of talent as an excuse ; but the very language in which 
this plea is conveyed shows how well qualified he was to execute the 
undertaking from which he shrinks. 

lulus Antonius was the son of Marc Antony and Fulvia. He stood 
high in favour of Augustus, and received from him his sister's daughter 
m marriage. After having filled, however, some of the most important 

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Sat BXFLANATOaf MOTES.— BOOK IT. OOE U. 

offices in the state, he engaged in an intrigue with Julia, the daughter of 
the emperor, and was put to death by order of the latter. According to 
Velleius Paterculus (2. 100.) he fell by his own hand. It would appear 
that he had formed a plot, along with the notorious female just men- 
tioned, against the life of Augustus. 

1—11. J. JEmularL "To rival."— 2. lute. To be pronounced as a 
dissyllable, yu4e. Consult remarks on Sapphic verse, p. xxiii. in fiotis. 
— Ceratii ope DctaaUa. " Secured with wax by Dsedalean art." ill 
allusion to the well-known fable of Daedalus and Icarus. — 3. VUreoda- 
hams, &c "Destined to give a name to the sparkling deep." Vitrte 
is here rendered by some "azure," but incorrectly ; the idea is borrowed 
from the sparkling of glass. — 5. Monte. "From some mountain."— 
6. Notas rip**. " Its accustomed banks." — 7. Ferctt immensusque, &c 
"Pindar foams, and rushes onward with the vast and deep tide of song." 
The epithet immensus refers to the rich exuberance, and profunda ore, 
to the sublimity, of the bard. — 9. Donandus. "Deserving of being 
gifted." — 10. Sen per audaces, &c Horace here proceeds to enumerate 
the several departments of lyric verse, in all of which Pindar stands 
pre-eminent These, are, 1. DUhurambies. 2. Pcsans, or hymns and 
encomiastic effusions. 3. Epinicia (hrivUta) or songs of victory, com- 
posed in honour of the conquerors at the public games. — 4. Epietdia 
(huctftta) or funeral songs. Time has made fearful ravages in these 
celebrated productions : all that remain to us, with the exception of a 
few fragments, are forty-five of the bnvfcia 'fa/iara. — 10. Nova verba. 
" Strange imagery, and the forms of a novel style." Compare the ex 
planation of Mitscherlich : " Composition*, junclura, significatu deniqv* 
innovate, cum novo orationis habUu atque structure 11 and also that of D6r- 
ing : " Nova sententiarum lumina, nave effictas grancHsonorum verborum for- 
mulas.' 9 Horace alludes to the peculiar licence enjoyed by Dithyrambic 
poets, and more especially by Pindar, of forming novel compounds, 
introducing novel arrangements in the structure of their sentences, and 
of attaching to terms a boldness of meaning that almost amounts to a 
change of signification. Hence the epithet " daring," {audaces) ap- 
plied to this species of poetry. Dithyrambics were originally oaes m 
praise of Bacchus, and their very character shows their oriental origin. 
-—11. Jfumeris lege soluHs. "In unshackled numbers," Alluding to 
the privilege, enjoyed by Dithyrambic poets, of passing rapidly and at 
pleasure from one measure to another. 

13 — 32. 13. Sen deos, regesve, &c. Alluding to the Paeans. The 
reges, deorum sanguinem, are the heroes of earlier times: and the refer- 
ence to the Centaurs and the Chimcera calls up the recollection of The- 
seus, Pirithous, and Bellerophon. — 17. Sive quos Etta, &c Alluding 
to the Epinicia. — Elea palm*. " The Elean palm," i. e. the palm won 
at the Olympic games, on the banks of the Alpheus, in Elis. Consult 
note on Ode, 1. 1. 3. — 19. CalesUs. " Elevated, in feeling, to the skies." 
— Equwnve. Not only the conquerors at the games, but their horses 
also, were celebrated in song ana honoured with statues. — Vj, Centum 
votiore rignis. " Superior to an hundred statues." Alluding to one of his 
lyric effusions. — HebUL " Weeping." Taken in an active sense.— 
Juvenemve. Strict Latinity requires that the enclitic be joined to the 
first word of a clause, unless that be a monosyllabic preposition. The 
present is the only instance in which Horace deviates from the rule.— 
22. Et vires ommumque, &c. "And extols his strength, and courage, 
and unblemished morals to the stars, and rescues him from the oblivion 

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BXPLAWATOEY HOT**— BOOK IT. ODB JU. 383 

of the grave." Literally, M envies dark Orcus the possession of him.' 9 
—95. Jtfstta Directum. " A swelling gale raises on high the Dircaan 
■wul** An allusion to the strong, poetic flight of Pindar, who, as a 
native of Thebes in Bceotia, is here styled "Dircesan," from the foun- 
tain of Dime situate near that city, and celebrated in the legend of Cad- 
num.— 87. Ego apis Matmee, &c " I. after the habit and manner of a 
Matinian bee. 1 ' Consult note on Ode 1. 28. 3.-29. Per labor em pluri- 
mm. "With assiduous toil."— 31. Tiburis. Alluding to his villa at 
Tiber.— 32. Fingo, . The metaphor is well kept up by this verb, which 
has peculiar reference to the labours of the bee. 

33—59. 33. Majorepotta plectra. "Thou, Antonius, a poet of lof- 
tier strain.^ Antonhis distinguished himself by an epic poem in twelve 
books, entitled DUmedeis. — 34. Qpmaoque. For ouandoeunaue. — 35. Per 
Mcnrm eHmtm. " Along the sacred ascent." Alluding to the Via Sacra, 
the street leading up to the Capitol, and by which triumphal processions 
were conducted to that temple. — 36. Fronde. Alluding to the laurel 
crown worn by commanders when they triumphed. — Sygambres. The 
Sygambri inhabited at first the southern side of the Lupia or Lippe. 
They were afterwards, during this same reign, removed by the Romans 
into Gaul, and had lands assigned them along the Rhine. Horace 
here alludes to them before this change of settlement took place. — 39. 
At *wm priscum. " To their early gold," i. e. to the happiness of the 
golden age.— 43. Forwnque lilibus orbum. "And the forum tree from liti- 
f ition." The courts of justice were closed at Rome not merely in cases 
of public mourning, but also of public rejoicing. This cessation of busi- 
ness was called Justiliunu— 45. Turn. Alluding to the expected trium- 
phal entry of Augustus. No triumph, however, took place, as the em- 
peror avoided one by coming privately into the city. — Mem vocis bona pars 
*c*deL " A large portion of my voice shall join the general cry." — 46. 
*>J pvlcher. " O glorious day."— 49. Tuque dum procedia, &c. " And 
while thou art moving along in the train of the victor, we will often raise 
ue shout of triumph ; the whole state will raise the shout of triumph." 
The address is to Antonius, who will form part of the triumphal proces- 
«on, while the poet will mingle in with, ana help to swell the acclama- 
tions of, the crowd. With cwitos omits understand rficet.— 53. Te. Un- 
derstand sofeeni, " shall free thee from fhy vow." Alluding to the fulfil- 
ment of vows offered up for the safe return of Augustus. — 55. Lorgis 
*"&. u Amid abundant pastures." — 56. Inmeavoto. "For the ful- 
filment of my vows."— 57. Curvatos ignes. " The bending fires of the 
Boon when she brines back her third rising," L e. the crescent of the 
""on when she is three days old. The comparison is between the 
crescent and the horns of the young animal. — 59. Qua notam duxiL 
**• M Snow-white to the view where it bears a mark ; as to the rest of 
ft body, of a dun colour." The animal is of a dun colour and bears a 
conspicuous snow-white mark. — Niveus videri. A Grsscisin, the infini- 
te lor the latter supine. 



Obb 3. The bard addresses Melpomene, as the patroness of lyric 
ter *e. To her he ascribes his poetic inspiration, to her the honours 
*Bch he enjoys among his countrymen ; and to her he now pays the 
fct* of gratitude in this beautiful ode. 

1 — 24. l. Qjuem fu, Melpomene, &c. " Him, on whom thou, Mel* 

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964 EXMLAMAT0B.T WWII . ' UO OX IT. ODB If. 

pomeoe, mayest hare looked with a favouring ere, at the hour of bis na- 
tivity."— 3. Labor Itthmhu. " The Isthmian contest" The Isthmian 
are here put for any games.— 4. ClarabU pugilem. " Shall render illus- 
trious as a pugilist." — 5. Curru Jiekmeo. "In a Grecian chariot." An 
allusion to victory in the chariot-race. — 6. Res bt&ca. " Some warlike 
exploit"— DdUt folUs. "With the Delian leaves," i. e. with laurel, 
which was sacred to Apollo, whose natal place was the isle of Delos.— 
8. Quod regum ftcmtrfos, &c u For having crushed the haughty threat* 
of kings."— 10. Praftvmt. For praterftvmL "Fl6wby." The common 
text has perjluunt, " flow through." Consult, as regards Ttbur and the 
Anio, the note on Ode 1. 7. 13. — 19. Fingent JEolio, &c The idea 
meant to he conveyed is this, that the beautiful scenery around Tihur, 
and the peaceful leisure there enjoyed, will enable the poet to cultwate 
his lyric powers with so much success as, under the favouring influence 
of the Muse, to elicit the admiration both of the present and coming ape. 
As regards the expression JEolio carmine, consult note on Ode 3. 30. 13. 
—13. AoffMB, wineipis urteum, fee " The ofispring of Rome, queen of 
cities." By the " Ofispring of Rome," are meant the Romans them- 
selves.— 17. (etrudmw auras, fcc. " O Muse, that rulest the sweet 
melody of the golden shell." Consult notes on Okies 3. 4. 40. and 1 . 10. 
6. — 80. Cyeni sonwn. " The melody of the dying swan." Consult 
note on Ode 1. 6. 8.-22. Quod monstror. " That I am pointed out" 
—83. Romans fidken Jyrte. u As the minstrel of the Roman lyre,"— 24. 
Quod tpira. " That I feel poetic inspiration." 



Una 4. The Raeti and Vindelici having made frequent inroads into the 
Roman territory, Augustus resolved to inflict a signal chastisement on 
these barbarous tribes. For this purpose, Drusus Nero, then only twenty 
three years of age, a son of Tibenus Nero and Livia, and a step-son con- 
sequently of the emperor, was sent against them with an army. The ex- 
pedition proved eminently successful. The young prince, in the very first 
battle, defeated the Rssti at the Tridentine Alps, and afterwards, in con- 
junction with his brother Tiberius, whom Augustus had added to the war, 
met with the same good fortune against the Vindelici, united with the 
remnant of the Reed and with others of their allies. (Compare Dio O- 
sttu, 54. 28. Veil. Paterc. 2. 95.) Horace, being ordered by Augustus 
(Sue ton. ViL Herat.) to celebrate these two victories in song, composed 
the present ode in honour of Drusus, and the fourteenth of this same book 
in praise of Tiberius. The piece we are now considering consists of three 
divisions. In the first, the valour of Drusus is the theme, and be is com- 
pared by the poet to a young eagle and lion. In the secon d, Augustus is 
extolled for his paternal care of the two princes, and for the correct cul- 
ture bestowed upon them. In the third, the praises of the Claudia n line 
are Bung, and mention is made of C. Claudius Nero, the conqueror ot 
Hasdrubal, after the victory achieved by whom, over the brother of Hani- 
bal, Fortune again smiled propitious on the arms of Rome. 

1 — 21. 1. Qualem ministrum, &c. The order of construction is sj 
follows: Qualem olimjuvcnUu et patrius vigor propulit nido inscium i*6o- 
ruro alitem ministrumfulminis f cut Jupiter^ rex decrtm, pertniait regnvm •* 
togas avesy expertus (eum) fidelem inflavc Ganymede, verniqut venti, ntm- 
hisjam remotis, docuere paventem insolitos nisus ; mox wvidtts impetus, &c 
— (talem) Vindelici videre Drusnm gerentem beUa sub Rati* Jllpibius.— 
u As at first, the fire of youth and hereditary vigour have impelled bom the 

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aZFLAM ATORY HOTS*.— BOOK IT. ODE IT. 385 

rat, still ignorant of toils, the bird, the thunder-bearer, to whom Jove, tha 
king of gods, has assignee! dominion over the wandering fowls of the air, 
having found him faithful in the case of the golden-haired Ganymede, 
and the winds of spring, the storms of winter being now removed, have 
taught him, still timorous, unusual darings ; presently a fierce impulse, 
&c— Such did the Yindehci behold Drusus wagingwar at the foot of the 
Rstian Alps." — Mtem, Alluding to the eagle. The ancients believed 
that this bird was never injured by lightning, and they therefore made it 
the thunder-bearer of Jove. — 13. Jtonor dapis atque pugntz. u A desire for 
food and fight" — 14. Fuh* matris ab ubere, &c " A lion just weaned 
from the dug of its tawny dam." — 16. Dtnte novo peritura. "Doomed to 
perish by its early fang."— 17. Jtattls JilpSbus. The Rastian Alps extended 
from the St. Gothard, whose numerous peaks bore the name of Adula, to 
Mount Brenner in the TvroL— 18. Vinddici. The country of the Vtnde- 
Uci extended from the Lacus Brigantinus (Lake of Constancy) to the 
Danube, while the lower part of the Oenus, or /tin, separated it from 
NoricunL. — Qvakua tnos wide deductus, &c u To whom from what source 
the custom be derived, which, through every age, arms their right hands 
aninst the foe with an Amazonian' battle-axe, I have omitted to enquire." 
The awkwardness of the whole clause, from qutbus to omnia, has very justly 
caused it to be suspected as an interpolation : we have therefore placed 
the whole within brackets.— 20. Amazonia stcuri. The Amazonian bat- 
tle-axe was a double one, that is, beside its edge it had a sharp projection, 
like a spike, on the top. — 31. Obarmet. The verb oftormo means ** to arm 
against another." 

34—33. 34. ConsSUs jvvenis revfcfo. c< Subdued in their turn by the 
skilful operations of a youthful warrior." Consult Introductory Re* 
marks.— -£5. Sensere, qtnd mens, &c, " Felt, what a mind, what a dis- 
position, duly nurtured beneath an auspicious roof, what the paternal 
affection of Augustus towards the young Neros, could effect" The 
Vbdelici at first beheld Drusus waging war on the Rati, now they them- 
selves were destined to fed the prowess both of Drusus and Tiberius, 
and to experience the force of those talents which had been so happily 
nurtured beneath the roof of Augustus.— 89. Fortes creantur fort&us. 
The epithet fortis appears to be used here in allusion to the meaning ot 
the term Nero, which was of Sabine origin, and signified "courage," 
" firmness of soul."— 30. Patrum virtus. " The spirit of their sires." — 
33. Dodrina sediim, &c. The poet, after conceding to the young Ne- 
ros the possession of hereditary virtues and abilities, insists upon the 
necessity of proper culture to guide those powers into the path of use- 
fulness, and hence the fostering care of Augustus is made indirectly the 
theme of praise. The whole stanza may be translated as follows : 
" But it is education that improves the powers implanted in us by nature, 
and it is good culture that strengthens the heart : whenever moral prin- 
ciples are wanting, vices degrade the fair endowments of nature." 

37 — 64. 37. Quid debeas, Roma, Jferonibus, &c. We now enter on 
the third division of the poem, the praise of the Claudian line, and the 
poet carries us back to the days of the second Punic war, and to the vic- 
tory achieved by C. Claudius Nero over the brother of Hannibal. — 38. 
Metavrum flomtn. The term Metaurum is here taken as an adjective. 
The Metaurus, now Metro, a river of Urabria, emptying into the Adri- 
atic, was rendered memorable by the victorygained over Asdrubal by 
the consuls C. Claudius Nero and M. Livius Salinator. The chief ment 
of the victory was due to Claudius Nero, for his bold and decisive move- 
ineiUmmarching to join Livius. —39. Pulcher UU die* . "That glorious 

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886 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK IT. ODE Y. 

day." Arista* may also be joined in construction with Lotto, " rising fitir on 
Latium." According to the first mode of mterpretation, however, Lens 
is on ablative, UnebrisfugaHsLatio, " when darkness was dispelled from 
Latium."— 41. Adore*. Used here in the sense of victoria. It properly 
means a distribution of corn to an array, after gaining a victory.— 42. 
Dirus per urbes, &c. M Since the dire son of Afnc sped his way through 
the Italian cities, as the flame does through the pines, or the south-east 
wind over the Sicilian waters." By dirus Jifer Hannibal is meant— 45. 
Laborious^ Equivalent here to prcuUs. — 48. Deos habuere rectos. "Had 
their gods again erect." Alluding to a general renewing of sacred rites, 
which had been interrupted by the disasters of war. — 50. Cervi. "Like 
stags." — 51. Qjuos opimus /autre, &c. "Whom to elude by flight is a 
glorious triumph." The expression /offer* et effugere may be compared 
with the Greek idiom \a$4rra< f*vyu+, of which it is probably an muta- 
tion.— 53. Qua crenialoforUsj &c. " Which bravely bore from Ilium re- 
duced to ashes."— 57. Tonsa. u Shorn of its branches." — 58. Xigr* 
feracifroruHs, &c "On Algidus abounding with thick foliage." Consult 
note on Ode 1. 21. 6. — 62. Vinci dolenienu "Apprehensive of being over- 
come." — 63. Colchu Alluding to the dragon thatguarded the golden 
fleece."— 64. Eckwnune TKebtz. tt Or Echionian Thebes." Echionwas 
one of the number of those that sprung from the teeth of the dragon 
when sown by Cadmus, and one of the five that survived the conflict 
Having aided Cadmus in building Thebes, he received from that prince 
his daughter Agaue. 

65. — 74. 65. Pulekrior evenU. "It comes forth more glorious than 
before."— 66. Integrum. M Hitherto firm in strength."— 63. Conjupkut 
loauenda. " To be made a theme of lamentation to widowed wires. 
Literally "to be talked of by wives." Some prefer conjugibvs as a 
dative. ^ The meaning will then be, " to be related by the victors to their 
wives," i. e. after they have returned from the war. — 70. Occia% occidiL, 
etc " Fallen, fallen is all our hope." — 73. ATI Claudia* non perfiHad 
manus. " There is nothing now which the prowess of the Claudian line 
will not effect." i. e. Rome may now hope for every thing from the 
prowess of the Claudii. We cannot bnt admire the singular felicity 
that marks the concluding stanza of this beautiful ode. The future glo- 
ries of the Claudian house are predicted by the bitterest enemy of Rome, 
and our attention is thus recalled to the young Nero*, and the martial 
exploits which had already distinguished their career. — 74. Quae et bemg- 
nonumtne, Jcc. " Since Jove defends them by his benign protection, and 
sagacity and prudence conduct them safely through the dangers of war." 

Ode 5. Addressed to Augustus, long absent from his capital, and 
invoking his return. 

1 — 24. 1. Dwis orU bonis. " Sprung from propitious deities." Al- 
luding to the divine origin of the Julian line. — 2. Jibes jam nimimmaW 
" Already too long art thou absent from us." Augustus remained ab- 
sent from his capital for the space of nearly three years, being occupied 
with settling the affairs of Gaul, (from A. U. C. 738 to 741.)— 5. In- 
fest redde ruo3, &c. " Auspicious prince, restore the light of thy pre- 
sence to thy country." — 8. Et soles melius nitent. " And the beams of 
the sun shine forth with purer splendour." — 10. CarpathH maris* Con- 
sult note on Ode 1. 35. 8. — 11. Cunctantem spatio, &c. M Delaying 
longer than the annual period of his stay."— 12. Foea*. " Invokes the 
wturn of."— 15. DesiderUs iUa fideWms. "Pierced with faithful re- 



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KXFLAMATORT XOTBS.— BOOK IT. ODB V. 197 

weta."— 17. £tamn. Equivalent to sal r*P- "And no wonder she 
foes so, for," &c. — Tula. The common text has rura. The blessings 
of peace, here described, are ail the fruits of the rale of Augustus ; and 
sence, in translating, we may insert after etenvax the words " by thy 
guardian care." — 18. Mmaqve FaustUas. " And the benign favour of 
heaven," i. e. benignant prosperity. — 19. Volitant. "Pass swiftly," 
L e. are impeded in their progress by no fear cf an enemy.— 80. Ct*t- 
ssri metuil fides. " Good faith shrinks from the imputation of blame." 
-21. JVUft* paUuitur, &o. Alluding to the Lex Julia " de AdxdUrio" 
passed by Augustus, and his other regulations against the immorality 
and licentiousness which had been the order of the day*— -88. Mo$ et lex 
Mseabnist, &c. " Purer morals and the penalties ot the law hare 
brought foul guilt to subjection." Augustus was invested by the se- 
nate repeatedly for five years with the office and title of Magister mo- 
raw.— 81 8umU prole. "For an offspring like the father."— 84. Cul- 
asm Poena premU comes. " Punishment presses upon guilt as its con 
■tint companion." 

85-48. 85. Q,vd$Partkmnpaveat,kc T be idea intended to be con- 
rejed is this : The valour and power of Augustus have triumphed over 
the Parthians, the Scythians, the Germans, and the Cantabri ; what have 
we, therefore, now to dread? As regards the Parthians, consult notes 
on Ode 1. 88. 3. and 3. 6. 3.— Gdidum 8cythen. " The Scythian, the 
tenant of the North.' 1 By the Scythians are here meant the barbarous 
tribes in the vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Geloni. 
Their inroads had been checked by Lentulus, the lieutenant of Augus- 
tus.— 26. guts, Germama mot hcrrlda, &c " Who, the broods that hor 
rid Germany brings forth." The epithet harrida has reference, in fact, 
Jo the wild and savage appearance, and the great stature, of the ancient 
Germans. It contains an allusion also to the wild nature of the coun- 
ty) and the severity of the climate. — 89. Condit auisaue diem, &c 
"Each one doses the day on his own hills." Under the auspicious 
reign of Augustus, all is peace ; no war calls off the vine-dresser from 
his vineyard, or the husbandman from his fields. — 30. Vidua* ad arbores. 
u To the widowed trees." A beautiful allusion to the cheek given to 
agriculture by the civil wars. — 31. Et alteris U mentis, &c " And at 
the second table invokes thee as a god." The coena of the Romans 
nsoally consisted of two parts, the mensa prima, or first course, com- 
posed of different kinds of meat, and the mensa seeunda or altera, second 
course, consisting of fruits ana sweetmeats. The wine was set down 
on the table with the dessert, and, before they began drinking, libations 
were poured out to the gods. This, by a decree of the senate, was 
done also in honour of Augustus, after the battle of Actium. — 33. Pro. 
sesmfur. "He worships."— 34. Et Laribus rmim, &c. "And blends 
thy protecting divinity with that of the Lares, as grateful Greece does 
those of Castor and the mighty Hercules." The Lares here alluded to 
ire the Lares PuNici, or DU PatrU, supposed by some to be identical 
with the Penates. — 37. Lengas 6 tdinam, &c. " Auspicious prince, 
mayest thou afford long festal days to Italy," i. e. long mayest thou rule 
orer us.— 38. Dicimus integro, &c. " For this we pray, in sober mood, 
it early dawn, while the day is still entire ; for this we pray, moistened 
with the juice of the grape, when the sun is sunk beneath the ocean." 
Integer dies is a day ofwhich no part has as yet been used. 
36 



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988 UrLAVATORT WOT**.— SCO* If. ODK n. 

Odc 6. The poet, befog ordered by Augustas to prepare a hymn lot 
the approaching Secular celebration, composes the present ode as a sort 
of prelude, and entreats Apollo that his powers may prove adequate to 
the task enjoined upon him. 

1—43. 1. Magna tindicem Ungw*. "The avenger of an arrogant 
tongue." Alluding to the boastful pretensions of JNiobe, in relation to 
her offspring.— 2. iWafiu raptor. Compare Ode 2. 14. a— 3. SetuiL 
• Felt to be." Supply ewe. — Trojm prop* victor site. Alluding to hw 
having slain Hector, the main support of Troy.— 4. Pktkius JickOUs. 
The son of Tbeus. according to Homer (iZ. 22. 358.) was to fell by the 
hands of Paris and Pbmbus. Virgil, however, makes him to have been 
slain by Paris.— 5. CoXtru major, tibi miles tmpsr. " A warrior superior 
to the rest of the Greeks, but an unequal match for thee."— 7. Mordad 
ferro. "By the biting steel," i. e. the sharp-cutting axe.— 10, ImpuU*. 
" Overthrown."— 11. Potuttmu. "And rechned."— 13. /Ueiu^mdtmu, 
&c The poet means that, if Achilles had lived, the Greeks would not 
have been reduced to the dishonourable necessity of employing the stra- 
tagem of the wooden horse, but would have taken the city m open fight. 
— EquoJ&kwrtxtiacromenHlo. " In the horse that belied the worship of 
Minerva." L e. which was falsely pretended to have been an offering to 
the goddess.— 14. Mate feriatos. "Giving loose to festivity in an evil 
hour.' 1 — 16. FalUret. For fefetiuset. So, in the 18th verse, urtret for 
ussiifet— 17. Potent mob. "Openly terrible.*'— IS. Jftscio* fan m/en- 
Jet. An imitation of the Greek form, *r*ta rfara. — 31. Flexus. "Swayed.** 
Bent from his purpose.— 23. Vodbus. " Entreaties.**— Jtanuisoct." Grant- 
ed." — 33. Potiore ducto* stile, "Reared under more favourable aus 



25—39. 25. Doctor Jhrgtoe, &c " God of the lyre, instructor of the 
Grecian muse." Thalia is here equivalent to Musct lfric* y and Apollo ia 
invoked as the deity who taught the Greeks to excel in lyric numbers. — 
26. Xantho. Alluding to the Lycian, not the Trojan, Xanthus. This 
stream, though the largest in Lyoia, was yet of inconsiderable size. Ota 
its banks stood a city of the same name, the greatest in the whole coun- 
try. About 60 stadia eastward from the mouth of the Xanthus, waa the 
city of Patara, famed for its oracle of Apollo. — 37. Detinue defend* decuo 
Camomou " Defend the honour of the Roman muse," i. e. grant that in 
the Secular hymn, which Augustus bids me compose, I may support the 
honour of the Roman lyre. As regards Dounue, put here for /late, L e, 
Romano, consult the notes on Ode 3. 1. 34, and 1.83. 13. — 28. Levis Agyim* 
" O youthful Apollo." The appellation AgyUue is of Greek origin ( '▲>*««*£), 
and, if the common derivation be correct (from iywi, " a street,") denotes 
"the guardian deity of streets." It was the custom at Athens to erect 
small conical ctppi, in honour of Apollo, in the vestibules and before the 
doors of their houses. Here be was invoked as the averter of evil, and 
was worshipped with perfumes, garlands and fillets.— 29. Sjnritvm Pha- 
bu$ rnUd, &c. The bard, fancying that his supplication has been beard, 
now addresses himself to the chorus of maidens and youths whom ho 
supposes to be standing around and awaiting his instructions. My prayer 
is granted, " Phoebus has given me poetic inspiration, Phoebus has given 
me the art of song, and the name of a poet," — Virginum srtnue, &c 
"Ye noblest of the virgins, and ye boys sprung from illustrious aires. n 
The maidens and youths who composed the chorus at the Saccular cele- 
bration, and whom the poet here imagines that he has before him, were 
chosen from the first families.-- 33. Delia tutela dca. " Ye that are pro- 

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EXFLAKATOmT XOTKS. — BOOK IT. ODB TO. 980 

tocted by the Dehan Diana." Diana was the patroness of moral parity. 
—35. Labium senate pedem, &c " Observe the Lesbian measure and 
the striking of my thumb." The expression polHcis ictum refers to the 
mode of marking' the termination of cadences and measures, by the ap- 
plication of the thumb to the strings of the lyre. — 38. Creseentem face 
Jfoetilucam. " The goddess that illumines the night, increasing in the 
splendour of her beams." — 39. Prosperam frugum. " Propitious to the 
productions of the earth." A Grectsm forfrugtbus.. — Cderemque pmnos, 
&c " And swift in rolling onward the rapid months." A Gnecism for 
eeltrem in volvendis pronis mensibus. 

41 — 43. 41. Nupta jam dices. "United at length in the bands of 
wedlock, thou shalt say." Jam is here used for tandem. The poet, in 
the beginning of this stanza, turns to the maidens, and addresses him- 
self to the leader of the chorus as the representative of the whole body 
The inducement which he holds out to them for the proper performance 
of their part in the celebration, is extremely pleasing ; the prospect, 
namely, of a happy marriage ; for the ancients believed, that the virgins 
composing the chorus at the Secular, and other solemnities, were al- 
ways recompensed with a happy union. — 42. Sactdo festas referents 
hues. " When the Secular period brought back the festal days." The 
Secular games were celebrated once every 1 10 years. Before the Ju- 
lian reformation of the calendar, the Roman was a lunar year, which 
was brought, or was meant to be brought, into harmony with the solar 
year by the insertion of an intercalary month. Joseph Scaliger has 
shown that the principle was to intercalate a month, alternately of S3 
and 23 days ; every other year during periods of twenty-two years, in 
each of which periods such an intercalary month was inserted ten 
times, the last biennhm being passed over. As five years made a hu- 
Irma, so five of these periods made a saculum of 110 years. (Scaliger, 
it emendat. temp. p. 80. seqq. — Nlchbukr'a Roman History, vol. I. p. 334. 
Hare and ThxrlwaWs tomai. )-*-43. ReddiM carmen. " Recited a hymn." 
Docilis modcrum, &c. " After having learnt, with a docile mind, the 
measures of the poet Horace." Modorum refers here as well to tho 
movements as to the singing of the chorus. 



Ode 7. This piece is similar, in its complexion, to the fourth ode of 
the first book. In both these productions the same topic is enforced, 
the brevity of life and the wisdom of present enjoyment The indivi- 
dual to whom the ode is* addressed, is the same with tho Torquatus, to 
whom the fifth epistle of the first book is inscribed. He was grandson 
of L. Manlius Torquatus, who held the consulship in the year that Ho- 
race was bom. (Ode 3. 21. 1.) Vanderbourg remarks of him as fol- 
lows : u On ne connatt ce Torquatus que par l'ode qui nous occupe, et 
Pepttre 5 du livre 1, qn' Horace lui adresse pareillement II enresutte 
que cet ami de notre poete etait un homme eloquent ct fort estimable, 
mats un peu attaque" de la manie de thlsauriser, manie d'autant plus 
bizarre chez lui, qu'il etait, dit-on, celibataire, et n'entassait que pour 
des collatlraux." 

1 — 26. 1. Diffugere nives, &c " The snows are fled : their verdure 
■ now returning to the fields, and their foliage to the trees." The stu- 
dent must note the beauty and spirit of the tense diffugere. — 3. Mutat 
terra vices, " The earth changes its appearance." Compare the expla- 



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890 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK IT. ODE Till. 

nation of Mitechertich, " Vices terra de colore ejus, per annuls tict*t m 
rente, ac pro diverse anni tempetUUe xxnrianU, dtete." — Et decreseemliari- 
pas, &c Marking the cessation of the season of inundations in earl/ 
spring, and the approach of summer. — 5. Jhtdet ducere cAorot. " Ven- 
tures to lead up tne dances." — 7. Immortaha. " For an immortal exist- 
ence." — 9. Monet annus. "Of this the year warns thee." The vicissi- 
tudes of the seasons remind us, according to the poet, of the brief na- 
ture of our own existence. — 9. Frigora mUescunt Zephyris. " The win* 
ter colds are beginning to moderate under the influence of the western 
winds." Zepkuri mark the vernal breezes. — ProterU. " Tramples up- 
on." Beautifully descriptive of the hot and ardent progress of tne sum- 
mer season. — 10. JnterUura, simul, &c. " Destined in its turn to perish, 
as soon as fruitful autumn shall have poured forth its stores." — Simul is 
for simul ac. — 12. Brumainers, " Sluggish winter." Alluding to winter 
as, comparatively speaking, the season of inaction. Compare the lan- 
guage of Bion (6. 5.) x*%a dvatmyw. — 13. Damn* tamtn celeres, &c 
"The rapid months, however, repair the losses occasioned by the 
changing seasons." Before the Julian reformation of the calendar, the 
Roman months were lunar ones. Hence timet was frequently used in 
the language of poetry, even after the change had taken place, as equi- 
valent to menses. — 15. Quo. " To the place whither." Understand eo 
before quo, and at the end of the clause the verb deciderunt. — Dives Tul- 
hts et Ancus. The epithet dints alludes merely to the wealth and power 
of Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Martius as monarchs : with a reference, 
at the same time, however, to primitive days, since Claudian, (15. 109.) 
when comparing Rome under Ancus with the same city under the em- 
peror, speaks of the " mania pauperis AncL"~- 16. Sumtts* " There we 
remain." Equivalent to manemus. — 17. AdjicianL "Intend to add." 
— Crastina tempera, "To-morrow's hours." — 19. Amico qua dederis 
ammo. " Which thou shalt have bestowed on thyself" Amice is here 
equivalent to (no, in imitation of the Greek idiom, by which +Q*s is put 
for imet, ofc, Ik. — 21. Splmdida arbUria. "His impartial sentence." 
The allusion is to a clear impartial decision, the justice of which is in- 
stantly apparent to all. So, the Bandnsian fount is called (Ode 3. 13. 1 .) 
"splenaukor vitro. " Clearer than glass."— 24. RestitueL "Will restore 
to the light of day."— 26. Infernis tenebris. " From the darkness of the 
lower world." 



Ooa 8. Supposed to have been written at the time of the Saturnalia, 
at which period of the year, as well as on other stated festivals, it was 
customary among the Romans for friends to send presents to one another. 
The ode before us constitutes the poet's gift to Censorinus, and, in order 
to enhance its value, he descants on the praises of his favourite art. — 
There were two distinguished individuals at Rome of the name of Censo- 
rinus, the father and son. The latter, C. Marcius Censorinus, is most 
probably the one who is here addressed, as in point of years he was the 
more fit of the two to be the companion of Horace, and as Velleius Pa- 
terculus (2. 102.) styles him, virum demerendis hominibus genitum. He 
was consul along with C. Asinius Gallus, A. U. C. 746. 

1 — 1 1. 1. Donor em patera*, &c. " Liberal to my friends, Censorinus, 
I would bestow upon them cups and pleasing vessels of bronze," i. e. I 
would liberally bestow on my friends cups and vessels of beauteous 
bronze. The poet alludes to the taste fox collecting antiques, which then 



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prevailed among Us countrymen. — 3. Tripnim. The 

Tery frequent use of the tripod for domestic purposes, to set their tamps 
upon, and also in religious ceremonies. Perhaps the most frequent appli- 
es tion of all others was to serve water out in their common habitations. 
In these instances, the upper part was so disposed as to receive a vase. — 
4. Jfcque hi pessima tnusurumfcrrcs. u Nor shouldst thou bear away as 
thine own the meanest of gifts.** A litotes, for rv satiat* et rarissima 
munera ferrts. — 5. Dhrite me scilicet artiwst, &c u Were I rich in the 
works of art, which either a Parrhasius or a Scopes produced ; the latter 
in marble, the former by the aid of liquid colours, skilful in representing 
at one time a human being, at another a god." Sutlers ponere. A Gne- 
ctsm for tollers in ponendo, or toilers pmaidL The artists here mentioned 
are taken by the poet as the respective representatives of painting and 
statuary. — 9. Sed nan lute mitt vis, &c " But I possess no store of these 
things, nor hast thou a fortune or inclination that needs such curiosities." 
In other words : I am too poor to own such valuables, while thou art too 
rich and hast too many of them to need or desire any more. — 1 1. Gaudes 
evminibus, &c. " Thy delight is in verses : verses we can bestow, and 
can fix a value on the gift." The train of ideas is as follows : Thou 
earest far leee for the things that have just been mentioned, than for the 
productions of the Muse. Here we can, bestow a present, and can ex- 
plain, moreover, the true value of the gift Cups, and vases, and tripods, 
are estimated in accordance with the caprice and luxury of the age, but 
the fame of verse is immortal. The bard then proceeds to exemplify 
the never-dying honours which his art can bestow. 

13—33. 13. .Yon incisa nofis, Sic. " Not marbles marked with public 
inscriptions, by which the breathing of life returns to illustrious leaders 
after death." Incisa is literally " cut in, M or " engraved." — 15. Jfon c«- 
leres Juga, &c " Not the rapid flight of Hannibal, nor his threats hurled 
back upon him." The expression cdetts fuga refers to the sudden de- 
parture of Hannibal from Italy, when recalled by the Carthaginians to 
make head against Scipio. BLe had threatened that he would overthrow 
the power of Rome ; tnese threats Scipio hurled back upon him, and 
humbled the pride of Carthage in the field of Zama. — 17. JVbn sHpendia 
Carthagims impia. " Not the tribute imposed upon perfidious Carthage." 
The common reading is .Yon incendia Carthagmis tmpia, which involves 
an historical error, in ascribing the overthrow of Hannibal and the de- 
struction of Carthage to one and the same Scipio. The elder Scipio 
imposed a tribute on Carthage after the battle of Zama, the younger 
destroyed the city. — 18. Ejus qui domita, &c. The order of construction 
ia as follows : Clarius indicant laudes ejus, qui rediit lucratus nomen s6 
Africa domita, quam, &c. Scipio obtained the agnomen of " wS/ricontu" 
from his conquests in Africa, a title subsequently bestowed on the 

Jounger Scipio, the destroyer of Carthage.— 20. Calabnz Pierides, "The 
fuses of Calabria." The allusion is to the poet Ennius, who was born 
at Rudiae in Calabria, and who celebrated the exploits of his friend and 
patron, the elder Scipio, in his Annals or metrical chronicles, and also 
in a poem connected with these Annals, and devoted to the praise of 
the Roman commander. — Jfeque si chariot sileant 9 &c. " Nor, if writ- 
ings be silent, shalt thou reap any reward for what thou mayest have 
(audibly accomplished." The construction in the text is mercedem (illius) 

?uod bens feceris.— 22. Qui/ foret Iliae, &c. " What would the son of 
lia and of Mars be now, if invidious silence had stifled the merits of 
Romulus 7" In other words ; Where would be the fame and the glory 
of Romulus, if Ennius had been silent in his praise. Horace alludes to 

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SOt EXPLANATORY NOTBS. — BOOK IT. ODE IX. 

the mention made by Ennius, in his Annals, of the fabled birth of Ro> 
mulus and Remus. — As regards Ilia, compare Note, Ode 3. 9. & — 24. 
ObstnreU Put for obstitisset. — 25. Ereptum Stygiis JluctibusAcacum, &c 
" The power, and the favour, and the lays of eminent poets, consecrate 
to immortality, and place in the islands of the blessed, Aeacns rescued 
from the dominion of the grave." Stygiis JlucHbus is here equivalent to 
marie. — 27. Diwitibus consecrtA insuUs. Alluding to the earlier mythology, 
by which Elysium was placed in one or more of the isles of the western 
ocean. — 29. Sic Jovis interest, &c. " By this means the unwearied Her- 
cules participates in the long-wished-for banquet of Jove." Sic is here 
equivalent to carminibxis poilarvm, — 31. Clarion Ttpidarida sidus. "By 
this means the Tyndaridss, that bright constellation." Understand sic 
at the beginning of this clause. The allusion is to Castor and Pollux. 
Consult note on Ode 1. 3. 2. — 33. Ornatus vtridi tempora pampino. We 
must again understand sic. "By this means Bacchus, having his tem- 
ples adorned with the verdant vine-leaf, leads to a successful issue the 
prayers of the husbandmen." In other words : by the songs of the 
bards Bacchus is sifted with the privileges and attributes ot divinity. 
Consult note on Ode 3. 8. 7. 



Ode 9. In the preceding ode the poet asserts, that the only path to 
immortality is through the verses of the bard. The same idea again 
meets us in the present piece, and Horace promises, through the me- 
dium of his numbers, an eternity of fame to Lollius. My lyric poems 
are not destined to perish, he exclaims ; for, even though Homer enjoys 
the first rank among the votaries of the Muse, still the strains of Jrin- 
dar, Simortides, Stesichorus, Anacreon and Sappho, live in the remem- 
brance of men ; and my own productions, therefore, in which I have 
followed the footsteps of these illustrious children of song, will, I know 
be rescued from the night of oblivion. . The memory of those whom 
they celebrate descends to after ages with the numbers of the bard, 
while, if a poet be wanting, the bravest of heroes sleeps forgotten in the 
tomb. Thy praises then, Lollius, shall be my theme, and thy nu- 
merous virtues shall live in the immortality of verse. 

M. Lollius Palicanus, to whom this ode is addressed, enjoyed, for a 
long time, a very high reputation. Augustus gave him, A. u. C. 728, 
the government of Galatia, with the title of propraetor. He acquitted 
himself so well in this office, that the emperor, in order to recompense 
his services, named him consul, in 733, with L. uEmilius Lepidus. In 
this year the present ode was written, and thus far nothing had occurred 
to tarnish his fame. Being sent, in 737, to engage the Germans, who 
had made an irruption into Gaul, he had the misfortune, after some 
successes, to experience a defeat, known in history by the name of XoJ- 
Uana Clades, and in which he lost the eagle of the fifth legion. It ap- 
pears, however, that he was able to repair this disaster and regain the 
confidence of Augustus ; for this monarch chose him, about the year 
751. to accompany his grandson Caius Cssar, into the East, as a kind 
of director of his youth, (" vduti moderator juvenUt." Veil. PaL 2. 102.) 
It was in this mission to the East, seven or eight years after the death ot 
our poet, that he became guilty of the greatest depredations, and 
formed secret plots, which were disclosed to Caius Caesar by the king oft 
the Parthians. Lollius died suddenly a few days after this, leaving be- 
hind him an odious memory. Whether his end was voluntary or other- 
~^ l Velleius Paterculus declares himself unable to decide.— We must 

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KEVLAffArORT KOTBS.— BOOK IT. OD* » Jt» 

tot confound this individual with the Loltius to whom the second and 
eighteenth epistles of the first book are inscribed, a mistake into which 
Dacier has fallen, and which he endeavours to support by very feeble 
arguments. Sanadon has clearly shown that these two epistles are 
evidently addressed to a very young man, the father, probably, of Lollia 
Paulina, whom Caligula took away from C. Memmius, in order to es- 
pouse her himself, and whom he repudiated soon after. We have in 
Pliny {Jf. H. 9. 35.) a curious passage respecting the enormous riches 
which this Lollia had inherited from her grandfather. 

1 — 9. 1 . AV forte credos, &c u Do not for a moment believe that 
those words are destined to perish, which I, born near the banks of the 
far-resounding A u fid us, am wont to utter, to be accompanied by the 
strings of the lyre through an art before unknown." Horace alludes 
to himself as the first tnat introduced into the Latin tongue the lyric 
measures of Greece. — 2. Lcnge sorumtem natue, &c Alluding to his 
having been born in Apulia. Consult Ode 3. 30. 10. — 5. Won si prio- 
ns, &c. M Although the Maeonian Homer holds the first rank among 
poets, still the strains of Pindar and the Caean Simonides, and the threat- 
ening lines of Alcasus, and the dignified effusions of Stesichorus, are not 
hid (rom the knowledge of posterity.** More literally : " The Pindaric 
and Caean Muses, and the threatening ones of Alcscua, and the dig- 
nified ones of Stesichorus." As regards the epithet Jttctonius, applied 
to Homer, consult note on Ode, 1. 6. 2. — 7. Cfae. Consult note on 
Ode, 8. 1. 37. — Jilcaei mtfiscat. _ Alluding to the effusions of Alcaeus 
against the tyrants of his native island. Consult note on Ode 2. 1 3. 26. 
-—8. Stesichorique graves Camoerut : Stesichorus was a native of Himera, 
in Sicily, and born about 632. B. C. He was contemporary with Sap- 
pho, AIcsbus, and Pittacus. He used the Doric dialect, and besides 
hymns in honour of the gods, and odes in praise of heroes, composed 
what may be called lyro-epic poems, such as one entitled " the Destruc- 
tion of Troy," and another called "the Orestiad." — 9. Wee, si quid 
oltnt, &c. "Nor, if Anacreon, in former days, produced any sportive 
effusion, has time destroyed this." Time, howover, has made fearful 
ravages, for us, in the productions of this bard. At the present day, we 
can attribute to Anacreon only the fragments that were collected by 
Unsinus, and a few additional ones ; ana not those poems which com 
monly go under his name, a few only excepted. 

1 1 — 49. 1 1. Calores Aeclfa piieUau " The impassioned feelings of the 
Aeolian maid." The allusion is to Sappho. Consult note on Ode, 2. 13. 
24. — 13. Won sola cotnlos, he The order of construction is as follows : 
Laeasna Helene non sola arsit comtos critics aduUeri, et mirata (est) aurum* 
—14. JhtrumvcstibiuUliium. "The gold spread profusely over his gar* 
ments," i. e. his garments richly embroidered with gold. 15. Regalesqut 
ctdtus et comites. " And his regal splendour and retinue." Cultus here 
refers to the individual's manner of life, and the extent of bis resources. — 
17. Cydonio arcu. Cydon was one of the most ancient and important 
cities of Crete, and the Cydonians were esteemed the best among the 
Cretan archers. — 18. Won tsmel Ilios vexata. Troy, previous to its final 
overthrow, had been twice taken, once by Hercules, and again by the 
Amazons. — 19. Ingens. " Mighty in arms." — 22. Acer Ddphobus. Dei- 
phobus was regarded as the bravest of the Trojans after Hector.— 29. 
Inertia. The dative for ah inertia, by a Gnecism. — 30. Cetaia virtus* 
" Merit, when uncelebrated," L e. when concealed from the knowledge of 
posterity, for want of a bard or historian to celebrate its praises.— WVen 

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3M MM.AW ATO&T NOTES.— BOOK IT. 091 X. XI. 

ero tt mris, fcc. " I will not pass thee over in silence, unhonoured In mjr 
strains."— 33. Lwidas. " Envious."— 35. AeromoiM srtufen*, &c. "Beth 



skilled in the management of affairs, and alike unshaken in prosperity and 
misfortune." The poet here begins to enumerate some of the claims of 
Lollius to an immortality of fame. Hence the connection in the train of 
ideas is as follows : And worthy art thou, O Lollius, of being remembered 
by after ages, for "thou hast a mind," &c — 37. Vindtx. Fat in apposi- 
tion with animus. — 38. Dveentis ad se cuncta. " Drawing all things within 
the sphere of its influence." — 39. Constdque non vnius annL " And not 
merely the consul of a single year." A bold and beautiful personification, 
by which the term consul is applied to the mind of Lollius. Ever actuated 
by the purest principles, and ever preferring honour to views of mere pri- 
vate interest, the mind of Lollius enjoys a perpetual consulship. — 42. 
Rejecit alto dona nocentium, &c. " Rejects with disdainful brow the bribes 
of the guilty ; victorious, makes for himself a way, by his own arms, amid 
opposing crowds." ExpUctdt sua artna may be rendered more literally, 
though less intelligibly, "displays his arms." The " opposing crowds" 
are the difficulties that beset the path of the upright man, as well from the 
inherent weakness of his own nature, as from the arts of the flatterer, and 
the machinations of secret foes. Calling, however, virtue and firmness to 
his aid, he employs these arms of purest temper against the host that sur- 
rounds him, and comes off victorious from the conflict. — 46. Recte. " Con- 
sistently with true wisdom." — Rectius oecupat nonunbtatu "With far 
more propriety does that man lay claim to the title of happy."— 49. CallcL 
"Well knows." 



Ode 10. Addressed to Ligurinus. 

1 — 7. 1. Insperala icue, &c. " When the down shall come unexpected 
on thy pride." i. e. When the down of advancing years shall cover 
the smooth cheeks of which thou art now so vain, and shall cause thy 
beauty to disappear. Plxatxa is here used in the sense of lanugo. — 3. 
Qua nunc humeris involilanL "That now float upon thy shoulders." — 
4. Est punicea flare prior rosa. "Surpasses the flower of the blushing 
rose," i. e. the blushing hue of the rose. — 5. Hispidam. " Rough with 
the covering of manhood." The term applies to the beard, the growth 
of manhood, and not, as some suppose, to the wrinkles of age. — 6. Quo* 
ties te in upeculo videris alterum. " As often as thou shalt see thyself quite 
another person in the mirror," L e. completely changed from what thou 
now art— 7. Qw« mens est hodie, &c. "Why had I not, when a boy, the 
same sentiments that 1 have now, or why, in the present state of my feel- 
ings, do not my beardless cheeks return ?" 



Ode 11. The poet invites Phyllis to his abode, for the purpose of 
celebrating with him the natal day of Maecenas, and endeavours, by 
various arguments, to induce her to come. 

1—35. 1. Est mihi nonum, &c. " I have a cask full of Alban wine, 
more than nine years old." The Alban wine is ranked by Pliny only as 
third-rate ; but from the frequent commendation of it By Horace and 
Juvenal, we must suppose it to have been in considerable repute, espe- 
cially when matured by long keeping. It was sweet and thick when new, 
but became dry when old, seldom ripening properly before the fifteenth 

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wcnjLit atokj notes.— book it obi xn. J9f 

year. — & Jfeetendis opium cormis. u Parsley, for weaving chapleta." .too 
ttndis coronis is for ad nectendas coronas.- 4. £J#J edera « j mutto, " Them 
is abundance of ivy." — 5. Fulges. " Thou wilt appear more beauteous.* 
The future, from the old verb/u/g-o, of the third conjugation,which frequently 
occurs in Lucretius. — 6. Ridet argenlo damns. " The house smiles wits 
flittering silver." Alluding to the silver vessels cleansed and made ready 
for the occasion, and more particularly for the sacrifice that was to take 
place. — Jtra castis vinela verbenis. The allusion is to an am cespilitia. 
Consult notes on Ode 1. 19. 13 and 14. — 8. Spargier. An archaism for 
fparp* In the old language the syllable er was appended to all passive 
infinitives.— -11. Sordidumflamnuz trepidant. &c. " The flames quiver as 
they roll the sullying smoke through the house-top," i. e. the quivering 
flames roll, &c The Greeks and Romans appear to have been unac- 
quainted with the use of chimnies. The more common dwellings had 
merely an opening in the roof, which allowed the smoke to escape j the 
better class of edifices were warmed by means of pipes enclosed in the 
walla, and which communicated with a large stove, or several smaller 
ones, constructed in the earth under the building. — 14. Idus tibi sunt 
agenda, &c " The ides are to be celebrated by thee, a day that cleaves 
April, the month of sea-born Venus," L e. thou art to celebrate along 
with me the ides of April, a month sacred to Venus, who rose from the 
waves. The ides fell on the 15th of March, May, July, and October, 
and on the 13th of the other months. They received their name from 
the old verb iduare, " to divide," (a word of Etrurian origin, according to 
MacroMus, SaL 1. 15.) because in some cases they actually, and in others 
nearly, divided the month. — 15. Mensem Veneris. April was sacred to 
Venus. — 17. Jure solennis mini, &c. "A day deservedly solemnised by 
me, and almost held more sacred than that of my own nativity." — 19. A}- 
Kxuntts ordinal annos, " Counts the successive number of his years."— 
22. Abn turn sortis. " Above thy rank."— 25. Tenet ambustus Phaelhon, 
fcc. " Phaethon, blasted by the thunders of Jove, strikes terror into 
ambitious hopes," L e. let the fate of Phaethon be a warning to all those 
who seek to rise above their sphere. — 2S. Exemplum grace preebet. "Fur- 
nishes a strong admonition." — 27. Terrenum equitem graoatus, &c 
" Who disdained Bellerophon as a rider, because he was of mortal birth." 
—2d. Tedigna. " Things suited to thy condition."— Et tittro quam licet, 
&c The construction is, et, (ut) vites disparem, putando nefas sperare 
ultra quam licet. — 31. Disparem. " An unequal alliance." More lite- 
rally: "One, not thy equal," i. e. whose rank in life is superior to thine.— 
31. Meorum finis amarum. — " Last of my loves." — 35. Quot reddas. 
""Winch thou may est recite." The poet invites her to come to him, 
and learn these measures from his instructions. When she has learnt 
them, they are to form part of the intended celebration. 



Obk 19. It has never been satisfactorily determined, whether the 
present ode was addressed to the poet Virgil, or to some other individual 
of the same name. The individual here designated by the appellation 
of Virgil (be he who he may) is invited by Horace to an entertainment 
where each guest is to contribute his quota. The poet agrees to supply 
the wine, if Virgil will bring with him, as his share, a box of perfumes. 
tie uegs iiim to lay aside for a momont his eager pursuit of gain, and 
is* schemes of self-interest, and to indulge in the pleasures of festivity. 



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Mt BXPLAlf ATOBT KOT«f.— BOOK IT. ODB JUL 

1—27. 1. Jam eerit eomttes, &c " Now, the Tbracian winds, the 
companions of Spring, which calm the sea, boffin to swell the sails.** 
The allusion is to the northern winds, whose home, according to the 
poets, was the land of Thrace. These winds began to blow in the com- 
mencement of Spring. The western breezes are more commonly men 
tioned in descriptions of spring, bat, as these are changeable and incon 
stent, the poet prefers, on this occasion, to designate the winds which 
blow more steadily at this season of the year.— 4. Hiberna nice. — " By 
tho melting of the winter snow." — 6. Infdixmvis. The reference is here 
to the nightingale, and not to the swallow. Horace evidently alludes 
to mat version of the story which makes Progne to have been changed 
into a nightingale and Philomela into a swallow.— El Ceeropiae shewn, 
&c. " And the eternal reproach of the Attic line, for having too cruelly 
revenged the brutal lusts of kings/' Cecropuu is here equivalent simply 
to Mticae, as Pandion, the father of Progne, though king of Athens, was 
not a descendant of Cecrops. — 11. Deum. Alluding to Pan. — Jfigri 
edits. "The dark hills," i. e. gloomy with forests. Among the hills, or, 
more properly speaking, mountains of Arcadia, the poets assigned Ly- 
caeus ana Maenalus to Pan as his favorite retreats. — 1 3. Adduxtrt siHm 
tempera. "The season of the year brings along with it thirst," i. e. the 
heats of spring, and the thirst produced by them, impel us to the wine- 
cup. — 14. Pressum Calibus Liberwn. « The wine pressed at Cales." 
Consult note on Ode 1. 20. 9. — 15. Juvemm noWtum cliens. Who the 
"juvenes nobiles" were, to whom the poet here alludes, it is impossible to 
say: neither is it a matter of the least importance. Those commenta- 
tors who maintain that the ode is addressed to the bard of Mantua, make 
them to be the young Neros, Drusus and Tiberius, and Dftring, who is one 
of the number that advocate this opinion relative to Virgil, regards eU- 
eiuas equivalent to the German Gunstling, "favourite." — 16. Jfardo 
vina mereoeris. " Thou shalt earn thy wine with spikenard." Horace, 
as we have already stated in the introductory remarks, invites the indi- 
vidual, whom he here addresses, to an entertainment, where each irnest 
is to contribute his quota. Our poet agrees to furnish the wine, if Virgil 
will supply perfumes, and hence tells him he shall have wine for his 
spikenard.— 17. Parvus onyx. "A small alabaster box."— ElieUl codum. 
" Will draw forth a cask," i. e. will cause me to furnish a cask of wine 
for the entertainment. The opposition between partus onyx and cadus 
is worthy of notice.— 18. Qui nunc Sulpicus, &c " Which now lies 
stored away in the Sulpician repositories." Consult note on Ode 3. 
SO. 7. According to Porphyrion in his scholia on this passage, the poet 
alludes to a certain Sulpicius Galba, a well known merchant of the day. 
—19. Donare largvu. A G racism for largus donandi, or ad donandum. 
— Jkmara eurarum. " Bitter cares." An imitation of the Greek idiom, 
(r* riKfd r&v ptptpvOp), in place of the common Latin form amaras curat, 
— 81 . Cum tua merce. " With thy club," i. e. with thy share towards the 
entertainment ; or, in other words, with the perfumes. The part fur- 
nished by each guest toward a feast, is here regarded as a kind of mer- 
chandise, which partners in trade throw into a common stock that they 
may divide the profits. — 22. Jfon ego te meit immunem, &c. " I do not 
intend to moisten thee, at free cost, with the contents of my cups, as the 
rich man docs in some well-stored abode." — 26, Jfigrorumque manor 
imium. "And, mindful of the gloomy fires of the funeral pile," i. e. of 
the shortness of existence. — 27. Muce stultitiam consUUs breeem, &c 
* Blend a little folly with thy worldly plans : it is delightful to give loom 
on a proper occasion." Desipere properly signifies "to play the fool," and 

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EXPLAMATORT MOTEf . — BOOK IT. ODE XIII. X1T. 397 

Sence we obtain other kindred meanings, such as, "to indulge in festive 
enjoyment," " to unbend," "give loose," &c. 



Ode 13. Addressed to Lyce, now advanced in years. 

5 — 88. 5. Trenudo. Alluding to the failure of the voice through age. 
— 7. Doeta psalUre. A Giwcism for docta psalUndi, or in vsallendo. 
" Skilled in music and in song. n Psallo (from the Greek ^*aXv) here 
means to play on a musical instrument, and accompany it with the voice. 
Its primitive signification, however, like that of the Greek verb whence 
it is derived, refers to instrumental performance alone. — 8. ExcubaL 
|* Keeps watch." Cupid stations himself in the cheeks of Chin, watch- 
ing for his victims. — 9. Importunus. " The cruel boy.? Ironical. — 12. 
Capitis nivts. " The snows of thy head," i. e. thy locks whitened with 
the snow of years. — 13. Jftc Coa referuntjam tibi jmrpura, &c. u Now, 
neither the purple vestments of Cos, nor sparkling jewels, bring back to 
thee the moments, which the fleeting day has recorded and shut up in the 
public registers." — Coa purpura. The island of Cos was famed forthe ma- 
nufacture of a species of vestments, termed, from the place where they were 
made, Coan, (vestes Coat.) They were made of silk, and are described 
as fine, thin, and indeed almost transparent. — 17. Venus. " Thy beauty." 
—Decens motu*. " Thy graceful deportment."— 1 8. IlUus, illius. u Ot 
that Lyce, that Lyce."— 20. Surpucrat. For surripucrat.^— 21. TtUx 
pott Cinaram, Jtc. u Ah form, once yielding in beauty to Cinara alone, 
and famed for every pleasing charm." Fades here applies to the entire 
form, and not merely to the features. Consult note on Ode 4. 1. 3. — 24. 
Senator* diu parent, &c " Intending to preserve Lyce for a long period, 
so as to be equal to the jeers, of an old crow," i. e. until she should be- 
come a rival in years with the aged crow. Consult note on Ode 3. 17. 13. 
—88. DUaptam in cmere* facenu " The torch that had once inflamed 
them, reduced to ashes." 



Ode 14. We have already stated, in the introductory remarks to the 
fourth ode of the present book, that Horace had been directed by Augus- 
tus to celebrate in song the victories of Drusus and Tiberius. The piece 
to which we have alluded, is devoted, in consequence, to the praises 
of the former, the present one to those of the latter, of the two princes. 
In both productions, however, the art of the poet is shown in ascribing 
the success of the two brothers to the wisdom and fostering counsels of 
Augustus himself! 

1 — 15. 1. Qua euro Palrum, fee. " What care on the part of the 
Fathers, or what on the part of the Roman people at large, can, by of- 
ferings rich with honours, perpetuate to the latest ages, O, Augustus, the 
remembrance of thy virtues, in public inscriptions and recording annals ?" 
— 8. Muntribus. Alluding to the various public monuments, decrees, 
Jfcc proceeding from a grateful people. — 4. Titulos. The reference is to 
public inscriptions of every kino, as well on the pedestals of statues, as 
on arches, triumphal monuments, coins, &c — Jdemortsque faslos. Con- 
sult note on Ode 3. 17. 4. — 5. JEtemeL Varro, as quoted by Nonius, 
(2. 57.) uses this same verb : " Litteris at laudibus attrnare." — 7. Quem 
Ugb Expert** Latino, fcc " Whom the Vindetici, free before from Ro- 



y Google 



$98 ftXFLAXiTORT KOTE8. — BOOK IY. ODE X1T. 

man sway, lately learned what thou couldst do in war." Or, more freer} 
and intelligibly, "Whose power in war the Vindelici, &c. lately expe- 
rienced." We have here an imitation of a well-known Greek idiom.— 
a Vindelici, Consult note on Ode 4. 4. ia — 16. Genaunos, impUcidum 
rtnNi, Brcunosqut veloces. The poet here substitutes for the Kaeti and 
Vindelici of the 4th Odo, the Genauni and Breuni, Alpine nations, 
dwelling in their vicinity and allied to them in war. This is done ap- 
parently with the view of amplifying the victories of the young Nero*, 
by increasing the number of tne conquered nations. The Qenauni and 
Breuni occupied the Vol dPAgno and Vol Braunia, to the east and north- 
east of the Logo Maggiart (Lacus Verb an us.) — 13. Dcjtcii acerphuviu 
timplici. " More than once bravely overthrew." — 14. Major Jveronum, 
" The elder of the Neros." Alluding to Tiberius, the future emperor. 
15. Immmetque Ratos auspidis, &c. " And under thy favouring auspi- 
ces, drove back the ferocious Rreti." In the time of the republic, when 
the consul performed any thing in person, he was said to do it by bis own 
conduct and auspices (ductu, vel imperii), et auspicio suo;) but if his lieu- 
tenant, or any other person, did it by his command, it was said to be 
done, auspicio consults, ductu legati, under the auspices of the consul, and 
the conduct of the legatus. In this manner the emperors were said to 
do every thing by their own auspices, although they remained at Rome. 
— By the Rati in the text are meant the united forces of the Raeti, Vin- 
delici, and their allies. The first of these constituted, in fact, the small- 
est part, as their strength had already been broken by Drusus. Com 
pare Introductory Remarks to the fourth Ode of this book. 

17 — 33. 17. Spcctandus in certamme Jtfiorito, &c «• Giving an illustri- 
ous proof in the martial conflict, with what destruction he could over- 
whelm those bosoms that were devoted to death in the cause of freedom." 
The poet here alludes to the custom prevalent among these, and other 
barbarous nations, especially such as were of Germanic or Celtic origin, 
of devoting themselvos to death in defence of their country's freedom. 
—21. Extrcet. "Tames."—- PleiadumchoroscindenUnubts^c. "When 
the dance of the Pleiades is severing the clouds." A beautiful mode oi 
expressing the rising of these stars. The Pleiades are seven stars in 
the neck of the bull. They are fabled to have been seven of the daugh- 
ters of Atlas, whence they are also called Mantides. ( Vvrg. Georr. 1. 
221.) They rise with the sun on the tenth day before the Calends ot 
May (23d. April) according to Columella. The Latin writers generally 
call them Vergitiae, from their rising about the Vernal Equinox. The 
appellation of Pleiades is supposed to come from *A4», "to sail," because 
their rising marked the season when the storms of winter had departed, 
and every thing favoured the renewal of navigation. Some, however, 
derive the name from *\tlopts, because they appear in a cluster, and thus 
we find Manilius calling them " sidus gfomerabUe." — 24. Medics per ignes. 
Some commentators regard this as a proverbial expression, alluding to 
an affair full of imminent danger, and compare it with the Greek Si* **- 
pfc ftoXtiv. The scholiast, on the other hand, explains it as equivalent to 
" per medium pugnae fervorem." We rather think with Gesner, however, 
that the reference is to some historical event which has not come down 
to us. 25. Sic lauriformis volvilur Aujidus. " With the same fury ia 
the bull-formed Aufidus rolled along." The epithet tauti/armis, analo- 
gous to the Greek Tavstpopjot, alludes either to the bull's head, or to the 
horns with which the gods of rivers were anciently represented. The 
scholiast on Euripides (Or est, 1378.) is quite correct in referring the ex- 
planation of this to the roaring of their waters. Consult note on Ode, 

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EXTXAHATOST MOTES. — BOOK IT. ODE XT. S9t 

3. SO. 10.— 26. Qua regna Down, fcc " Where it flows by the realms 
of Apulian Daunus," L e. where it waters the land of Apulia. Prat- 
Quit. For praeUrflvit. Compare Ode 4. 3. 10. — 29. Jlgm&na /errata, 
"The iron-clad bands,"— 31. Metendo. " By mowing down."— 32. Sine 
clade. " Without loss to himself/ 1 i. e. with trifling injury to his own 
army. — S3. Consilium et tuos divos. " Thy counsel and thy favouring 
gods," i. e. thy counsel and thy auspices. By the expression tuos divos. 
the poet means the favour of heaven, which had constantly accompanied 
the aims of Augustus : hence the goda are, by a bold figure, called his 
own. A proof of this favour is given in the very next sentence, in which 
it is stated, that, on the fifteenth anniversary of the capture of Alex- 
andres^ the victories of Drusus and Tiberius were achieved over their 
barbarian foes. 

34—53. 34. Jtam, txbi quo du, &c. " For, at the close of the third 
lustrum from the day on which the suppliant Alexandres opened wide to 
thee her harbours and deserted court, propitious fortune gave a favour- 
able issue to the war." Alexandrea was taken A. U. C. 724, and the war 
with the Raeti and Vindelici was brought to a close A. U. C. 739. — 36. 
Vaeuam aulam. Alluding to the retreat of Antony and Cleopatra into 
the monument — 37. Lustra. Consult note on Ode 2. 4. 22. — 41. Can* 
taker. Consult note on Ode, 2. 6. 2. — 42. Medusque. Compare Intro- 
ductory Remarks, Ode 3. 5, and note on Ode, 1. 26. 3»— -Indue. Con- 
salt note on Ode, 1. 12. 55. — Scythes. Consult notes on Ode 2. 9. 23, 
and 3. 8. 23. — 43. Tultla pretsens. Consult note on Ode 3. 5. 2.-44. 
Domina. " Mistress of the world. 19 — 45. FcnHum out celat origines 
JfUus. The Nile, the largest river of the old world, still conceals, ob- 
serves Malte-Brun, its true sources from the research of science. At 
least scarcely any thing more of them is known to us now than was 
known in the time of Eratosthenes.— 46. later. The Danube. The 
poet alludes to the victories of Augustus over the Pacians, and other 
barbarous tribes dwelling in the vicinity of this stream. — 46. Rttpidus 
Tigris. The reference is to Armenia, over which country Tiberius, by 
the orders of Augustus, A. U. C. 734, placed Tigranes as king. The 
epithet here applied to the Tigris is very appropriate. It is a very swift 
stream, and its great rapidity, the natural effect of local circumstances, 
has procured for it the name of Tigr in the Median tongue, DigUto in 
Arabic, and Hiddekel in Hebrew ; all which terms denote the flight ot 
an arrow.— 47. BeUuosus. "Teeming with monsters. "—48. BrUmnis. 
Consult note on Ode, 3. 5. 3. — 49. Won povenHs funera Oaliiae. Lucan 
(1. 459. seqq.) ascribes the contempt of death, which characterised the 
Gauls, to their belief in the metempsychosis as taught by the Druids. — 
50. Audit. "Obeys."— 51. SygamM. Consult note on Ode, 4.2.36. 
— 52. Composite armxs. " Their arms being laid aside." 



Onn 15. The poet feigns, that, when about to celebrate in song the 
battles and victories of Augustus, Apollo reproved him for his rash attempt, 
and that he thereupon turned his attention to subjects of a less daring na- 
ture, and more on an equality with bis poetic powers. The bard there- 
fore sings of the blessings conferred on the Roman people by the glorious 
reign of the monarch— the closing of the temple of Janus — the prevalence 
of universal peace— the revival of agriculture— the re-establishment of 
lawn and public morals — the re-kindhng splendour of the Roman name. 

37 

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408 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK IT. ODE ST. 

Hence the concluding declaration of the piece, that Augustus shall 
receive divine honours, as a tutelary deity, from the hands of a grateful 
people. 

1—31. 1. Phtt bus volenttm, &c. "Phcebus sternly reproved me, when 
wishing to tell on the lyre of battles and subjugated cities, and warned dm 
not to spread my little sails over the surface of the Tuscan sea." To it- 
tempt, with his feeble genius, to sing the victories of Augustus, is, accord- 
ing to the bard, to venture in a little bark on a broad tempestuous ocean. 
— 5. Fruges uberes. "Abundant harvests." Alluding to the retrial of 
agriculture after die storms of war." — 6. Et signa nostro restUuit Jon. 
M And has restored the Roman standards to our Jove." An allusion to 
the recovery of the standards lost in the overthrow of Crassus and the 
check of Antony. Consult note on Ode, 1. 26. 3. and Introductory Re- 
marks, Ode 3. 5.-8. Et vacuum dudlis, Jtc. " And has closed the tem- 
ple of Janus diririnos, free from wars." The temple of Janus wen open 
m war and closed in peace. It had been closed previous to the reign of 
Augustus, once in the days of Numa, and a second time at the conclusion 
of the first Punic War. Under Augustus it was closed thrice : once in 
A. U. C. 785, after the overthrow of Antony, (compare Orwiui, 6. 82. and 
Dio Cassius, 51. 30.) again in A. U. C. 729, after the reduction of the Csn- 
tabri, (compare Dio Cassius, 53. 26.) and the third time, when the 
Dactans, Dalmatians, and some of the German tribes were subdued by 
Tiberius and Drusus. (Compare Dio Cassius, 54. 36.) To this last 
Horace is here supposed to allude. — 9. Et ordinem rectum, &c. The order 
of construction is as follows : el injecit frena Licentia evaganti extra rtelm 
ordinem, " And has curbed unbridled Licentiousness.'' Consult note oo 
Ode, 4. 5. 22.— 12. Vetera artes. "The virtues of former dava»— 16. 
Jib Hesperio cubiU. "From his resting-place in the west."— 18. Bxigtf 
othm. M Shall drive awav repose."— 20. Inimical. " Embroils" 21. 
JVon qvi profundum, &c Alluding to the nations dwelling along the bor- 
ders of the Danube, the Germans, Raeti, Dacians, &c— 2§. Edicts Jute. 
" The Julian edicts." The reference is to the laws imposed by Augustus, 
a member of the Julian line, on vanquished nations. — Gttce. Consult 
note on Ode, 3. 24. 11.— 23. Seres. Consult note on Ode, 1. IS. 55. 
Floras states, that the Seres sent an embassy, with valuable gifts, to Au- 
gustus. (4. 12. 61.)— InfuHve Pert*. " Or the faithless Parthuinfl."— 24. 
Tanmn props ftumen orti. Alluding to the Scythians. Among the em- 
bassies sent to Augustus, was one from the Scythians. — 25. Et profatis 
luribus et saeris. "Both on common and sacred days." Consult note on 
Ode, 1. 18. 7.-26. Munera Libert. Consult note on Ode, 1. 18. 7.-29. 
Vkiuiefunctos. "Authors of illustrious deeds." — 30. Lydis remixto ear- 
mine tibiis. tf In song, mingled alternate with the Lydian flutes," i. e. 
with alternate vocal and instrumental music The Lydian flutes were the 
same with what were called the right-handed flutes. Among the ancient 
flutes, those most frequently mentioned are the tibia dextrct and sinistar, 
pares and imparts. It would seem that the double flute consisted of two 
tubes, which were so joined together as to have but one mouth, and so 
were both blown at once. That which the musician played on with bis 
right-hand was called tibia dextra, the right-handed flute ; with bis fell 
the tibia sinistra, the left-handed flute. The latter had but few boles, and 
sounded a deep, serious bass ; the other had many holes, and a sharper 
and livelier tone. The right-handed flutes, as has already been remarked, 
were the same with what were called the Lydian, while the left-handed 
were identical with what were denominated the Tyrian. — 31. •ffrra pre- 
£/c»fem Veneris, An allusion to Augustus, who had passed by adoption 

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SZPLAN 1TOHT MOTI8. — EV0D1 1. 40| 

Into the Julian family, and consequently claimed descent, with that Kne, 
"■"i Ascanius, the grandson of Anchises and Venus. 

i 



EPODES. 



Tbb term Epode fEsyftri was used in more than one signification. 
It was applied, in the first place, to an assemblage of Lyric verses imme- 
diately succeeding the Strophe and Antistrophe, and intended to close 
the period or strain. Hence the name itself from M and V4* denoting 
something sung after another piece. In the next place, the appellation 
was given to a small Lyric poem, composed of several distichs, in each 
of which the first verse was an Iambic Trimeter (six feet), and the last a 
dimeter (four feet) Of this kind were the Epodes of Arcbilochus, men- 
tioned by Plutarch, in his Dialogue on Music, (e. 28. — vol. 14. o. 234. ed. 
Hulten.) and under this same class are to be ranked a majority of the Epodes 
of Horace. Lastly, the term Epode was so far extended in signification, 
as to designate any poem in which a shorter verse was made to folloto a long 
one, which will serve as a general definition for all the productions of 
Horace that go by this name. Compare, in relation to this last meaning 
of the word, the language of Hephmstion, (de Metr. p. 70. ed. Pawe.) 
del J' h raSs votfoam eai ol i^cruede oftrw KaXo4ft$voi huiol, trav prydXy *rf- 
X* wtftrrfv « hnffyqrul' where vtetrriv corresponds to the Latin vnpar, 
and refers to a verse unequal to one which has gone before, or, in other 
words, less than it 



Epodb 1. Written a short time previous to the battle of Actium. 
The bard offers himself as a companion to Maecenas, when the latter 
was on the eve of embarking in the expedition against Antony and Clec- 

Etra, and expresses his nerfect willingness to share every danger with 
j patron and friend. Maecenas, however, apprehensive for the poet's 
safety, refused to grant his request 

I — IS. 1. Ibis Liburnis,kc. "Dear Maecenas, wilt thou venture hi 
the tight liburnian galleys amid the towering bulwarks of the ships ol 
Antony ?" If we credit the scholiast Acron, Augustus, when sotting out 
against Antony and Cleopatra, gave the command of the Liburnian gal- 
leys to Maecenas. — 5. Quid nos t auibus te, &c. The ellipses are to be 
supplied as follows: Quid nos faciamus, quUms vita est jucunda si tt 
super stite vivitur, si eontra accident, gravis 7 "And what shall I do, to 
whom life is pleasing if thou survive ; if otherwise, a burthen V. — 7 
Jussi. Understand a te. — 9. An hune laborem, &c "Or shall I endure 
the toils of this campaign with that resolution with which it becomes the 
brave to bear them ?" — 12. Inhospitalem Caucasian, Consult note on 
Ode 1.22.6. — 13. Oeeidentis usque ad ultimum sinum. "Even to the 
farthest bay of the west,'' i. °- to the farthest limits of the world on the 
west. — 18. Major habet. " More powerfully possesses." — Utassidcnsbn- 
ptmmihus, &c " As a bird, sitting near her unfledged young, dreads the 
approaches of serpents more for them when left bv her. unable, however, 
though she be with them, to render any greater eia on that account to hat 

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402 EXPLAMTORT NOTES* — EFODE 1. 

offspring placed before her eyes." A poetical pleonasm occurs m 11m 
term pr<BsenHbus, and, in a free translation, the word may be recanted 
as equivalent simply to it*. The idea intended to be conveyed by the 
whole sentence is extremely beautiful. The poet likens himself to the 
parent bird. and. as the latter sits by her young, though even her presence 
cannot protect them, so the bard wishes to be with his friend, not because 
he is able to defend him from harm, but that he may fear the less for his 
safety while remaining by his side. 

23 — 29. 23. Liberder hoe et omne, &c The idea intended to be con- 
veyed is as follows: I make not this request in order to obtain from thee 
more extensive possessions, the usual rewards of military service, but ia 
the spirit of disinterested affection, and with the hope of securing still more 
firmly thy friendship and esteem. — 25. Jfon v( jwencis, &c An elegant 
hypallage for non ut pluret juvenci UligaH nuts aratris nilantvr. " Not 
that more oxen may toil for me, yoked to my ploughs,* L e. not that I 
may have more extensive estates. — 27. Pecusve Calabris, Jtc w Nor that 
my flocks may change CaJabrian for Lucanian pastures, before the burn- 
ing star appears," i. e. nor that I may own such numerous flocks and 
herds, as to have both winter and summer pastures. An hypallage for 
Calabrm pagcua mtdet Lucanis. The more wealthy Romano were accus- 
tomed to keep their flocks and herds in the rich pastures of Calabria and 
Lucania. The mild climate of the former country made it an excellent 
region for winter pastures ; about the end of June, however, and a shoil 
time previous to the rising of the dog-star, the increasing heat caused 
these pastures to be exchanged for those of Lucania, a cool and woody 
country. On the approach of winter, Calabria was re-visited. — 29. -\cc 
ut superni. &c "Nor that my glittering villa may touch the Circsan 
walls of lofty Tusculum," i. e. nor that my Sabine villa may be built ©t 
white marble, glittering beneath the rays of the sun. and be so fax ex- 
tended as to reach even to the walls of Tusculum. The distance between 
the poet's farm and Tusculum was more than twenty-five miles. — Can- 
dent. Alluding to the style of building adopted by the rich. — TuscvH 
Circeta mania. Tusculum was said to have been founded by Telegooos, 
the son of Ulysses and Circe. Compare Ode 3. 29. 8. 

33 — 34. 33. Ckremet. Acron supposes the allusion to be to Chreraea, 
a character in Terence. This, however, is incorrect The poet refers to 
one of the lost plays of Menander, entitled the "Treasure," (6**«vpfc,) 
an outline of which is given by Donatus in his notes on the Eunuch of 
Terence, (Prof. 10.) A young man, having squandered his estate, sends 
a servant, ten years after his father's death, according to the will of the 
deceased, to carry provisions to his father's monument ; but he had before 
sold the ground, in which the monument stood, to a covetous old man, to 
whom the servant applied to help him to open the monument ; in which 
they discovered a hoard of gold and a letter. The old man seizes the 
treasure, and keeps it, under pretence of having deposited it there, for 
safety, during times of war, and the young fellow goes to law with him. 
— 34. Diacinctut out perdam ut ntpos. " Or squander away like a disso- 
lute spendthrift." Among the Romans, it was thought effeminate to 
appear abroad with the tunic loosely or carelessly girded. Hence ctneta* 
and iuccinctu* are put for indtutrius, expeditus, or gnovus, diligent, active, 
clever, because they used to gird the tunic when at work : and, on the 
other hand, discinctui is equivalent to titers, moIHs, ignavus, &c-—Jftpo*~ 
The primitive meaning of this term is "a grandson :" from the too great 
indulgence, however, generally shewn by grandfathers, and the ruinous* 

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prodigal. 



BIPLAMATORT MOTES.— «POOE B. 403 

that ensued, the word became a common designation for a 



Epodb 2. The object of the poet ia to show with how much difficulty 
a covetous man disengages himself from the love of riches. He, there- 
tore, supposes an usurer, who is persuaded of the happiness and tran- 
quillity of a country life, to have formed the design of retiring into the 
country and renouncing his former pursuits. The latter calls in his 
money, breaks through all engagements, and is ready to depart, when 
Ins ruling passion returns, ana once more plunges him into the vortex 
of gain.—-Some commentators, dissatisfied with the idea that so beauti- 
ful a description of rural enjoyment should proceed from the lips of a 
sordid usurer, have been disposed to regard the last four lines of the 
epode as spurious, and the appendage of a later age. But the art of the 
poet is strikingly displayed in the very circumstance which they con- 
demn, since nothing can show more clearly the powerful influence which 
the love of riches can exercise over the mind, than that one who, like 
Alpbins, has so accurate a perception of the pleasures of a country life, 
should, like him, sacrifice them all on the altar of gain. 

1 — 22. 1. Procul negotUs. "Far from the busy scenes of life."— 2. 
Ut prisca gens mortaUum. An allusion to the primitive simplicity of the 
golden age. — XExercet. "Ploughs." — 4. Sdutusomnifanore. " Freed 
from all manner of borrowing and lending," L e. from all money-trans- 
actions. The interest of money was called famus, or usura. The legal 
interest at Rome, toward the end of the republic and under the first 
emperors, was one As monthly for the use of a hundred, equal to 12 per 
cent, per annum. This was called usura eentestma, because in a hun- 
dred months the interest equalled the capital — 5. Neque excitatur, &c 
M Neither as a soldier is he aroused by the harsh blast of the trumpet, 
nor does he dread, as a trader, the angry sea." — 7. Forum. "The 
court* of law." — Superb* ctvtum, &c. " The splendid thresholds of the 
mora powerful citizens. The portals of the wealthy and powerful. 
8ome, however, understand by superba, an allusion to the haughtiness 
displayed by the rich towards the clients at their gates. In either case, 
the reference is to the custom, prevalent at Rome, of clients wait- 
ing on their patrons to offer their morning salutations. — 13. /*- 
serif. "Ingrafts." — 13. Jttugientium. Understand bourn. — 14. Emm- 
ies. " Grazing." — 16. Infirmas. " Tender." Compare the remark of 
Doring : u Jfatura enim tua imbeciUes sunt ows." — 17. Decorum miiibus 
pomis. u Adorned with mellow fruit" — 19. Insitwapira. " The pears 
of his own grafting." — SO. Certantem ei uvom, &c. " And the grape 
vicing in hue with the purple." Purpura is the dative, by a Grecism, 
lor the ablative. — 31. Priapt. Priapus, as the god of gardens, always 
received, as an offering, the first produce of the orchards, &c. Compare 
note on Ode 3. 29. 22.— Tt<Jor Jintuffi. " Tutelary god of boundaries." 

24—47. 24. In tenad gromine. " On the matted grass." The epi- 
thet ienaci may also, but with less propriety, be rendered, " tenacious," 
or "strong-rooted."— 25. Labuntur altis, kc. "In the mean time the 
streams glide onward beneath the high banks." Some editions have ri- 
se* lor ripis, but the expression altis rvris (" with their deep waters") does 
mot suit the season of summer so well as altis ripis, which alludes to the 

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4M KirLAKATORT VOTES.— BTQDE II. 

decrease of the waters by reason of the summer heats.— 26. Qtsereafsr. 
«* Utter their plaintive notes."— 27. JVondeaeue lymphis, Ice. "And the 
leaves murmur amid the gently flowing waters," L e. the pendant 
branches murmur, as they meet the rippling current of the gently-flowing 
stream.— 28. Quod. "All which." — 29. TonanHs annua hibemvs Jons. 
"The wintry season of tempestuous Jove." The allusion is to the tem- 
pests, intermingled with thunder, that are prevalent in Italy at the com- 
mencement of winter. — 30. ComparaL "Collects together." — 31. .VW- 
ta emu. "With many a hound." — S3. Aid amtt Uvt, fcc "Or spreads 
the fine nets with the smooth pole." Ames denotes a pole or staff to 
support nets. — Levi. We have rendered this epithet, as coming from 
Uvis; it may also, however, have the meaning of "light," and be re- 
garded as coming from Uvis. Consult note, page zvni, of this volume. 
— 35. Advenam. " From foreign climes." Alluding to the migratory 
habits of the crane, and its seeking the warm climate of Italy at the ap- 
proach of winter. Cranes formed a favourite article on the tables of the 
rich. — 37. Q,%d$ rum malarum, &c. "Who, amid employments such as 
these, does not forget the anxious cares which love carries in its train ? n 
Complete the ellipsis as follows : Quia non oblimscitur malarum curanwt, 
quas euros, &c — 39. In partem juvat, fcc. " Aid, on her side, in the ma- 
nagement of household affairs, and the rearing of a sweet offspring." — 41. 
Sabina. The domestic virtues and the strict morality of the Sabines are 
frequently alluded to by the ancient writers. — Aid verusta aortitis, be 
" Or the wife of the industrious Apulian, embrowned by the sun." — 43. 
Sacrum. The hearth was sacred to the Lares. — Vetustu. In the sense 
ofAridis. 45. Laetumpecus. "The joyous flock." 47. Homo via*. 
" This veal's wine." The poor, and lower orders, were accustomed to 
drink the new wine from the dolium, after the fermentation bad subsided. 
Hence it was called vmum doliare. 

49 — 54. 49. Luerina conchyHa. "The Lucnne shell-fish." The 
Lucrine lake was celebrated for oysters and other shell-fish. — 50. Rhom- 
bus. " The turbot."— Scari. llie Scarus ("Scar," or " Char,") was 
held in high estimation by the ancients. Pliny (H. A*. 9. 17.) remarks 
of it, that it is the only fish which ruminates : an observation which had 
been made by Aristotle before him ; and hence, according to this Utter 
writer, the name/4fm£, given to it by the Greeks. The ancients, however, 
were mistaken, on this point, and Buffbn has corrected their error. The 
roasted Scarus was a favourite dish (compare Athenaus 7. ed. SckwHgk. 
vcL 3. p. 175.) and the liver of it was particularly commended. — 51. Si 
quo* Eois, &c " If a tempest, thundered forth over the Eastern waves, 
turn any of their number to this sea." — 53. Afra avis. " The Guinea- 
fowl." Some commentators suppose the turkey to be here meant, bet 
erroneously, since thin bird was entirely unknown to the ancients. Its 
native country is America. On the other hand, the Guinea fowl (,NW»- 
da Jdeleagris) was a bird well known to the Greeks and Romans. — 54. 
Attagen Ionicus. " The Ionian attagen." A species, probably, of heath- 
cock. Alexander the Myndian, (Athenaus, 9. 39. voL 3. «. 431. td. 
Schweigh.) describes it as being a little larger than a partridge, having 
its back marked with numerous spots, in colour approaching that of a 
tile, though somewhat more reddish. Mr. Walpole thinks it is the same 
with the Tetrao Francolinus. ( WalpoWs Collect. voLl.p. 262. in netit.) 

57—67. 57. Herba lopatkL The lapatkum, a species of sorrel, takes 
its name (UnBw) from its medicinal properties, (fee*?^ **rg*»)— 

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KXPLANATOET NOTES. — EP»DX III. 40ff 

58. Mdwt. Compare note on Ode 1.31.16 — 59. Termmaliitu. The Ter* 
ssmalia, or festival of Terminus, the god of boundaries, were celebrated 
oa the 23d of February (7th day before the Calends of March.)— 60. 
Hadus ereptus lupo. Compare the explanation of Gesner. " Jldfrugo- 
Ulalem nuHcam refertur. Won mactaturus paterfamilias fuzdum integrum, 
epulatur ereptwn lupo, et alioqui perilurum. n —65. Positosque vernas, &c 
M And the slaves ranged around the shining Lares, the proof of a wealthy 
mansion." The epithet renidentes is well explained by D6ring : " Igm$ 
infoeo accensi svlendore refulgentes." — 67. 'Hae ubi locutus, &c. " When 
the usurer Alphius had uttered these words, on the point of becoming 
in inhabitant of the country, he called in all his money on the Ides — on 
the Calends (of the ensuing month} he seeks again tolay it out !" The 
03(irer, convinced of the superior felicity which a country-life can bestow, 
calls in all his outstanding capital, for the purpose of purchasing a farm ; 
but when the Calends of the next month arrive, and brine with them the 
usual period for laying out money at interest, his old habits of gain re- 
turn, the picture which he has just drawn fades rapidly from before his 
view, ana the intended cultivator of the soil becomes once more the usu- 
rer Alphius.— Among the Romans, the Calends and Ides were the two 
periods of the month when money was either laid out at interest, or call- 
ed in. As the interest of money was usually paid on the Calends, they 
are hence called tristes (Serm. 1. 3. 87.) and celeres. (Ovid. Rem. J&n. 
Ml.) and a book in which the sums demanded were marked, was termed 
Cdendwrum. (Sense Benef. 1. 2. and 7. 10. Ia\ Ep. 14. 87.) 



Epodb 3. Maecenas had invited Horace to sup with him, and had 
sportively placed, amid the more exquisite viands, a dish highly sea- 
soned with garlic : (rnoretum aUiatum. Compare Donatio, ad TerenL 
Pkorm. 2. 2.) Of this the poet partook, but having suffered severely in 
consequence, he here wreaks his vengeance on the offending plant, de- 
scribing it as a sufficient punishment for the blackest crimes, and as 
orming one of the deadliest of poisons, 

1—20. 1. Oifm, " Hereafter."— 3. Edit cicutis, &c. « Let him eat 
garlic, more noxious than hemlock." The poet recommends garlic as 
* punishment, instead of hemlock, the usual potion among the Athe- 
nians. Edit IB given for edat, according to the ancient mode of inflect- 
mcr, edim, edit, edit; like rim, sis, siL This form is adopted in all the 
best editions. The common reading is Edat. — 4. O dura messorwn ilia. 
Garlickand wild-thyme {serpyllwn,) pounded together, were used by the 
Roman farmers to recruit the exhausted spirits of the reapers, and those 
who had laboured in the heat The poet expresses his surprise at their 
being able to endure such food. — 5. Quid hoc veneni, &c " What poison 
is this that rages in my vitals?" — 6. Ftperintw eruor. The blood of 
vipers was regarded by the ancients as a most fatal poison. — 7. FefclliL 
In the sense of lahnt. — Jin males Canidia, &c " Or did Canidia dress 
the deadly dish?" Canidia, a reputed sorceress, ridiculed by the poet 
in the fifth Epode. Compare the Introductory Remarks to that piece. 
—9. UL " When."— 11. Ignota tauris, &c An hypallage for ignoiis 
lauros illiraturum iugis. An allusion to the fire-breathing bulls that 
were to be yoked by Jason as one of the conditions of his obtaining 
from Aeetes the golden fleece. — 12. Perunxit hoc Iasonem. Medea 

Sve Jason an unguent, with which he was to anoint his person, and by 
5 virtues of which he was to be safe from harm. The poet pleasantyr 



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mm EXPLANATORY NO TBI.— BV OAK IV. 

awn fa, that this was none other than the juice of garlic— 13L Hse idL 
butis, && " By presents infected with this having taken vengeance on 
her rival, she fled away on a winged serpent" Alluding to the fate of 
Creusa, or Glaoce, the daughter of Creon, and the flight of Medea 
through the air in a car drawn by winged serpents. — 15. Jfee tannti 
unqumn, &c " Nor hath such scorching heat from the stars ever set- 
tled on thirsty Apulia." The allusion is to the supposed influence of 
Che dog-star in increasing the summer heats. — 17. JVee mimics humerk, 
&c ^ " Nor did the fatal gift burn with more fury on the shoalden of 
the indefatigable Hercules." The reference is to the poisoned garment 
which Dejanira sent to Hercules, and which had been dipped in the 
blood of the Centaur Nessus, slain by one of the arrows of Hercules. 
— -1 9. Si quid unquam, &c " If thou shalt ever desire such food as 
this," L e, such food as garlic ConcupiverU is equivalent in spirit to 
comtderi*. — 20. Jocose. This epithet is here used, not with reference to 
the general character of Maecenas, but simply in allusion to the prac- 
tical joke which be had played off at the expense of the bard. Com- 
pare Introductory Remarks. 



Epodb 4. Addressed to some individual, who had risen amid tbe 
troubles of the civil war from the condition of a slave to the rank of 
military tribune and to the possession of riches, but whose corrupt mo- 
rals and intolerable insolence had made him an object of universal de- 
testation. The bard indignantly laments, that such a man should be 
enabled to display himself proudly along the Sacred Way, should be 
the owner of extensive possessions, and should, by bis rank as tribune, 
have it in his power to sit among the Equites at the public spectacles, in 
advance of the rest of the people. — The scholiasts A croQ and Porphy- 
rin make this Epode to have been written against Menas, the freed- 
man of Pompey, an opinion adopted by the earlier commentators. In 
most MSS. too, it is inscribed to him. The more recent editors, how- 
ever, have rejected this supposition, and with perfect propriety. We 
read no where else of Menaa' having obtained the office of military tri- 
bune, nor of any servile punishments which he had undergone in a pe- 
culiar degree, while still in a state of slavery, neither is any mention 
made here of that perfidy and frequent changing of sides which formed 
so great a blot in the character of this individual. Consult note on 
Ode 3. 16. 15. 

1 — 9. 1. Lupis et agnis, &c. "There is as strong an aversion on 
my part towards thee, O thou, whose back has been galled by the Ibe- 
rian lash, and whose legs have been lacerated by the hard fetter, as falls 
by nature to the lot of wolves and lambs."— 3. Ibericis Junibus. Allu- 
ding to a lash composed of ropes made of the sparfum, or Spanish 
broom.— 4. Dura campede. Among the Romans, the worse kind of 
slaves were compelled to work in Tetters, as well in the ergastMban, or 
work-house, as in the fields. — 7. Sacram metiente It vutm. "As thou 
struttest proudly along the Sacred Way." The term mttienU well de- 
scribes the affected dignity of the worthless upstart, in his measuring, 
as it were, his very steps. — Sacram viam. The sacred way was a gene- 
ral place of resort for the idle, and for those who wished to display them- 
selves to public view. Compare Sat I. 9. 1. — S. Cum to trivm tibf- 
ntm toga. The wealthy and luxurious were fond of appearing abroad in 
long and loose gowns, as a mau\ of their opulence and rank — 9- W 

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UM.AMATO&Y VOTBf .— SPUDS T. 4OT 

eraveriet, kc "How the indignation of those who pass to and fro, 
— \ openly expressed, turns their looks on thee." 



11—20. 11. Sulus JlageUu, &c. " This wretch, (say they) cut with 
the rods of the triumvirs until the beadle was weary," &c. The allu- 
sion is to the Triumviri CopiiaUs, who judged concerning slaves and 
persons of the lowest rank, and who also had the charge of the prison 
and of the execution of condemned criminals. — 13. AraL In the sense 
of possideL — Falcrni fundi. The wealthy Romans were accustomed to 
have large possessions in the fertile territory of Campania, which is here 
designated by the name of its celebrated vineyards. — 14. Et Appiam 
mma&s terit. " And wears out the very Appian way with his horses," 
L e. is constantly frequenting the Appian way with his long train of 
equipage. — 15. SedUibusque magnus, kc According to the law of L. 
Roscras Otho, passed A. U. C. 686, fourteen rows of benches, imme- 
diately after the orchestra, a place where the senate sat, were appropri- 
ated in the theatre and amphitheatre for the accommodation of the 
knights. As the tribunes of the soldiers had an equal right with the 
Equites, they were entitled to seats in this same quarter ; and hence 
the individual to whom the poet alludes, though of servile origin, boldly 
takes his place on the foremost of the equestrian benches, nor fears the 
law of Otho.— 17. Quid attincL, &c. "To what purpose is it, that so 
many vessels, their beaks armed with heavy brass, are sent against pi- 
rates and a band of slaves, if this wretch is made a military tribune?" 
The idea intended to be conveyed is as follows : Why go to so much 
expense in equipping fleets against pirates and slaves, when slaves at 
home elevate themselves to the highest stations. The allusion appears 
to be to the armament fitted out by Octavianus (Augustus) against Sextus 
Pompeius, A. U. C. 718, whose principal strength consisted of pirates 
and fugitive slaves. — 20. TrUruno mtZirum. In each legion there were 
six military tribunes, each of whom in battle seems to have had charge 
of ten centuries, or about a thousand men ; hence the corresponding 
Greek appellation is x*A<*>X** 



Epodb 5. The bard ridicules Canidia, who, herself advanced in years, 
was seeking by incantations and charms to regain the affections of the old 
and foolish varus. A strange scene of magic rites is introduced, and the 
piece opens with the piteous exclamations of a boy of noble birth, whom 
Canidia and her associate hags are preparing to kill by a slow and dread- 
ful process, and from whose marrow and dried liver a philtre or love- 
potion is to be prepared, all-powerful for recalling the inconstant Varus. 
ft will be readily perceived that the greater part of this is mere fiction, and 
that the real object of the poet is to inflict well-merited chastisement on 
those females of the day, in whose licentious habits age had been able to 
produce no alteration, and who, when their beauty had deponed, had re- 
coarse to strange ana superstitious expedients for securing admirers. 

1 — 84 1. At, O deonm, &c The scene opens, as we have already 
remarked, with the supplications of a boy, who is supposed to be sur- 
rounded by the hags, and who reads their purpose in their looks. He con- 
jures them to have compassion on him by the tenderness of mothers for 
their children, by his birth, and by thejusticeofthegods.— 4. Truces. 
" Fiercely turned." — 5. Partubus veris. Alluding to the frequent stealing 
of infant* on the part of these hags.— 7. Per hoe inane, &c "BytbisTaio 



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406 EXFLAW1TOET HOTK8.— KTODE ▼. 

ornament of purple." Young men of family wore a gown bordered wtfn 
purple, called the toga pratexta, until the age of seventeen, when they pot 
on the toga virilis. The epithet inane expresses the disregard of Canidia 
for this emblem of rank.— 9. Aut uti petita, &c " Or like a savage beast 
of prey wounded by the dart.* — 11. Ut hoc trenunte, &c. "When the 
boy, after having uttered these complaints with trembling lips, stood 
among them, with his ornaments stripped ofl| a tender body,* 9 &c Under 
toe term insignia, the poet includes both the toga pratexte and the bulla. 
This latter was a golden ball, or boss, which hung from the neck on the 
breast, as some think in the shape of a heart, but, according to others, 
round, with the figure of a heart engraved on it. The sons of freedmea, 
and of poorer citizens, used only a leathern boss. — 15. Canidia, brertinu 
implicate, &c M Then Canidia, having entwined her locks and dishevel- 
led head with small vipers," Ice The costume most commonly assigned 
to the furies is here imitated. — 17. Jubet sepulcris, &c Preparations are 
now made for the unhallowed rites ; and first, the wood to be used for the 
fire must be that of the wild-fig-tree, torn up from a burying-place. The 
wood supposed to be employed on such occasions was always that of 
some inauspicious or ill-omened tree, and in this class the wild-fig-tree 
was particularly ranked, both on account of its sterility, and its springing 
up spontaneously among tombs. — 18. Cupreesus funebres. " Funereal 
cypresses." Consult note on Ode, 3. 14. 23. — 19. Et uncta turpi* sea 
rnus sanguine, &c. The order of construction is as follows: Efovanoc- 
turnae stngis, uncta sanguine turpie roue, plumamque nocturna strips. 
"And the eggs, smeared with the blood of a loathsome toad, and the 
plumage, of a midnight screech-owl." The anctentB believed the blood of 
the toad, like that of the viper, to be poisonous. — 21. Idea*. A city of 
Thessaly, all which country was famed for producing herbs used in magic 
rites. Iolcos was situate, according to Pindar, („V«n, 4. 87.) at the foot 
of mount Pelion, and was the birth-place of Jason and his ancestors. — 
Iberia. A tract of country bordering upon, and situate to the east of, 
Colchis. The allusion is consequently to the same herbs in the use of 
which Medea is reputed to have been so skilful. — 24. Flammis aduri 
Colchicis. " To be concocted with magic fires." The epithet Ccichieis 
is here equivalent to magicis. L e. such fires as the Colcbian Medea wis 
wont to kindle, from the wood of baleful trees, for the performance of her 
magic rites. 

25—46. 25. Expedite. " With her robe tucked up." The term may 
also be simply rendered, " active." Consult note on Epode 1. 34. — 
Sagana. Sagana, Veia, and Folia were sorceresses attendant on Canidia 
— 26. J&vernalea aquae. Waters brought from the lake Avcrnus, and 
used here for the purposes of magic lustration. — 27. Marinus echinus, 
"A sea-urchin." The sea-urchin among fishes is analogous to the 
hedge-hog among land-animals, and hence the name echinus (txi*t) ap- 
plied by the ancients to both. The sea-urchin, however, has finer and 
sharper prickles than the other, resembling more human hair in a bristly 
state. — 28. Laurens aper. The marshes of Laurentum, in ancient Lau- 
um, were famous for the number and size of the wild boars which they 
bred in their reedy pastures. — 29. Macte nulla conscientia. " Deterred 
by no remorse." — 30. Humum exhauriebat. " Began to dig a pit." — 32. 
Quo posset info98Uspuer,8ic " In which the boy, having his body buried, 
might pine away in full view of food changed twice or thrice during the 
long day." The expression longo die is well explained by Mitscherlich : 
u Qui puerofame excruciate Umgissimn* videbatur"—Z5. Quumpromhterd 
art, *c " Projecting with his face above the surface of the ground, as 

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■ZVLAMATOmY XOTI8 — «*01>E T. #19 

far as todies suspended by the chin are out of the water,* Le. as far as 
the persons of those who swim appear above die level of the water. — 37. 
Extuec* medutta. "His marrow destitute of moisture." — 38. JtmcrU 
etset peevJum, " Might form the ingredient* of a potion for love." A 
philtre, which had the power of producing love. — 39. Intermbxato quum 
tenet, Jfcc "When once his eve-balls had withered away, fixed steadily 
en the forbidden food." Quum $tmd is here equivalent toftmui ac.-~ 4% 
Jbimbiensem. " The Ariminian." A native of Ariminum, now Aimtnt, 
the first town on the coast of Umbria, below the Rubicon.— 43. Ofosa 
Jfaseiif. "Idle Naples. 9 * This city, bv the advantage of its situation, 
and the temperature of its climate, was always regarded as the abode of 
idleness and pleasure. The epithet otiosa may also be applied to Naples 
as the seat of literary leisure, but with less propriety in the present in- 
stance.— 45. Exeantata. " Charmed from their places."— Poce Thessala. 
"By magic spell.* 1 Consult note on verse 21.— 46. Lunamque coeto de- 
HpiL That tne moon could be brought down by magic was a common 
superstition among the ancients, and the Thessalians were thought to 
be possessed of this art more than any other people. 

47—66. 47. Hie trruedum, he. The long, uncut nail, occupies a 
prominent place in the costume of the ancient sorceresses.— 49. Quid 
dixit 7 out quid taeuU ? Equivalent in spirit to Nefaria quaque effata U 
Mkm professa est. — 5 1. Ma et Diana. Canidia, after the man ner of sor- 
ceresses, invokes Night and Hecate, who were supposed to preside over 
magic rites. — Quasilentium regis. An allusion to Diana's shining during 
the silence of the night, the season best adapted for the ceremonies of 
magic. — 53. JAinc, nunc adeHe, fcc Mitscherlich makes this an imita- 
tion of an old form of prayer, and equivalent to : " MifdpropitUe tUis, 
in vestra in hottes obligate" The scholiast is wrong in supposing the 
meaning of the latter part to be, " in Varum iram vtstram effundite. — 54. 
Mtmen. " Power." — 57. Senem, quod omnes rideant, fcc. " May the dogs 
of the Sahara drive him hither with their barking, that all may laugh at 
his expense, the aged profligate, anointed with an essence more powerful 
than any which my hands have hitherto prepared." — Senem aduUerum. 
The allusion is to Varus, and the manner in which he is here indicated 
by Canidia, tends indirectly to cast ridicule upon herself for seeking to 
reclaim such an admirer. — 58. Suburana cones. The Subura was the 
most profligate quarter of Rome, and the rambles of Varus, therefore, 
in this part of the capital, were any thing else but creditable. — 59. .Yards 
perunetum. The allusion here is an ironical one. Canidia does not re- 
fer to any actual unguent of her own preparing, but to the virtues of the 
magic herbs, which are to be all powerful in recalling the inconstant Va- 
rus. — 61 . Quid accidU, &c. The dash at the end or the preceding verse 
is placed there to denote, that Canidia, after having proceeded thus far 
with her incantations, pauses in expectation of the arrival of Varus, 
which is to be their intended result When this, however, is delayed 
longer than she imagined it would be, the sorceress resumes her spell : 
M What has happened ? Why are my direful drugs less powerful than 
those of the barbarian Medea ?" L e. Why have these once efficacious 
spells lost all their power in bringing back the absent Varus ? — Barbara. 
This epithet, here applied to Medea, in imitation of the Greek usage, is 
intended merely to designate her as a native of a foreign land, i. e. Col- 
chis. — 63. Quteus superbamjugii, &c Consult note on Epode 3. 13.— 
65. Tabo. Equivalent to veneno. — 66. Incendio abstulU. Compare the 
graphic picture drawn by Euripides (Med. I 183. eeqq.) of the unearthly 
fires which consumed the unfortunate rival of Medea. 

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««10 BXTLAKATOAT NOTWk— BPODB V. - 

68—77. 98, FefeUU me.' "Has escaped my notice."— tt. IitsVnml 
tmetft, fcc The order of construction is as follows: *• Indvrmit cWibus 
omnttim aliarum peltieum, tmctit ooJtmon* wi." The expression metis 
cblwione met is entirely figurative, as if the beds, to which she alludes, 
had been perfumed with drugs which inspired Varus with a complete 
forgetfulness of herself.— 71. M! ah! sclutus, &c At the conclusion 
of the last rase, Canidia ie supposed to stand for a moment lost in 
meditation as ft the cause which could have rendered her spells so in- 
efficient On a sudden, discovering the reason, she exclaims, " Ah ! 
ah ! he roves about, set free by the charm of some more skilful sorce- 
ress." — 73. JVbn usitatis, Vare, potionibus, &c " By the force of strange 
potions then, O Varus, (thou that are destined to shed many tears) shut 
thou return to me ; nor shall thy affections ever go back again to another, 
though attempted to be called off by Marsian enchantments." Thf* term 
rmdta is here put by a Grac'ism for mvUumu 74. CapuL Equivalent 
here to the personal pronoun tu. Compare Ode, 1. 24. 1. — 76. Jtfsrsts 
voctfrue. The Marsi, according to some authorities, (Pirn. H. Jf. 7. 2.), 
were descended from Marsus, a son of Circe, and hence were repre- 
sented as potent enchanters.— 77. Majus parabo, &c " I will prepare 
a more efficacious, I will mix for thee, disdaining me, a more potent, 
draught And sooner shall the heavens sink beneath the sea, the earth 
being spread above^ than thou not so burn with love for me as this bitu- 
men now burns amid the gloomy fires." While uttering mis spell, Ca- 
nidia casts the bitumen into the magic fire, from which a dark, thick 
smoke immediately arises. 

83—101. 83. 8ubha*c. " Upon this."— 84 Lenke. "Attempted to 
move." The infinitive is here put for the imperfect of the indicative. 
This construction is usually explained by an ellipsis of coepit or coeperunt, 
which may often be supplied ; in other cases, however, it will not accord 
with the sense. In the present instance, tentavit may be understood.— 
There appears to be some analogy between this usage of the infinitive 
in Latin, and the idiom of the Greek, by which the same mood, taken 
as an absolute verbal idea only, is made to stand for the imperative, — 
85. Unde, "In what words." The unhappy boy is at a loss in what 
words to express his angry and indignant feelings at the horrid rites 
practised by the hagq, and at the still more horrid cruelty which they 
meditate toward himself. — 86. Thyesteas preces. " Imprecations." Such 
as Thyestes uttered against Atreus. — 87. Ventna magics, &c. "Drugs, 
of magic influence, may confound indeed the distinctions between right 
and wrong, but they cannot alter the destiny of mortals." The idealn- 
tended to be conveyed is this : The spells of the sorceress may succeed 
in accomplishing the darkest of crimes, but they cannot avert the pun- 
ishment which such offences will inevitably receive. — 89. Diris ogam eos. 
" With my curses will I pursue you." After dhris understand precibv*. 

-92. Nocturnw occwram Furor. " I will haunt you as a tormentor in 
the night-season." — 94. Quae vis deorym, &c " Such is the power of 
those divinities the Manes." The ellipsis is to be supplied as follows : 
" Ea vi quae vis est " &c— 97. Vieatm. " From street to street"— 98. 
Obscenas anus. "Filthy hags."— 99. Different. "Shall tear."— 100. 
Es]uUina£ aUtes. The birds of prey frequented the Esquiline quarter, 
because here the bodies of malefactors were left exposed, and here also 
the poor, and slaves, were interred. Subsequently, however, the cha- 
racter of the place was entirely changed by the splendid residence and 
gardens of Msjcenas. Consult note on Ode, 6. 29. 10.— 101. Jftmu 
hoc parents*, fee. The boy's last thoughts, observes Francis, are ten* 

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EXPLANATORY NOTE*.— EFODB TL Til. 411 

derij employed m reflecting upon the grief of hie parents ; yet he teem* 
to comfort them, and at the same time to confirm the truth of his pre 
diction by that consolation which they shall receive in the death of these 



Epods 6. Addressed to a cowardly and mercenary slanderer. — It is 
commonly thought that this piece was written against Cassius Severus, 
and, in many coitions, it appears with an inscription to this effect. Such 
a supposition, however, is perfectly gratuitous. It is probable that the 
title in question originated with some scholiast, who, having read in Ta- 
citus {Ann, 1. 72. and 4 31.) of the licentious spirit and defamatory pen 
of Cassius Severus, erroneously imagined him to be the one whom the 
poet here attacks. 

1—14. 1. Quid immertntes, &c. " Thou cur, why, being cowardly 
against wolves, dost thou snarl at inoffensive strangers V* By the term 
kqspit ej are here meant those who are entirely unknown to the individual, 
but whom he, notwithstanding, makes the subjects of his envenomed 
attacks. — 3. Inane*. As proceeding from a cowardly and spiritless cur. 
—4. Remorsurum. "Who am ready to bite in return." — 5. Melasma, 
out /tdvus Lacon. "A Molossian, or a tawny Laconian doc." The 

valuafa' 



Molossian and Laconian dogs were of a robust make, and valuable as 
well in hunting wild beasts, as in defending the flocks from nocturnal 
thieves, and from the attacks of wolves. The Molossi occupied the 
north-eastern part of Epirus.— 6. Arnica vis. " A friendly aid ." — 7. Agam 
aueteunque practdtt /era. " I will pursue whatever savage beast shall go 
before me." Put for ogam quamcunque qua mihi pracedet feram. — 10. 
Projection odoraris cibum. "Smell at the food thrown to thee." A figu- 
rative mode of expressing that the individual whom he attacks was easily 
bribed to silence. — 12. Parata tollo oornua. The poet alludes to his Iam- 
bics, with which he stands prepared to assail all evil-doers, as the bull is 
ready with its horns against every one who provokes it to the attack.— 
13. Qualu Lyeambaj &c "Like him who was rejected as a son-in-law 
by the faithless Lycambes, or like the fierce enemy of Bupalus." Ly- 
cambce is toe dative, by a Gnedsm, for the ablative, and by another Gn&- 
cism, Bupalo, the dative, is put for Bupaii. — Lycambat. The allusion is 
to Archilochus. Lycambes had promised him his daughter Neobule in 
marriage, but afterwards changed his mind and gave her to another. 
Archilochus, in revenge, wrote a poem against him, in Iambic verse, so 
cruelly satirical that both father and daughter hung themselves in despair. 
Such at least is the common account It would seem, however, from 
some authorities, that Neobule killed herself, not on account of the verses 
of Archilochus, but through despair at the loss of her father. Compare 
SehoeU, Hist. LiL Grate. voL 1. p. 199—14. Bupalo. The allusion is to 
the poet Hipponax, and the brothers Bupalus and Anthermus. 



Epodb 7. After the overthrow of Sextus Pompeius, the Republic 
seemed once more destined to taste of repose. The respite, however, 
was of short duration, and the enmity of Octavianus and Antony soon 
rekindled the flames of war. It was about this period that the present 
poem was written. The bard mourns over the intestine divisions of his 
countrymen, and imputes the horrors of the civil wars to the evil destiny 
entailed upon the Romans by the blood of Remus. 



38 



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411 UK*yAT0ftT KOTE8.— EFODE . X. 

1—90. 1. SceUaU. « Stained with guilt" An allusion to the gnflt tad 
bloodshed of the civil ware-— 2. ConditL "So lately sheathed?* Un- 
derstand vaginia. The poet refers to the short period of repose which 
ensued after the overthrow of Sextos Pompeius. Compare Introdoctorj 
Remarks. — 3. Campia atque Aepftmo super. "On the fields, and on the 
Ocean." Equivalent to terra manque. Compare Ode 2. 1. 29. — 5. Am «l 
anperbaa, &c The idea intended to be conveyed is as follows. These 
swords are not drawn against the enemies of our country, as they were 
in former days against haughty Carthage, and as they now should be 
against the Britons still bidding defiance to our arms : they are to be 
turned upon ourselves, they are to enter our own bosoms, in order that 
the wishes of the Parthians, of our bitterest foes, may be accomplished, 
and that Rome may tall in ruin by the hands of her sons. — 7. hOactus. 
u Still unsubdued."— Deacmderet Sacra catcnatua via. M Might descend 
in chains along the Sacred Way." i. e. might be led in triumph through 
the streets of the capital, and, after this, be consigned to imprisonment 
and death. In the celebration of the triumph, the Roman general, when 
he began to turn his chariot from the Forum to the Capitoline mount, on 
dered the captive kings, and leaders of the enemy, to be led to prison and 
there put to death, (in careerem descendere.) — 1 1. Hie mo*. «* This cus- 
tom" of raging against their own species. — Fvit. The aoriat, in the 
sense of deprehenditur, u is found." — 12. JAmqwsmnisiin diapar feris.— 
" Which are never cruel except towards animals of a different kind." — 
13. Via acrior. " Some superior power."— 14. Cuts*. " The guilt of your 
forefathers, entailed upon their offspring." The allusion is to the guilt of 
Romulus, which is to be atoned for by posterity. — 15. Pallor attic*. W A 
deadly paleness." Consult note on Ode 3. 10. 14. — 16. Mcntesatu prr- 
eulsa) stupent. '< And their conscience-stricken minds are stupified."— 
17. Sic eat, &£ After a pathetic pause, as Sanadon remarks, Horace 
adheres to the two last causes he had mentioned. He therefore imputes 
the civil wars to the destinies, and to the death of Remus j as if the 
destinies had condemned the Romans to expiate the fratricide of that 
prince by destroying one another with their own arms. This was going 
very far back in order to remove the idea of the real cause oftheir present 
calamities. — Jlgxmt. " Harass." — 18. Sccluaquc fratcrna nccia. The 
guilt of Romulus in slaying his brother Remus. — 19. Ut. "Ever since." — 
20. Socer nepotibua. "Fatal to posterity." Compare the explanation of 
the scholiast, as cited by Zeune, " Qutm auo enter etxpiotmi cronL* 



Epodb 9. Written when the news of the victory at Actium was first 
received at Rome. The bard addresses his patron, then at the scene of 
action. 

1 — 15. 1. Repoalvm Cctcubvm od feataa dopes, "Csscuban wine re- 
served forjoyous feasts." Consult note on Ode 1. 20. 9. — 3. Sue site 
domo. "Beneath thy stately abode." Consult note on Ode 3. 29. 10. 
— Sic Jovi grohon. "So is it pleasing to Jove," i. e. in doing this, we 
shall be performing an act agreeable to Jove, the guardian of our em- 
pire.-— 4. Beote. This epithet has reference to the opulence of Maece- 
nas, to his lofty abode on the Esquiline, (site domua,) his beautiful jar* 
dens, &c.— 5. SononU mixtion tibHa, &c. " While the lyre sends forth 
a strain intermingled with the music of flutes, that uttering the Dorian, 
these the Phrygian mood." With hoc understand acnonte ; with Otis, 
sonanfisttf. The music of the lyre and the flute are to succeed each 

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EXPLAXATOftT WOTXS.— BPODK DC. 413 

other alternately, the strains of the former are to be grave and severe, 
such being the. character of the Dorian mood, the music of the flutes, on 
the other hand, is to be of a wild and bacchic character, in accordance 
with the Phrygian mood. — 7. Actus cumfreto Jfeptuniut dux. " When 
the Neptunian chief, driven from the Sicilian strait." The allusion is 
to Sextus Pompeius, who boastin»ly styled himself the son of Neptune, 
because his father had once held the command of the sea. — 10. Servia 
amicus perfidis. According to Dio Cassius, (48. 19.) the number of fugi- 
tive slaves, who went over to Pompeius, was so great, that the Vestal 
Virgins were accustomed, during the performance of sacred rites, to 
offer up prayers for a cessation of this evil.— 11. Romwius. The allu- 
sion is to the Romans in the army of Antony. — 12. Emancipaius femi- 
ss. M Subjected as a voluntary slave to a woman." The reference is 
to Cleopatra. — 13. Fert vallum et armamUes r &c. " Bears the stake, and 
arms, as a soldier, and can yield obedience to withered eunuchs." The 
poet expresses his indignation, that Romans, hardy enough to endure 
the toils of military service, can, at the same time, be so wanting in spi- 
rit, as to yield obedience to the orders of eunuchs. The allusion, in tne 
words fert vallum, is to that part of Roman discipline, which compelled 
each soldier to carry, among other things, a certain number of stakes 
(usually three or four) to be used in encamping. — Spadomb+s. The al- 
lusion seems to be principally to the eunuch Mardion, who, according 
to Plutarch, along with Pothinus, Iras, and Charm ion, had the chief 
direction of Cleopatra's affairs, (ty* avrd/tfytm itotKttrat rjj$ tytporUs. 
PluL ViL AnL c. 60.— wi. 6. p. 132. ed. /fatten.)— 15. Turpe ctmopium. 
" A vile Egyptian canopy." The eonophan was a canopy, curtain, or 
veil of net- work, used for the purpose of keeping off gnats and flies. 
It was principally employed by the Egyptians, on account of the great 
number of these insects produced by tne marshes of the Nile. The 
scholiast, in his explanation of the term, furnishes us with its etymo- 
logy : " Genus retis ad muscat et culicts, (nfewvac ) abigendos, quo Alex- 
andrini potissimum utuntur propter culicum Wic abundantiam." To a 
genuine Roman spirit the use of such an article appeared degrading 
effeminacy. 

17 — 8%. 17. Ad hoe firementes, &c. "Indignant at this spectacle, 
two thousand Gauls turned about their steeds, bidding Cesar hail." 
The poet evidently alludes to the defection of Deiotarus and Amyntas, 
two leaders of the Gallo-Gnscians, or Galatians, who went over to 
Augustus a short time previous to the battle of Actium. In the motive, 
however, which Horace assigns for this step, there is more of bitter sar- 
casm than historical truth.— -Vcrterunt. The penult is here shortened 
by Systole, as it is called. — 19. HostUiumque navium portu latent, &c 
M And the sterns of hostile ships, impelled towards the left, lie concealed 
in the harbour." In order to understand clearly this somewhat obscure 
passage, we must bear in mind, that the present piece was written be- 
fore any very definite particulars respecting the battle of Actium had 
reached the capital. The poet, therefore, exercises some license on the 
occasion, and supposes that a division of Antony's fleet, equally indig- 
nant with the Gallic horsemen, retired from the fight into tde harbour, 
and, in order that their defection might be less apparent, rowed their 
▼easels astern, or impelled them into the harbour stern foremost (Com- 
pare the Greek expression, *pt>irar «po**a*ftai, and Valckenaer, ad Hero- 
dot. 8. 84.) In executing this movement they would have necessarily 
to move towards the left, as Antony's fleet was drawn up on the right 
and facing Italy.— 31. Jo Triumph* ! &c The poet, personifying Tri- 

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414 EXFXAJIATOaT MOTES. — BPODB X. 

vmpb, addresses it as a god, and complains of its tardy approach. Tt* 
idea intended to be conveyed by the whole passage from the present line 
to (he 26th, both inclusive, is simply as follows: When shall we cele- 
brate the triumph due to this most glorious victory, a triumph to be 
ranked far before both that of Marios over Jugurtha, and that of Scipio, 
for the overthrow of Carthage ? — Jiureos cwrrus. Alluding to the trium- 

5>hal chariot, which was wont to be adorned with fold and ivory. — 21 
ntactas botes. The Roman triumphs always ended with a sacrifice to 
Jove, and the victims, as in every other offering to the gods, were to be 
such as had never felt the yoke. With intactas, therefore, we must un- 
derstand jugo. 

23 — 38. 33. AVc Jufurthbw parent, &c " Thou didst neither bring 
back a leader equal to him from the war of Jugurtha, nor Africanus, unto 
whom valour reared a monument upon the ruins of Carthage," i. e. Ma* 
rius did not return with eaual glory from the subjugation of Jugurtha, 
nor the younger Africanus from the destruction of Carthage. — 27. Puxico 
lugxtbrc mutacit sagum. " Has changed his purple robe for one of mourn- 
ing." Anhype^KgQjformutavUPunieumsa^umlttgubriaBgo. The Roman 
sagum was properly a military robe : here, however, the term is taken 
in a more extended sense. The allusion in the text is to Antony, and the 
epithet Pwiico may either refer simply to the colour of his poludamcntw*, or 
general's robe, or else, what appears preferable, may contain a general cen- 
sure on the previous luxury ana splendour of his attire. — 39. Jhk tile centum 
noeilent, fcc This passage would seem to confirm the truth of the remark 
made in a previous note, (v. 19.) that no accurate accounts had as yet 
reached the capital, either respecting the details of the fight itself, or the 
ulterior movements of Antony. — 30. VenHs nm suU. " With unpropi- 
tious winds."— 31. ExereUotos Jfoto. "Agitated bv the blast of the 
South." As regards the Svrtes, consult note on Ode 1. 7. 28.— 33. 
Capociores affer Sue, &c The joy of Horace was too lively, as Dacier 
remarks, to wait the return of Maecenas. He celebrates the victory the 
moment he receives the news, and he thinks his apprehensions for the 
safety of Octavianus ought now to cease, for it was not known at Rome, 
that he intended to complete his conquest by pursuing Antony, and ex- 
posing himself to new dangers. — 35. Fluentem nauseam, " The rising 
qualm."— 37. Rerum. " For the interests."— 33. Lyao. Consult note 
on Ode 1. 22. 4. 



Eroni 10. Addressed to Mevius, a contemptible poet of the day, 
who was on the eve of embarking for Greece. The bard prays heartily 
that ho may be shipwrecked, and vows a sacrifice to the storms if they 
will but destroy him. — This Mevius is the same with the one to whom 
Virgil satirically alludes in his 3d Eclogue (©. 90.) " Qui Batimm sea 
adit, amet tua tormina Jtf <*oi," He would seem to have incurred the re- 
sentment of both Virgil and Horace by bis railing and slanderous pro- 
pensities. 

1 — 24. 1. Mala soluta, &c " The vessel, loosened from her moor- 
ings, sails forth under evil auspices, bearing as she does the fetid Me- 
vius." — 2. (Hentem. Compare the explanation of Mitscherlich: "Hir* 
tint odoris hominem." Rutgersius ILeeU Venus. 10. 10.) thinks, that 
this epithet is rather meant to be applied to the character of Mevius as 
a poet,ani to his annotation of obsolete words. There is far mora of 



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■\PLANATORT NOTES. — BPAMC XL 410 

bitter satire, however, in olentem, if considered as a personal allusion.— 
1 Utrwnque lotus. u Each side of her." Understand navis. — 4 . duster. 
The poet enumerates the winds duster, Eurus, and Jlquilo, in order to 
convey a livelier image of a tempest, by the contending together of these 
opposing blasts. — 5- Jfiger rudentes Eurus, &c. " May the dark south- 
east wind scatter her rigging and her shivered oars in the sea turned up 
from its lowest depths.' 1 — 7. Quanta*. " With as great fury as," i. e. 
with all the fury it has, when, &c. — 8. Trementes. " Waving to and fro 
beneath the blast" — 9. Sidus amicum. " The star friendly to mariners." 
The allusion is to the Dioscuri. Consult note on Ode 1. 3. 2. — 10. 
Orion. Consult note on Ode 3. 27. 17. — 12. Quam Grata victorwn mtt- 
nus, &c The poet alludes to the destruction by Minerva, of the vessel 
that bore the Oilean Ajar, and to the shipwreck of the Grecian fleet 
off the promontory of Caphareus in Eubcea. — 16. Pallor luteus. Consult 
note on Ode 3. 10. 14. — 18. Aversum ad Jovem. "To unpropitious 
Jove." — 19. Ionius udo, &c. "When the Ionian sea, roaring with the 
blasts of the rainy South." The term sinus, here applied to the Ionian 
sea, has reference to its being bent into numerous gulfs. In strict 
geographical language, however, the expression Ionius sinus, about the 
tune of Horace, denoted merely a part of the Adriatic. — 21. Opima auod 
si, &c. The poet vows a sacrifice to the Tempests, if the corpse or the 
shipwrecked Msvius, cast unburied on the snore, become the prey of 
birds. Some commentators refer the expression opima prada to corpu- 
lence of person on the part of Maevius. This, however is mere conjec- 
ture. Tne words may with more propriety, be rendered, "a dainty 
prey" — 24. Tempestatibus. The ancients were accustomed to sacrifice 
a black Iamb to the Storms and Tempests, and a white one to the 
Western wind. 



Efodk 11. Addressed to Pectins. 

5—15. 5. December. Put by Synecdoche for annus. — 6. Sttvis honor em 
dectUU. " Shakes their leafy honours from the woods."— 8. Fabula quanta 
fid. "What a subject of conversation I have been." — Convfoiorum et 
pomUet, &c " It repents me too of those entertainments, at which dejec- 
tion and silence discovered the lover, and the sigh heaved from the depth 
of my heart" — 11. Contrane lucrum, &c. " A candid and an honest heart, 
in one of scanty means, is to avail nothing then against the love of gain." 
The train of ideas in this whole passage, is as follows: Thou, OPectius. 
must remember, how I once complained to thee, when wine had disclosed 
the secrets of my breast; how I lamented that my sincere and constant 
affection seemed of no value in the eyes of Inachia, because fortune had 
not blessed me with abundant means, while, eager for gain, she sought 
only after wealthy admirers.— 13. Simul calentis inverecundus deus, Ice 
" As soon as the god, who drives away false shame from the breast, had 
removed from their place the secrets of my heart, warming under the in- 
fluence of cheering wine." The epithet inverecundus, applied here to 
Bacchus, is well explained by Mitscherlich : " Qui verecundxam abstergit, 
tacenda proloqui jubct." As regards calentis, we must, in a literal transla- 
tion, understand with it met, (" the secrets of me warming," &c.)— 15. 
Quod si meis, &c. " But if indignation, no longer to be repressed, rage in 
my bosom, so as to scatter to the winds these useless remedies, in no re- 
spect alleviating my cruel wound, my shame, being removed, shall cease 
lo vie with unequal rivals," i. e. I shall no longer blush at yielding the 

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416 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — EPODE XIO. 

prize to wealthier rivals. The /omenta, of which the poet speaks, are the 
hopes which he had all along entertained that Inachia would at length be 
sensible of the superior value of his affection. With this hope he was 
consoling himself, until at length, his indignation at her neglect could no 
longer be repressed, and he resolved to abandon her forever. 

19—22. 19. Ubi hacseverus, &c "When, with firm resolve, I had 
made these declaration b in thy presence." As regards the meaning which 
laudare here bears, compare the remark oCAvlus Gellius (2. 6.) "Laudare 
rignificat, prisca lingua, nommare appdlarequt. 1 * Hence this verb is fre- 
quently used (especially in the editorial Latinity of modern times) in the 
sense of " to mention," u cite," " quote," " call by name," Ac. Some edi- 
tors make the meaning of ubi hcec laudaveram to be : " when I had ap- 
plauded myself for this resolution." Such an interpretation is not correct 
— Te palam. The ablative here depends on palam, which has the force ol 
a preposition. This is far, however, from being an fvaf X«yrf /*«•**, as some 
critics seem to think. Other examples of a similar usage are as follows: 
Lwy> 6. 14 : " palam populo. n Ovid. A. A. 2. 549 : TrisL 5. 10. 49 : " we 
palam." Auct. Cons, ad Liv. (in Ovid.) 442 : '< palam omnibus," and Lir. 
25. 18, where Gronovius retains omnibus, but Drakenborch rejects it — 20, 
Justus. Understand a te. — Ferebar incerto pede. * I was carried with 
wavering foot-step." The poet's resolution soon fails, and, on endeavour- 
ing to reach his own home, in compliance with the admonition of his 
friend, he finds himself once more at the gate of Inachia. Some commen- 
tators make incerto ptdt refer to the uncertain footsteps of an angry and 
agitated man: this however, is decidedly inferior.— 22. Qjuibus lumbos tt 
iitfregi lotus. " On which I once bruised my loins and side." 



Epode 1 3. Addressed to a party of friends, with whom the poet wishes 
to spend a day of rain and storm amid the joys of wine. He exhorts them 
to seize the present hour, and to dismiss the future from their thoughts. 
To add weight to this Epicurean maxim, the authority of the Centaur 
Chiron is adduced, who advises the young Achilles, since fate had 
destined him for a short career, to dispel his cares with wine and 
song. 

1 — 6. 1. Horrida tempestas codum eontraxU. " A gloom j tempest has 
condensed the skies." — 2. Dtducunt Jovem. " Bring down the upper air." 
By Jupiter is here meant the higher part of the atmosphere, (either.) The 
ancients considered rain as the air dissolved. — Silwe. A Diaeresis, on ac- 
count of the metre, for silvct. — 3. Rapiamus, amid, &c " My friends, let 
us seize the opportunity which this day presents." — 5. Obducta solvatur 
fronte senectus. " Let the clouded brow or sadness be relaxed." literally : 
"let sadness, with clouded brow, be relaxed." Senectus does not here 
mean age, but " sadness 11 or "melancholy." Compare the scholium of 
Porphyrion: " Senectutem pro gravitate ac severitale accipe. n — 6. Tu rtna 
Torquato move l &c The poet, eager for the expected entertainment, 
imagines his friends already present, and, addressing himself to one of the 
party supposed to be assembled, exclaims: "Do thou produce the wine, 
pressed when my Torquatus was consul." The force of move, in this 
passage, is best explained on the principle that this was to be a feast of 
contribution, and that Horace calls first upon him who was to furnish the 
wine." The wine to be drunk on this occasion, is that which had been 
made in the year when L. Manlius Torquatus was consul ConBult note 
on Ode, 3. 21. 1. ^ 



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■XfLUf ATORT KOTBS. — EPODE XXV. XT. 417 

7—18. 7. Cater* mitle loquL "Cease to talk of other things." The 
tuct alludes to some cause of anxiety on the part of his friend. — Deus 
lac fartasse benigna, &c " Perhaps the deity will, by a kind change, 
restore what now disquiets thee to its former state. — 8. Achozmenio. 
Consult note on Ode, 3. 1. 44.— Cyllenea. The lyre is here called " Cyl- 
lenean," because invented by Mercury, who was born on Cyllene, a 
mountain in the northern part of Arcadia, on the borders of Achia. — 11. 
Xobilis Centaurus. Chiron. — Alumno. Achilles. — 13. Assaraci tellus. 
"The land of Assaracus," i. e. Troy. Assaracus, son of Tros, was 
one of the ancient monarchs of Troy. — 15. Curio subtenant. "By a 
short thread." The common lection, certo subtemine, (" by a thread that 
fixes thy destiny,") is far inferior. The term subtemen means properly 
the woof or toe//, i. e. the threads inserted into the warp. — 18. Defortnu 
epimonuz, &c. " The sweet soothers of disfiguring melancholy." 



Epods 14 Horace had promised to address an Iambic poem to his 
patron Maecenas. Having neglected, however, to fulfil his word, he met 
with a gentle reproach from the latter, and now seeks to excuse the 
l by ascribing it to the all-engrossing power of love. 



1 — 13. 1. Mollis inertia, &c The order of construction is as follows : 
Cgndide Macenas, oecidis sape rogando, cur mollis inertia diffuderit tantam 
oblwionem imis sensibus, ut si traxervn, arente fauce, pocula ducentia Le- 
Uutos somnos. — 3. Pocula Lethaos ducentia somnos. " Cups that bring on 
Lethean slumbers," L e. the waters of Lethe.— 4. Arente fauee. "With 
parched throat." Equivalent to avide. — 6. Deus. Alluding to the god 
of love.— -Nam. Elliptical The connection is as follows : No effemi- 
nate indolence, no forgetfulness like that produced by the waters of 
Lethe, is to blame ; "for a god, a god forbids me," &c. — S. AdumbUicum 
•iducere. " To bring to an end." Among the Romans, when a book 
or volume was finished, it was rolled around a taper stick, made of cedar, 
box, ivory, or the like, and called umbilicus from its being in the middle 
when the work was rolled around it The poets generally use the plural 
form of this word, in allusion to the parts which projected on either side 
of the book : the two extremities were called cornua. Some, however, 
suppose that by umbilici are meant balls or bosses, placed at either end 
of the stick. Whatever the true solution of this point may be, for it is 
certainly involved in some doubt, the meaning of the phrase ad umbilicum 
aixtueert, will still be the same, viz. "to bring to an end," "to finish," &c. 
— 18. Aon etooorarum ad pedem. "In careless measure." — 13. Q,uodsi 
nm pulchrior ignis, &c. "But if no brighter fire kindled besieged Ilium, 
rejoice in thy happy lot," L e. if thy Lycimnia is as fair as the Grecian 
Helen, whose beauty caused the siege and the conflagration of Troy, then 
art thou, Maecenas, a happy man. 



Etodb 15. The bard complains of the faithless Neaera. 

1— S3. 8. Inter minora siitra. Compare Ode 1. 12. 47. " Velut inter 
tgnes Luna mtnorei."— 4. In verba mea. "To the form of words which 
I dictated." Jurare in verba ahcujus, is to swear according to a form 
prescribed by another, who goes over the words before us, and is hence 
amid praxre verbis. — Intonsotquc agitaret, &c " And the breeze should 

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41S IXFLAMATOIT NOT £3.— EPODE XVI. 

agitate the unshorn locks of Apollo." A beautifully poetic express** 
for " dum Apollo jxnentute gauderit. n One of the most conspicuous attn- 
btites of Apollo was unfading youth. Consult note on Ode 1. 21. 1— 
1 1. Dolitura mea, &c. *' Destined deeply to grieve at my fiimoeti of 
resolve."— 12. VirL Compare Terence, Eunuch. 1. 1. 21. " SenUet (sc. 
Thais) qui vir siem" and again, 1. 2. 74. " £u noster ! kudo, tandm 
perJoluU : vir «*."— 15. Aec semd offensa, &c. " Nor will my determi. 
nation yield to thy beauty when once it has become odious in my eyes," 
L e. if I once hate thee for thy Derfidy, that hatred will be lasting.— 16. 
Si cerhu intrant dolor. " If a firm and indignant resolution shall have 
once entered my breast."— 13. Superbu*. "Exulting."— 20. Pactdus. 
A river of Ly dia, fabled to have golden sands.— 2 1 . FaUant. For lattanL 
—Rcnati. " Who again and again sprang up into existence.** Consult 
note on Ode 1. 28. 10.— 23. Wirca. Consult note on Ode 3. 20. 15. 



Epodv 16. The Republic, as Sanadon remarks, had been violently 
agitated by civil commotions for almost sixty years, beginning with the 
days of Marius and Sylla. A freah scene of bloodshed was now ap- 
proaching, and the quarrel between Octavianus and Antony threatened 
the Roman world with a general dissolution. A battle was expected, 
and that battle was to decide, as it were, the fate of the universe. An 
event of such deep interest engrossed the minds of men. A feeling of 
uncertainty, as to the issue of the contest, filled them with alarm, and 
a remembrance of the preceding wars collected into one point of view 
all the horrors which they had produced. The poet, amid these scene* 
of terror, composed this Epode. He proposes to the Romans a deser- 
tion of their country, and a retreat to the Fortunate Islands, where the 
gods promised them a more tranquil, and a happier life. To confirm 
this advice, the example of the Phocsans is cited, who abandoned their 
native city rather than live under the dominion of Cyrus, and bound 
themselves by a common oath never to return. 

1 — 13. 1. Mera jum teritur, &c "A second age is now wasting 
away in civil wars." By this second age is understood the period which 
intervened between the death of Caesar and the contest of Octavianus 
and Antony. The first age extended from the entrance of Sylla into 
Rome with an armed force to the death of Ccesar. If we make the pre* 
sent epode to have been written A. U. C. 721, the whole antecedent 
period nere referred to would be 56 years ; and, if we allow, as is conv 
monly done, 30 years to an alas (oryiMi) the " second age" was within 
four years of its completion. — 2. Ipsa. " Of her own accord." Equi- 
valent to the Greek aVny. — 3. Quam neque finitimi, &c The order of 
construction is as follows : Nos, impia atea, devoti $angubri$, perdem** 
earn civitatem, quam neque, &c. — 3. Marti. The poet assigns the first 
place to the Marsic, or Social War, as most fraught with danger to the 
Republic.— 4. Minacia outEtrusco, &c. Alluding to the efforts of Por- 
sena in behalf of the banished Tarquins, and the siege which Rome in 
consequence-underwent — 5. JEmula nee virtus Capua. " Nor the rival 
strength of Capua." The allusion, in the text, appears to be to the 
bearing of Capua after the overthrow of Cannae, when, as it would 
aeem from Livy, she aimed at the empire of all Italy. Compare IA*f, 
23. 6.— Spartacus. Consult note on Ode 3. 14. 19.— 6. JVorisque rthu 
infidelU AUobrox. " And the Allobroges, faithless in their frequent com- 
motions," i. e. displaying their faithless character in their numerous se» 



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KXFLANATO&T tfOTCS.— ftfODft Iff. 419 

ditions. The AHobroges were situate in the southern pert of Gaul, 
between the Rodanus (Rhone) and Isara (here.) — 6* CavruUa pube. 
"With its blue-eyed youth." Compare the description given by Taci- 
tus (Germ. 4.) of the Germans : " Habitus ecrporum .... idem omnibus ; 
truces et carulti oeutt, rutUa, coma, magna corpora." The allusion in the 
text seems to be principally to the inroad of the Cfmbri and Teutones. 
—9. DevoU sanguinis. " Of devoted blood," i. e. whose blood is de- 
voted to destruction as a punishment for our father's crimes. — 10. Bar- 
terns. Alluding to the barbarian nations which formed part of the 
forces of Antony.— Et urbem eques, &c "And the horsemen strike our 
city with sounding hoof," i. e. ride insulting over the ruins of fallen 
Rome. — 13. (Iwzque carent ventis, &c " And insolently scatter the 
bones of Romulus, which lie concealed from winds and suns, (unlawful 
to be beheld !") The sanctity of sepulchres was always guarded by the 
strictest laws, and their sacred character was founded on the circum- 
stance of their being dedicated to the Manes. The tombs of the foun- 
ders of cities were regarded as particularly entitled to veneration, and it 
was deemed a most inauspicious omen, if the remains contained in them 
were, by accident, or in any other way, exposed to view. 

15 — 37. 15. Forte quid expediat J &c " Perhaps, ye all in common, 
or else the better portion, are enquiring of yourselves, what is best to be 
done, in order to avert these dreadful calamities." By the expression 
metier pars are meant those who hold civil conflicts in abhorrence, and 
who feel for the miseries of their country. — 17. Phocxorum vdutprofugit, 
&c " As the people of Phocaea fled, bound by solemn imprecations: 
as they abandoned," fcc. The Phocsans, a people of Ionia, rather than 
submit to the power of Cyrus, abandoned their city, binding themselves 
by an oath, and by solemn imprecations, not to return before a mass of 
burning iron, which they threw into the sea, should rise to the surface. 
— 25. Sedjuremus in hae. Undetstand verba, and compare Epode 15. 4. 
The oath of the Phocsans is here imitated, excepting^ that stones are 
substituted for iron. — Simul imis saxa renarint, &c. "That we shall be 
permitted to Tetum, whenever these stones shall rise from the bottom of 
the sea, and swim back to the surface of the water." — 27. Domum. 
"To our country." — Quando Padus Molina laverit cacumina. "When 
the Po shall wash the Matinian summits," i. e. When the Po, in the 
north, shall wash the summits of Mount Matinus in Calabria, near the 
south-eastern extremity of Italy. Near this mountain was the town of 
Mstinnra.— 29. Proruperit. " Shall burst forth." — 30. Monetrajunxerit. 
"Shall form unnatural unions."— 31. Ut. "So that"— 33. Creduku 
"Persuaded of their safety." — 34 Lams. " Become smooth," i. e. be- 
come smooth as a fish, from having been rough and shaggy. — 35. Hctc 
exearata. " Having sworn to the performance of these things, under 
solemn imprecations." — 37. Jiut para indocUi meUor grege. " Or that 
portion which is wiser than the indocile crowd." — Mollis et exspes ino- 
mhuUa, &c. "Let the faint-hearted and desponding press these ill- 
omened couches," i. e. continue to dwell in this city ofgloomy auspices. 
The epithet moUu applies to those who want spirit and manly danng to 
brave the dangers ot the sea, while by exspes those are designated who 
have, with timid minds, given up all hopes for the salvation of their 
country. 

39—58. 39. MuHebrem toUUe luctum. The poet adjures those whom 
oe supposes to be about to abandon their country along with him, to 
leave it as men, and to shed no tears, and indulge in no womanish grie£ 

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490 IXFLAXATOIT KOTM.— IFODB XTI. 

on the eve of their departure.— 40. EtruscasratoefsolafeKfors. Their 
course is first to lie through the marc 7yrfcnum, after leaving wnich 
they are to make for the main ocean.— 41. Ab* numet Oceania eircum- 
umgus. "The circumambient Ocean awaits us." The epithet cir- 
cumvagvs is here equivalent to the Homeric ty^w. — Jlrva, btala peto- 
nms orva, &c "Let us seek the fields, the blessed fields, and the rich 
isles," &c. The poet advises his countrymen to seek the Fortunate isles 
of the ocean. These are generally supposed to have been identical with 
the modern Canaries, It is more than probable, however, that they were 
merely a part of the group.— 43. ReddU ubi Cereretn, &c M Where the 
earth, though untouched by the plough, yields its annual produce, and 
the vines, though unpruned, ever flourish."— 46. Suamaue pulU, &c 
" And the dark fig graces its own tree," i. e. the natural or ungraded 
tree. The epithetsuita alludes to the colour of the fig when ripe. — 48. 
Crepanie pede. " With rustling footstep," i. e. with a pleasing murmur. 
— 60. J&micus. A pleasing reference to the kind ana friendly feelings 
with which, to the eye of the poet, the flock is supposed to bestow its 
gifts upon the master. — 53. Nulla noctni pecori eontaguu Alluding to 
the salubrity of the atmosphere. — Jfuttius astri etstuoso impoienlia. " The 
scorching violence of no star." Consult note on Ode 3. 13. 19. and 1. 
17. 17. — 55. Ut neque lartris, &c. "How neither reiny Euros wastes 
the fields with excessive showers," &c. Compare the description of the 
Homeric Elysium in the western isles, (Od. 4. 566. staq.) — 58. Utrwn- 
que temperante. M Controlling each extreme," i. e. or rainy cold and 
scorching heat. 

59 — 65. 59. Mm hue Jirgoo, &c "The pine sped not hither its way 
with an Argoan band of rowers," L e. the Argoan pine (the ship Argo) 
never visited these happy regions to introduce the corruptions of other 
lands. The allusion is to the contagion of those national vices which 
commerce is so instrumental in disseminating — 60. ImmuUca Colchis* 
Alluding to Medea, and her want of female modesty in abandoning her 
home.— 61. Cornua, "Their sail-yards." Literally, "the extremities 
of their sail-yards," antennorum being understood. — 62. Laboriosa cohort 
UlixeL " The followers of Ulysses, exercised in hardships," L e. Ulys- 
ses and his followers schooled in toil. — 63. Jupiter ilia piae, &c " Jupi- 
ter set apart these shores for a pious race, when he stained the golden 
age with brass; when, after this, he hardened with iron the brazen age," 
i. e. when the brazen and the iron had succeeded to the golden age. The 
verb Mccrevit, as used in the text, well expresses the remote situation of 
these blissful regions, far from the crimes and horrors of civil dissension. 
—65. Quorum pits secunda, &c. "From which age of iron, an auspi- 
cious escape is granted to the pious, according to the oracle which I pro- 
nounce."— With 9110mm understand saeculorum. — The language of the 
poet is here based upon the custom, followed in the most ancient times, 
of leading forth colonies under the guidance of some diviner or prophet, 
after the oracle had been duly consulted and its will ascertained. 



Epode 17. A pretended recantation of the 5th Epode, to which sac 
coeds the answer of Canidia, now rendered haughty and insolent by 
success. The submission of the bard, however, and the menaces of the 
sorceress, are only irony and satire, so much more severe and violent as 
they are more disguised. 

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BXTLAJfATORT NOTES.— EPODI XVFJ. 481 

1 — 7. 1. m/icacido manus seientUt. "I yield submissive to thy 
mighty art," L e. I acknowledge and submit to thy power, mighty sor- 
ceress. The expression do mantu is figurative, and is used commonly to 
denote the submission of the vanquished to the victors on the field of 
battle. — 2. Rcgqa per Proseryhuu, &c " By the realms of Proserpina, 
and by the power of Hecate, not to be provoked with impunity, and by 
thy books of enchantments," &c The poet here adjures Canidia by the 
things which she most revered, and with which, as a sorceress, she wu 
supposed to be most conversant — 5. Defixa. " Bound by thy incanta- 
tJoosto obey." The verb defigo is peculiar in this sense to magic rites. 
Hence it frequently answers to our verb, " to bewitch." — 7. CUumausre* 
tro solve, kc. "And turn backward, turn, thy swift-revolving wneeL"' 
The turbo, equivalent to the^rreek fait, was a species of wheel, much 
used in magic rites. A thread or yarn was attached to it, which began 
to wind around, on the wheel's being made to revolve, and, as this pro- 
cess was going on, the individual, who was the subject of the ceremony, 
was supposed to come more and more under the power of the sorceress. 
Horace, therefore, entreats Canidia to turn her magic wheel backward, 
and untwine the fatal thread, that he may be freed from the spell in which 
she had bound him. 

8 — S3. 8. Movit. Understand ad misericordiain. The poet heightens 
the ridicule of the piece, by citing Achilles and Circe, as examples of imi- 
tation for the worthless Canidia — Ncpotem Aeretum. Achilles. — Telephus. 
A kins of Mysia, who led an army agamst the Greeks when they had 
landed on his coasts, and was wounded, and afterwards cured, by Achilles. 
—1 1. Unxert moires Ma, Jfcc " The Trojan matrons anointed the corpse 
of Hector, slaughterer of heroes, originally doomed to voracious birds and 
dogs," Ate The idea intended to be conveyed is, that the Trojan matrons 
were enabled to perform the last sad offices to the corpse of Hector, in 
consequence of the relenting of Achilles at the supplications of Priam. — 
14 Pcrvicacis Achilla. " Of Achilles, however inflexible." Compare 
Ode 1. 6. 6.— 15. Sttosa dun*, &c. *' Divested their bristly limbs or the 
hard skins of swine," i. e. ceased to be swine. An allusion to the fable 
of Circe, and the transformation of the followers of Ulysses into swine, as 
well as to their subsequent restoration by the sorceress, on the interference 
of the chieftain of Ithaca. — 17. Tune mens et sonus, &c. " Then reason 
and speech glided back, and their former expression was gradually re- 
stored to their looks." The term relapsus (the zeugma in which must 
be noted,) beautifully describes as it wete to the eye the slow and gradual 
nature of the change. — 19. Dtdi satis suptrque, &c. " Enough and more 
than enough have I been tormented by thee." — 22. Reliov.it ossa ptlU 
amiclo lurida. " Has left behind only bones covered over with a livid skin," 
L e. has left me a mere skeleton. — 23. Tuts captilus albus, &c. " My hair 
im become white by the force of thy magic herbs." The poet ascribes this 
to the effect produced on his mind and feelings by the incantations of the 
sorceress, and not, as Gesner supposes, to any unguent actually applied 
by her to his locks. 

25—41. 35. Est "Is it allowed me." An imitation of the Greek 
usage, by which i<rrt, est, is put for cfcm, licet. — 26. Levare tenia, &c. 
** To relieve by respiration my distended lungs." — 27. AVgotom. '< What 
I once denied." Understand a me. — 28. SabtUa pectus inerepare carmina. 
fcc " That Sabellian incantations disturb the breast, and that the head 
splits asunder by a Maraian song." The poet here very pleasantly applies 
to human beings what was thought, in the popular belief, to happen mere- 

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<H EXPLANATORY KOTtt.— XPODK X*H. 

ly to snakes. The Sabeltians and Mam were famed for their skill in 
magic. By the former are here meant the Sabines generally. Caomlt 
note on Ode, 3. 6. 38. — 33. T«, donee cinis, &a . «• A living laboratory, 
thou glowest against me with the magic drugs of Colchis, until I, become 
a dry cinder, shall be borne along by the insulting winds." — 36. Qsei 
stip-ndium. " What atonement."— 39. Centum jtwencis. «« With a Iwci- 
tomb of bullocks." — Mendaci tyro. " On the lying lyre," i. e. on the lyre 
which will celebrate thee, a shameless woman, as the ornament of thy 
sex. — 41. Peramkvlabis astro sidus aureum. •« Thou shalt proudly move, 
a brilliant constellation, amid the stars," i. e. my verses will raise thee te 
the stars of heaven. The verb perombvio carries with-it the idea of a proud 
and boastful demeanour. 

43—50. 43. In/amis Helen* Cottar, &c l( Castor, offended at the 
treatment of the defamed Helen," &c. An allusion to the story related 
of the poet Stesichorus. Having defamed Helen in some lnjurioui 
verses, ne was punished with blindness by her brothers, Castor and Pol- 
lux. On the bard's publishing a recantation, they restored him to surbt. 
— 45. Poles nam. Equivalent to the Greek &tv*m yof, and a usual ions 
of expression in prayers and addresses to the gods.— 46. O necpattnii, 
&c. " O thou that art disgraced by no paternal stains." There is i 
great deal of bitter satire in this negative mode of alluding to the pie- 
tended fairness of Canidia's birth.— 47. Ace In sepukris jpauperum, &c 
" And art not skilled, as a sorceress, in scattering ihe ninth-day ashes 
amid the tombs of the poor," i. e. and knowest not what it is to go as e 
sorceress amid the tombs of the poor, and scatter their ashes on the ninth 
day after interment The ashes of the dead were frequently used in 
magic rites, and the rules of the art required, that they must be takes 
from the tomb on the ninth day after interment, (not, as some without 
any authority pretend, on the ninth day after death.) The sepulchres 
of the rich were protected against this profanation by watches, (Compare 
DcrvUle, ad ChariL p. 429. cd. Lips), and the sorceresses were therefore 
compelled to have recourse to the tombs of the poor.— 49. Hosvitote pectus. 
" A compassionate bosom." — Pvra. " Unstained with guilt," L e> thou 
stealest no boys whom thou mayest kill with lingering hunger. Com- 
pare Epode 5. — 50. Tuusque venter Paetvmeius. Understand erat. 
" And Pactumeius, too, was actually given by thee to the world," i. e, 
and Pactumeius, whom men suspect thee to have stolen from another 
parent, is indeed the fruit of thine own womb. 

54 — 62. 54. .Yon saxa nudis, &c. "The wintry main lashes not, 
with swelling surge, rocks more deaf to the cry of the naked mariners 
thsn I am to thine." — 56. Invltus ut tu riseris, &c " For thee to di- 
vulge and ridicule with impunity the mysteries of Cotytto, the rites of on- 
bridled love ?" If deemed necessary, an ellipsis of egone potior rosy be 
here supplied. Cotytto was the goddess of impure and unrestrained 
indulgence. Canidia calls her own magic rites by the name of Cotuttw, 
because their object was to bring back varus to her. Compare Epode 
5. — 58. Esquilini pentifex ventfici, &c " And, as if thou wert High 
Priest of the magic rites on the Esquiline hill, to fill the city with my 
name unpunished," i. e. as if thou wert called to preside over the incan- 
tations and secret rites which we perform on the Eequiline hill amid the 
graves of the poor. Compare note on verse 47th of this Epode, and on 
Ode 3. 29. 10.— 60. Quid proderat ditasse, &c "Of what advantage was 
it to me, to have enriched Pelignian sorceresses, or to have mixed a 
soeedier portion ?" i. e. what have I gained, by having paid Petigniaa 

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sweerosocs an extravagant ram for instructions in the nugio art, or by 
having learnt to mix a more potent draught of love ? — The Peligniwere 
situated to the east of the Marsi. and like them, were famed tor their 
magic skill. Consult note on Ode 3. 19. 8.-68. 8ed tardier* fata, &c 
M But a more lingering destiny than what thy prayers shall demand 
awaits the* A painful existence is to be prolonged to thee, a miserable 
being, with t^s sole view, that thou mayest continually survive for fresh 
inflictions of torture." The idea intended to be conveyed is as follows : 
Thy entreaties for a cessation from suffering are fruitless. I will increase 
and prolong those sufferings to such a degree, that thou shalt pray to be 
released from them by a speedy death. That prayer, however, shall 
not be heard, and thou shalt lira on only to be exposed every moment to 
fresh inflictions of torture. 

65 — 81. 65. Optat awetem, &c Examples of never-ending punish- 
ment are here cited in Tantalus, Prometheus, and Sisyphus. — 66. Egent 
bemgnet, fcc. On the punishment of Tantalus, consult note on Ode 8. 
13. 37^—69. SedvctwU leges Jovit. The epic dignity of these words adds 
to the ridicule of the whole piece.— 71. Ernie Jforico, -Consult note on 
Ode 1. 16. 9.-73. FasHdioea trutis egrfoems. " Afflicted with a sorrow 
that loathes existence."— 74. VecUbor kmnerie, fcc "Then, as a rider, 
shall I be borne on thy hostile shoulders,'' L e. then will I cruelly triumph 
over thee, my bitterest foe. The expression vectabor tenet foment, is in- 
tended as a figurative allusion to the pride and insolence of a conqueror. 
So equitart, crfimfoy k*9itt&*oQ«u, &c — 75. Memoue terra eedet tnso- 
JenJue. M And the earth shall retire from before my naughty might," L e. 
in the haughtiness of my power I will spurn the earth, and make thee 
bear me on toy shoulders through the regions of air. — 76. Qimb movere 
etreas imagines possim. " Who can give animation to waxen images." 
The witches of antiquity were accustomed to make small waxen images 
of the persons whom they intended to influence by their spells, and it 
was a prevailing article of popular belief, that, as the incantations pro- 
ceeded, these images gave signs of animation, and that the sorceresses 
could perceive in their looks and manner the gradual effect of the magic 
charms that were acting on the originals. — 77. Curiosus, The allusion 
seems to be to some occasion when the "prying" poet discovered Cani- 
dia in the midst of her sorceries. — 80. Desideriaue temperare poculutn. 
"And mix a draught of love."--81. Jb-tit extturn. "The effect ofmy art" 



Secular Htmk. In the year of Rome 737, ana when Augustus had 
consolidated the energies and restored the tranquillity of the Roman 
world, the period arrived for the celebration of the Secular Games, 
Among the directions given in the Sibylline books, for the due perform- 
ance of these solemnities, a hymn, in praise of Apollo and Diana, to 
whom they were principally sacred, was ordered to be sung by a chorus 
of youths and maidens. The composition of this hymn, on the present 
occasion, was assigned by the emperor to Horace, and the production, 
which we are about to consider, was the result of his labours, forming a 
proud monument of talent, and one of the noblest pieces of Lyric poetry 
that has descended to our times. Apollo and Diana are invoked to per* 
petuate their favouring influence toward the Roman name. Thrice the 
chorus address them, and thrice the Roman Empire is confided to their 
care, 

39 



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The Batutum among the Roman*, was property a period of 110 years, 
and the Saccular games should have been always celebrated after such an 
interval The following table, however, of the periods when they wen 
solemnis e d, will show that this rule was not much regarded. 

The first were held A. U. C. 245, or 29a 
The second. A. U. C. 330, or 408. 
,. The third. A. U. C. 518. 

The fourth, either A. U. C. 605, or 608, or 698. 

The fifth, by Augustus, A. U. C. 736. 

The sixth, by Claudius, A. U. C. 800. 

The seventh, by Domitian, A. U. C. 841. 

The eighth, by Severus, A. U. C. 957. 

The ninth, by Philip, A. U. C. 1000. 

The tenth, by Honorius, A. U. C. 1157. 

8—90. 9. Lucidum caM deem. " Bright ornament of heaven."— i. 
Tempore eaera, "At this sacred season." — 5. SibyBini versus. The Si 
bylhne verses, which have reference to the Saccular Games, are pie- 
served in ZositmiM, (2. 6. e. 109. seaq. ed. ReUeuuier.) They are alas 
given in a more emended form by Mitscherlich. — 6. Virgmea'leeUm sue- 
imque eastoi. The Sibylline verses directed, that the youths and maid- 
ens, which composed the chorus, should be the offspring of parents that 
•were both alive at the time, i. e. should be patrtmt and tnatrism. — 7. Sep* 
iem cedes. An allusion to Rome, and the seven hills on which it was 
built. — 9. Curru ititis* diem qui, &c. "Who with thy radiant chariot 
unfoldest and hidest the day, and arisest another and the same." The 
sun is here said to hide the day at its setting, and to arise on the mor- 
row a new luminary with the new day, but in all its former splendour. 
—11. Powm ewers. "Mayest thou behold."— 13. Rite maturas sacrws 
partus, &c "Ilithyia, propitious in safely producing mature births, 
protect the Roman mothers." — 16. Genitalia. Compare the explanation 
of Doring : " Qtus gignenUs sen puerperal ope sua levat, gemtura* faaet, et 
we propUiam prose*." — 17. Produce* eubolem. "Increase our offspring.* 
—Patrum. " Of the senate."— 20. Lege mania. Alluding to the J uhaa 
law, " De maritandit ordmHnu," holding out inducements for entering 
the married state, and imposing penalties on celibacy. The end of it 
was to promote population, and repair the loss occasioned by the car- 
nage of the civil wars. 

91—37. 91. Certtu undent*, he « That the stated revolution often 
times eleven years may renew the hymns and sports, celebrated by 
crowds thrice in the bright season of day, and as often in the pleasing 
night" The Secular solemnities lasted: three days and three nights. 
—25. Vosque veracet cuinisst, &c " And do you, ye Fates, true in ut- 
tering what has been once determined, and what the fixed event of things 
confirms, join favourable destinies to those already past" The expres- 
sion veraces eecinisse is a Gnscism for veraces in canendo. Dictum is 
equivalent to omstUutvmafato.-- 29. TeUus. The Earth is here addres- 
sed as one of the deities, to which sacrifices were ordered to be made, by 
the Sibylline verses. — 30. Spicea denet Cererem corona. " Gift Ceres 
with a crown, made of the ears of corn." This was the usual offering to 
Ceres. — 16. Jfutriant fetus et souse ssfaores, &c " And may refreshing 
rains, and salubrious breezes from Jove, nourish the productions of the 
fields."— 33. CandUo tela " With thine arrow hidden in the quiver," 



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EXPLANATORY NOTES- — SJBCG1A& HTM*. 436 

Apollo, with bow unbent, is mild and gentle ; but when, in anger, he 
draws the arrow from its case, and bends his bow, he becomes the god 
of pestilence. (Ode 2. 10. 20.) He is here addressed in the former of 
these characters. — 34. Audi pueros. From these words, and from audi 
puellas, toward the close of the stanza, it would appear thai the youths 
and maidens sang in alternate chorus the respective praises of Apollo 
and Diana. — 35. Repnabicornis. " Crescent queen." Alluding to her 
appearance during the first days of the new moon. — 37. Roma si vestrum 
est opus. The allusion is to the Trojans' ha ving abandoned their native 
seats, and having been led to Italy by an oracle received from Apollo. 
Diana is here joined with Apollo, and the founding of Rome is ascribed 
by the bard to their united auspices. — Riaeque turmae. The reference is 
to "the Trojan bands" of Aeneas. 

41 — 59. 41. Sine frauds "Without harm." Compare the words 
of Ulpian, (leg. 131. de V. S.) "Aliud fraus est, aliud poena. Fraus 
entm sine poena esse potest : poena sine frauds esse non potest. Poena est 
noxae vinmcla; fraus et ipsa noxa dicitur, et quasi poena quaedam praepara- 
Ha, — 44. Plura rtlicUs. " More ample possessions than those left be- 
hind," i. e. a more extensive empire than their native one.— -45. DL 
Addressed to Apollo and Dianajointlv.— 47. Romulae genH date remque. 
Sec " Grant to the people of Romulus prosperity, and a numerous off- 
spring, and every honour." By deeus omne is meant every thing that can 
increase the glory and majesty of the empire.— 49. Quiqiu vosbubus, fcc, 
The allusion is now to Augustus as the representative of the Roman 
name. As regards the expression bubus albis, it is to be observed, that 
the Sibylline verses prescribed the colour of the victims, (£4X<*xm ratou). 
— 53. Jam mart terraque. In this and the succeeding stanza the poet 
dwells upon the glories of the reign of Augustus, the power and prosperi- 
ty of Rome. — Manus potentes. " Our powerful forces." — 54. Medus. 
Consult note on Ode 4. 14. 41. — Aibanas secures. " The Alban axes," 
L e. the Roman power. An allusion to the securis and fasces, as the 
badges of civil and military authority. Aibanas is here equivalent to Re- 
manas, in accordance with the received belief that Rome was a colony 
from Alba Longa. — 57. Jam Fides, et Pax, &c According to the bard, 
the golden ago has now returned, and has brought back with it the dei- 
ties, who had fled to their native skies, during the iron age, from the 
crimes and miseries of earth. Compare Hesiod, fyy. *a\ fc. 197. atqq.— 
Pax. An allusion to the closing of the temple of Janus. Consult note 
on Ode 4. 15. 8. — Pudorque priscus. " Ana the purity of earlier days." 
—59. Beata plena, fee. Compare Epist. 1. 12. 28. "Anreafruges ItaUae 
plena dejudit copia cornu." 

61—73. 61. Augur, et fulpente, fcc "May Apollo, god of pro- 
phecy, and adorned with the glittering bow." fcc. — 63. Qui salutari levat 
arU, &c An allusion to Apollo, as the god of medicine. Compare the 
appellations bestowed upon him by the Greek poets, in reference to 
this ; **/«•$, frios, mtrfo fcc In this stanza, it will be perceived that 
the four attributes of Apollo are distinctly expressed : his skill in ora- 
cular divination, in the use of the bow, in music, and in the healing art. 
—65. SiPalaHnas videt aequusarees. "If he looks with a favouring 
eye on the Palatine summits," i. e. if he lends a favouring ear to the so- 
lemn strains, which we are now pouring forth in his temple on the Pa- 
latine hill. — 67. Alteram in lustrum, fcc. "For another lustriyn, and 
an always happier age." — 69. Aventinum. Diana had a temple on the 
Aventine hill.— Alspdwn. Consult note on Ode 1. 21. 6.— 70. Qutndt- 

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496 ■XTLAHATOmT VOTES. — 6» EOMAM SATIS*. 

dm met* sforum. The QutiuZeeemvtri, to whose custody the Sibyrans 
books were confided, always began their consultation of these oracles 
with prayers. To them also was entrusted the general superintendance 
of the Secular solemnities. — 73. Hoe Jovem sentirc, &c The order of 
construction is as follows : Ego chorus, doclus dieere laudes et Pkaki & 
Diana, reporto domsm bonam certamque spem, Jovem eunetosque dees tenure 
hate. This proceeds from the united chorus of youths and maidens, 
who ; being represented by their corypheus, or leader, appear as a sin- 
gle individual. In our own idiom, however, the plural must be sub- 
stituted: "We, the chorus," Ac.— Hae satire. "Ratify " 
prayers." Sentfrt is here used in the sense of sonars. 



SATIRES. 



ON ROMAN SATIRE. 

Trs scholars of earlier days were accustomed to dispute, with no little 
degree of ardour, on the origin of Roman Satire, as well as on the 
meaning of the term by which this species of composition is wont to be 
designated. The Abbe Gamier defines a Satire to be, a poem without 
any regular action, of a certain length, either indulging in invective, or 
of an ironical character, and directed against the vices and the failings ot 
men with a view to their correction. Was Satire, regarded in this light, as 
invention of the Romans, or did they, in this branch of literature, as in 
almost every other, merely follow in* the path of some Grecian original ? 
Julius Scaliger, Daniel Heinsius, and Spanheirn, have maintained the 
latter opinion, in opposition to Horace and duintilian, whose •authority 
has been supported and defended by Casaubon. This whole contro- 
versy, however, proved eventually, uke so many others of a similar na- 
ture, only a dispute about words, and it ceased the moment the subject 
was clearly understood. Dacier, Koenig, and other writers are entitled, 
after Casaubon, to the merit of having cleared up the question to such 
a degree, as to render any farther discussion unnecessary. 

We must above all things guard against confounding together two 
terms which have an accidental resemblance in form, but quite different 
etymologies, the Greek Satire and the Roman Satire. The former was 
a species of jocose drama, in which Satyrs were made to play the prin- 
cipal part, and hence the appellation which it received. We have but 
one piece of this kind remaining, the Cyclops of Euripides. On the 
other hand ; the Roman Satire, the invention of which is ascribed by the 
ancient writers to Ennius, differed from the Satyre of the Greeks, in 
that, being without a plot, and embracing no regular and continued 
action, it was intended for the closet, not for the stage. This Satire was 
neither a drama, an epic poem, nor a lyric effusion. Neither was it a 
didactic piece, in the strict sense of the word, according to which, a di- 
dactic poem is taken to signify a production in verse, which developes, 
not a single truth, but a system of truths, or rather a doctrine, and not 
in a transitory manner or by way of digression, but with method and 
formal reasoning. The ancients regarded each species of vc «e as he- 
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■XPLAMATOftY HOTBS. — ON E0M4H SATIES, 417 

longing peculiarly to one particular kind of poetry* Thus the Hex* 
araeter was reserved for epic and didactic poems ; the Hexameter and 
Pentameter, alternately succeeding each other, were employed in elegiac 
effusions : the Iambic was used in dramatic compositions, while the 
different lyric measures were devoted to the species of poetry which 
bore that name. Now, the Satire of Enniua deviated from this rule, in 
excluding none of these several metres. All rhythms suited it equally 
well, and the old poet employed them all in their turn. It is from this 
medley of verses, thus employed, that the name of Satires (Satires) was 
given to these productions of Ennius. Among the Romans, a platter 
or basin, filled with all sorts of fruits, was offered up every year to Ceres 
and Bacchus as the first fruits of the season. This was termed Sahara 
or Softro, the word lanx being understood. In like manner, a law con. 
tainingseveral distinct particulars or clauses, was denominated Lex So* 
faro. From these examples, the peculiar meaning of the term Satire, 
in the case of Ennius, will be clearly perceived. 

After Ennius came Pacuvius, who took the former for his model. So 
few fragments, however, remain of his writings, as to render it impossible 
for os to form any definite opinion of his Satirical productions. Lucilius* 
succeeded, and effected an important change in this species of composi- 
tion, by giving the preference, and in some instances exclusively so, to the 
Hexameter verse. From the greater air of regularity which this alteration 
produced, as weD as from the more didactic form of his pieces, in their 
aiming less at comic effect than those of Ennius, and more at the improve- 
ment of others by the correction of vice, Lucilius, and not Ennius, was re- 
garded by many of the ancients as the father of Satire. After his time, 
the Hexameter versification came to be regarded as the proper garb for 
this species of poetry, and the word Satire passed from its primitive signi- 
fication to the meaning given it at the commencement of these remarks, 
and which has been also retained in our own days. 

The finishing hand to Roman Satire was put by Horace. Thus far he 
has been viewed as the great master of Roman Lyric Poetry, whether 
amatory, convivial, or moral. We have still to consider him as a Satiric. 
humorous, or familiar writer, in which character (though he chiefly valued 
himself on his odes,) he is more instructive, and perhaps equally pleasing. 
He is also more of an original poet in his Satires than in his Lyric compo- 
sitions. Daniel Heinsius, indeed, in his confused and prolix dissertation, 
* De Sartre HoraHanaf' has pointed out several passages, which he thinks 
have been suggested by the comedies and satiric dramas of the Greeks. 
If. however, we except the dramatic form which be has given to so many 
of his Satires, it will be difficult to find any general resemblance between 
them and those productions of the Greek stage which are at present ex- 
tant. Satire had remained, in a great measure, uncultivated at Rome, 
since the time of Lucilius, who imitated the writers of the Greek comedy, 
m so far as he unsparingly satirized the political leaders of the state. But 
Horace did not live, like the Greek comedians, in an unrestrained demo- 
cracy, nor, like Lucilius, under an aristocracy, in which there was a strug- 
gle for power, and court was in consequence occasionally paid to the 
people. 

Satire, more than any other kind of poetry, is influenced by the spirit 
and manners of the age in which it appears. These are, in fact, the ali- 
ment on which it feeds; and, accordingly, in tracing the progress which 
Juad been made in this species of composition, from the tune of Luciliu 

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fRf IXFLANATOBY KOTB8.— OW I0BAN SATOS. 

toH the appearance of that more refined satire which Horace introduced, it 
is important to consider the changes that had taken place during that 
interval, both in the manners of the people and the government of the 
country. 

The accumulation of wealth naturally tends to the corruption of aland. 
But a people, who, like the Romans, suddenly acquire it by war, confisca- 
tions, and pillago, degenerate more quickly than the nations among whom 
it is collected by the slower processes of art, commerce, and industry. At 
Rome, a corruption of morals, occasioned chiefly by an influx of wealth, 
had commenced in the age of Lucilius ; but virtue had still farther declined 
in that of Horace. Lucilius arrayed himself on the aide of those who a& 
fected the austerity of ancient manners, and who tried to stem the torrent 
of vice, which Greece and the Oriental nations even then began to pour 
into the heart of the republic. By the time of Horace, the bulwark bad 
been broken down, and those who reared it swept away. Civil war had 
burst asunder the bonds of society; property had become insecure; and 
the effect of this general dissolution remained even after the government 
was steadily administered by a wise and all-powerful despot Rome had 
become not only the seat ot universal government and wealth, but also 
the centre of attraction to the whole family of adventurers, the magnet 
which was perpetually drawing within its circle the collected worthless- 
ness of the world. Expense, and luxury, and love of magnificence had 
succeeded to the austerity and moderation of the ancient republic The 
example, too, of the chief minister, inclined the Romans to indulge in that 
voluptuous life, which so well accorded with the imperial plans for the 
stability and security of the government. A greater change of manners 
was produced by the loss of liberty, than even by the increase of wealth. 
The voice of genuine freedom had* been last beard in the last Philippic of 
Cicero. Some of the distinguished Romans, who had known and prized 
the republican forms of government, had fallen in the field of civil conten- 
tion, or been sacrificed during the proscriptions. Of those who survived, 
many were conciliated by benefits and royal favour, while others, in the 
enjoyment of the calm that followed the storms by which the state had 
been lately agitated, acquiesced in the imperial sway as now affording the 
only security for property and life. Courtly compliance, in consequence, 
took place of that boldness and independence which characterized a Ro- 
man citizen in the age of Lucilius. The Senators had now political supe- 
riors to address, and the demeanour which they had employed towards 
the emperor and his advisers, became habitual to them in tneir intercourse 
with their equals. Hence, there prevailed a politeness of behaviour and 
conversation, which differed both from the roughness of Cato the censor, 
and from the open-hearted urbanity of Scipio or Lelius. Satires, direct- 
ed, like those of Lucilius, and the comic writers of Greece, against politi- 
cal characters in the state, were precluded by the unity and despotism ot 
power. If Lucilius arraigned in his verses Mutius and Lupus, he was 
supported by Scipio and Lelius, or some other heads of a faction. Bat 
in the time of Horace there were no political leaders except those tolerated 
by the emperor, and who would have protected a satirist in the Augustan 
age from the resentment of Maecenas or Agrippa ? 

The rise and influence of men like Maecenas, in whom power and 
wealth were united with elegant taste and love of splendour, introduced 
what in modern times has been called fashion. They of course were 
frequently imitated in their villas and entertainments, by those who had 
no pretensions to emulate such superiors, or who vied with them un- 

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■XFLAH ATOBY MOTBS.— OH ftOMAN fATAS. 4$$ 

ffracerully. The wealthy freedman and provincial magistrate rendered 
themselves ridiculous by this species of rivalry, and supplied endless 
topics of sportive satire ; foi it would appear that Maecenas, and those 
within the pale of fashion, had not made that progress in true politeness, 
which indaces either to shun the society of such pretenders, or to endure 
it without contributing to their exposure. Hence the pictures of the 
self-importance and ridiculous dress of Aufidius Luscus, and the en* 
tertainment of Nasidienus to which Mecenas carried his buffoons along 
with him, to contribute to the sport which the absurdities of their host 
supplied. 

In the time of Augustus, the practice, whieh in modern times has been 
termed Ugacy-huniing, became literally a profession and employment 
Those who followed it did not, like the parasites of old, content them* 
selves with the offals from the board of a patron. Assiduous flattery, 
paid to a wealthy and childless bachelor, was considered at Rome as 
the surest and readiest mode of enrichment, alter the confiscations of 
property were at an end, and the plundering of provinces was prohibited. 
The desire of amassing wealth continued, though the methods by which 
it was formerly gained were interdicted, and the Romans had not ac- 
quired those habits which might have procured it more honourable gra- 
tification. 

About the same period, philosophy, which never had made much 
progress at Rome, was corrupted and perverted by vain pretenders. 
The unbending principles of the Stoics in particular, had been carried to 
so extravagant a length, and were so little in accordance with the feel- 
ing of the day, or manners of a somewhat voluptuous court, that what- 
ever ridicule was cast upon them could scarcely fail to be generally ac- 
ceptable and amusing. 

In the age of Augustus the Romans had become a nation of poets, 
and many who had no real pretensions to the character, sought to occu- 
py, in rhyming, that time which, in the days of the republic, would have 
been employed in more worthy exertions. The practice, too, of recita- 
tions to friends, or in public assemblies, was introduced about the same 
period ; and it was sometimes no easy matter to escape from the vanity 
and importunity of those, who were predetermined to delight their neigh- 
bours with the splendour and harmony of their verses. In short, foppery 
and absurdity of every species prevailed ; but the Augustan age was 
one rather of folly than of atrocious crime. Augustus had done much 
for the restoration of good order and the due observance of the laws ; 
and, though the vices of luxury had increased, the salutary effects of his 
administration checked those more violent offences that so readily burst 
forth amid the storms of an agitated republic. Nor did the court of Au- 
gustus present that frightful scene of impurity and cruelty, which, in the 
reign of Domitian, raised the scorn, and called forth the satiric indigna- 
tion, of Juvenal. In the time of Horace, Rome was rather a theatre, 
where inconsistency and folly performed the chief parts, and where 
nothing better remained for the wise than to laugh at the comedy which 
was enacted. 

That Horace was not an indrflerent spectator of this degradation of 
nis) country, appears from his glowing panegyrics on the ancient patriots 
of Rome, his retrospects to a better age, and to the simplicity of the 
•* jwisca fens mr*aKum. n But no better weapon was left him than the 

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43t BXM.AHATOBT MOTBS.— «ATIU 1. 

fight shafts of ridicule. What could he have gained by pursuing the 
guilty, sword in hand, as it were, like Lucilius. or arrogating to himself 
among courtiers and men of the world, the character of an ancient censor? 
The tone which he struck was the only one .that suited the period and cir- 
cumstances: it pervades the whole of his satires, and is assumed, what- 
ever may be the folly or defects which he thinks himself called on to 
expose. A wide field in those days was left open for satire, as its pro- 
vince was not restricted or pre-occupied by comedy. At Rome tnere 
never had been any national drama in which Roman life was exhibited to 
the public The plays of Terence and his contemporaries represented 
Greek, not Roman manners • and toward the close of the Republic, and 
commencement of the empire, the place of the regular comedy was 
usurped by mimes or pantomimes. AH the materials, then, which in 
other countries have been seized by writers for the stage were exclusively 
at the disposal and command of the satirist. In the age of Louis l4» 
Boileau would scarcely have ventured to draw a full-length portrait of a 
misanthrope or a hypocrite. But Horace encountered no Moliere, on 
whose department he might dread to encroach ; and, accordingly, his 
satires represent almost every diversity of folly incident to human nature. 
Sometimes, too, he bestows on his satires, at least to a certain extent, a 
dramatic form ; and thus avails himself of the advantages which the 
drama supplies. By introducing various characters discoursing in their 
own style, and expressing their own peculiar sentiments, he obtained a 
wider range than if every thing had seemed to flow from the pen of the 
author. How could he have displayed the follies and foibles of the age 
so well as in the person of a slave, perfectly acquainted with his master's 
private life ? how could he have exhibited the extravagance of a philo- 
sophic sect so justly, as from the mouth of the pretended philosopher, 
newly converted to stoicism ? or how could he have described the banquet 
of Nasidienus with such truth, as from the lips of a guest who had been 
present at the entertainment ? 

Horace had also at his uncontested disposal, all those materials, winch, 
in modern times, have contributed to the formation of the novel or ro- 
mance. Nothing resembling that attractive species of composition ap- 
peared at Rome, before the time of Petronius Arbiter, in tne reign of 
Nero. Hence, those comic occurrences on the street, at the theatre, or 
entertainments — the humours of taverns — the adventures of a campaign 
or journey, which have supplied a Le Sage and a Fielding with such 
varied exhibitions of human life and manners, were all reserved un- 
touched for the Satiric Muse to combine, exaggerate, and diversify. The 
chief talent of Horace's patrons, Augustus and Maecenas, lay in a true 
discernment of the tempers and abilities of mankind ; and Horace, him- 
self, was distinguished by his quick perception of character, and his equal 
acquaintance with books and men. These qualifications and habits, and 
the advantages derived from them, will be found apparent in almost every 
Satire. (Dunfop'f Roman Literature, vol. 3. p. 239 *eqq. Scholl, Bid. 
JM. Rom. vol. 1. p. 143 teqq.) 



Satire 1. A desire of amassing enormous wealth was one of the 
most prevalent passions of the time ; and, amid the struggles of civil 
warfare, the lowest of mankind had succeeded in accumulating fortunes. 
It is against this inordinate rage that the present satire is directed. In i 
dialogue, supposed to be held between the poet and a miser, the f — '" 



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EXFLAMATOfcT *0TB8*— 4ATIBS L 4*1 

emu the folly of those who occupy themselves solely in the acquisition 
of wealth, and replies to all the arguments which the miser adduces in 
favour of hoarding. (Duafop't Roman Literature, vol 3. p. 247.) 

1—82. 1. Qut^U, .Af<eceiuu,&c. The construction is as follows: Qui 
jU, Maxenat, ut nemo vwrt contentut Ola sorts, quam tortem sou ratio dede- 
rit, ten fort objecerit^ ut laudet tequentet d&oerta. "How happens it, 
Maecenas, that no man lives contented with that lot, which either reflec- 
tion may have given him, or chance have thrown in his way, but rather 
deems their condition enviable, who follow pursuits in life that are diffe- 
rent from his own ?" Ratio here denotes that deliberation and reflection 
which direct our choice in selecting a career for life. — 1 fortunati men- 
catores. "Ah! ye happy traders." As regards the peculiar meaning 
of the term mereator, consult note on Ode 1. 1. 16. — 7. Miiitia est potior. 
u A soldier's life is better," i. e. than this which I pursue.— Concurritur. 
* The combatants engage." — 9. Juris tegwnque peritut. u The lawyer." 
Literally : " he who is versed in the principles of justice and in the laws.'* 
—10. Sub galti cantum, &c "When a client knocks, by cock-crow, at 
his door." — 1 1. IUe, datit vadibut, &c. " He, who, having given bail for 
his appearance, has been forced from the country into the city." The 
illusion is to the defendant in a suit In the Roman courts of law, as in 
our own, the plaintiff required that the defendant should give bail for his 
appearance in court {vadet,) on a certain day, which was usually the third 
day after. Hence the plaintiff was said vadari reum, and the defendant 
vadet dare, or vaditnonium promitttre. — 14. Fabium, The individual here 
named appears to have been a loquacious and tiresome personage, but 
whether a philosopher or a lawyer is uncertain. — 15. Quo, rem deducam. 
M To what conclusion I will bring the whole affair." — 18. Mutatis par- 
tibut* " Your conditions in life being changed." — 19. JfolinL "They 
will bo unwilling to accept the offer." The subjunctive is here employed, 
because the sentence depends on Si qui* dicat which precedes. — Atqtn 
licet east beatit. " And yet they have it in their power to be happy." A 
Gnecism for licet ii» ette beatot. — 20. Merito qum tflir, &c " Why justly 
offended Jove may not puff out against them both bis cheeks." The 
poet draws rather a ludicrous picture of angry Jove, swelling with indig- 
nation. Perhaps, however, it is on this very account more in keeping 
with the context— 22. FacUem. " Ready." 

23 — 37. 23. Praterea, ne tie, &c. " But, not to run over a matter ot 
tliis kind in a laughing way, as they who handle sportive themes." — 25. 
OUn. "Sometimes."— 26. Doctoret. "Teachers." The poet institutes 
a comparison, no less amusing than just, between the pedagogue on the 
one hand, and the JBsopean or Socratic instructor on the other. The 
former bribes his tittle pupils "to learn their letters," by presents of 
" cake," the latter makes instruction palateable to the full-grown children 
whom they address by arraying it in the garb of mirth and pleasantry. 
—27. Sed tauten, " However." These particles, as well as the sim- 
ple ted, iptwr, autem, &c. are elegantly used to continue a sentence or 
idea which has been interrupted by a parenthesis. — 29. Perfidut hie 
cantor. " This knavish lawyer." As regards the term cantor, compare 
the remark of Valart ; "Cautor vocabulum iurit ett : cavere entm, undo 
cautor, omnet contuUi partes significat et imput." The common text has 
canpo. — 32. Quam sibi tint congetta cibaria. " When a provision for life 
•hall have been collected by them." — 33. Parvulamagni formica laborU. 
— Tho little ant of great industry." The epithets paronla and magni 
present a very pleasing antithesis.— 35. Hand ignara ac non incauta Jw 

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49t ■XFLAVATOEY WOTEa,— flATlftl I. 

tmi. u Not ignorant nor improvident of the future." — 38. Sfcrudawser* 
sum eonfriafat, &c " As soon as Aquarius saddens the ended year." The 
▼ear is here considered as a circle constantly turning round and renew- 
ing its course. Hence the epithet inventu (" inverteu," i. e. brought to 
a close) which is applied to it when one revolution is fully ended tnd 
another is just going to commence. The allusion in the text is to the 
beginning of winter. According to Porphyrion, the sun passed into 
Aquarius on the 17th day before the Calends of February, (16th Janu- 
ary) and storms of rain and severe cold marked the whole period of its 
continuance in that sign of the Zodiac. — 37. Et illis tUUxtr ante, fee 
" And wisely uses those stores which it has previously collected.'' The 
ant shows more wisdom than the miser, in using, not hoarding up, its 
gathered stores. 

38 — 56. 38. Nequefervidu$ <e*fu«, &c The allusion is here to things 
violent in themselves, and which every moment threaten injury or de- 
struction. " Neither the scorching beat of summer, nor the winter 1 ! 
cold, fire, shipwreck, or the sword."— 40. Dum. " Provided." — 41 . Q«M 
juvat tmmeruum, &c. "What pleasure does it yield thee to bury by 
stealth, in the earth dug up to receive it, an immense sum of silver tnd 
of gold ?"— 43. Quod, si eommrnuof, &c The miser is here supposed to 
answer in defence of his conduct " Because, if once thou beginnest to 
take from it, it may be reduced to a wretched o»." Therefore, argues 
the miser, it had better remain untouched in the earth. — 44. At, m id #, 
&c. The poet here replies to the miser's argument. " But, unless tnit 
is done (i. e, unless thou breakest in upon thy wealth) what charms does 
the accumulated hoard contain ?"— 45. MUHa JrumenH tna frtrml, &c. 
" Thy threshing floor may have yielded a hundred thousand measures 
of grain, still thy stomach will contain, on that account, no more of it 
than mine." With centum mUUa supply modlorum.— 47. Reticulum. "A 
netted bag." Reticulum, called by Varro, Ptmarium, (L. L* 4. 22.) was 
a species of sack or bag, wrought in the form of a net, in which (he 
slaves were wont to carry bread. — Fenalet. Equivalent to «nw.— 50. 
Vwenti. A dative after the impersonal refert, as in the present instance, 
is unusual, but cannot therefore be pronounced incorrect, as some main- 
tain it to be, who substitute vbentu. — 51. At suave est, &c. A new ar- 
gument on the part of the miser. "But it is pleasing to take from a 
large heap."— 63. Dutn ex paryo nobis, &c. We have here the poet's re- 
ply, simple and natural, and impossible to be controverted. " If tlwa 
permitte8t us to take just as much from our small heap, why sbooldst 
thou extol thy granaries above our humble meal-tubs?" i. e. while our 
wants can be as easily supplied from* our scanty stores, what advantags 
have thy granaries over our small meal-tubs?" — 54. Liqxddi non ompnw 
vrna vd cyatho. " No more than a pitcher or cup of water." — 56. Qauna 
ear hoe fonticulo. " Than from this little fountain that flows at my feet"— 
Eofit, plenior %U si quos, fcc. The idea intended to be conveyed is this: 
Hence it happens, that if any, despising tho humble fountain, prefer to 
draw from the stream of some large and impetuous river like the Au6- 
dus, being seized by its current they will be swept away and perish amid 
the waters : j. e. those, who, not content with numble means, are con- 
tinually seeking for more extensive possessions, will eventually suflet 
for their foolish and insatiable cupidity. — As regards the Aufidua, Con* 
suit note on Ode 3. 30. 10. 

•l—Jfc •!• At bona vara Aominum, &c After having proved by unan- 
swerable arguments, that riches, except we use them, have nothing 

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IXPLAVATOftY VOTES.— SATIM I. 43$ 

valuable, beautiful, or agreeable: the poet here anticipates an objection, 
which a miser might possibly make, that this love of money is only a do- 
wn* of reputation, since we are always esteemed in proportion to our 
wealth. This objection might have some weight, for a love of public es* 
teem has virtue in it. But the miser falsely disguises his avance under 
the name of a more innocent passion, and wilfully mistakes. {Dectpta 
tupidim /also.)— 62. Qtoatanlt, quantum habeas, sis. "Because, thou 
wilt be esteemed in proportion to thy wealth."— 63. Quid facias tZtt t 
u What wilt thou do with such an one as this ?" — 64. Quotaiut . " Since.* 
—68. Tantalus a labris, &c The idea intended to be conveyed is this t 
Thou who merely gazeet on thy money hoarded up m thy coffers without 
putting it to any use, or deriving any benefit from it, art like Tantalus, 
who, tormented with thirst, catches in vain at the water that escapes 1 
from his lips. This is supposed to be addressed by the poet, not to the 
miser with whom he has been reasoning, but to the sordid Athenian' 
whom he has just been picturing to the view. On hearing the allusion 
to Tantalus, the miser bursts into a laugh, and the poet then turns upon 
him with the question Quid rides ? The miser laughs at the poet's ci- 
ting what the prevalent scepticism of the day regarded as one of a mere 
tissue of fables.— 69. MxUato nomtns, &c " The name changed, the 
story is told of thee. n The train of ideas is as follows: Dost thou laugh, 
and ask what Tantalus is to thee ? Change names with Tantalus, and 
thou wilt occupy his place : for, as he saw the water before his eyes and 
yet could not taste it, so thou gazest upon thy money, but derivest no 
benefit from the accumulated hoard. — 71. Indormis tnMons. A striking 
picture of the disturbed and restless slumbers of the miser, who, even in 
his sleeping momenta, appears engrossed with the thoughts of his dar- 
ling treasure. — Sacris. "Sacred offerings." — 74. Adde queis humana, 
Ice. " Add those other comforts, which being withheld from her, hu- 
man nature will experience pain," i. e. those comforts which nature can- 
not want without pain.— 77. Males fares. " Wicked thieves." The 
poet imitates here the simplicity of the Homeric idiom : Thus we have 
in Homer, ***** $rfv«m, "evil death," muefe kjoo* *«** *•**•« &&— 78. 
JVs te compilent fugientes. " Lest they rob thee, and abscond." — 78. 
Semper ego optarim, &c " For my part, I wish to be ever very poor in 
such possessions as these," Le. I never wish to come to the possession 
of such burdensome and care-producing riches. 

80 — 100. 80. At si condokdt, &c. The miser here rallies, and ad- 
vances a new argument When sickness comes upon us, our wealth, 
according te him, will secure us good and faithful attendance, and we 
shall speedily be restored to the domestic circle. — Tentatam /Hfsre. 
"Attacked with the chill of fever."— 61. Habes qui atsideat "Thou 
hast one to sit by thy bed-side."— 88. Ut te suseUet " To raise thee 
from the bed of sickness," or, more freely, " to restore thee to health.* 9 
— 84. Jfbn uxor sdvum te wit, &c The indignant reply of the poet— 
85. Pueri aUpu puellae. " The very children in the streets."— 86. Pott 
omnia ponas. A tmesis for postpones omnia. — 88. Jin sic cognatos, &c 
" Or, oost thou purpose, by such a course of conduct as this, to retain 
those relations whom nature of her own accord gives thee, and to keep 
them thy friends ?" i. e. dost thou fancy to thyself that thy relations will 
continue to love thee, when all thy affections are centered in thy gold ? 
— ©O. Infetix. The vocative.— 94. Porto quod avebas, "What thou 
didst desire being now obtained." Understand so.— 95. Qui, Urn, fee* 
M Who, (the story is not long), so rich that he measured his money."— 
97. M mqiu supretnum tempos* " To the very last moment of his life.** 

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4M BXFtAHATOaT MOTS* 

—100, ArfMM 7W«4ArMn. "Bmveet of the children of Tynda. 
nu," i. e. a second Clytemnestra. The poet likens the freedwoman Id 
Clytemnestra, who slew her husband Agamemnon, and, in so doing, 
proved herself as he ironically expresses it, the bravest of the tyufarv 
dot. This term, Tyndmidae, though of the masculine gender, include! 
the children of Tyndaras of both sexes. 

101—106. 101. <Zuidmli$Uurtmadu t kc. "What then dosttboa 
advise me to do ? To live like Maenius, or in the way that Nomepta- 
nos does ?" Maenius and Nomentanus appear to have been two disn- 
pated prodigals of the day, and the miser, in whose eyes any, even the 
most trifling, expenditure seems chargeable with extravagance, imagines, 
with characteristic spirit, that the poet wishes him to turn spendthrifts! 
once. — 108. Pergis jmfiumtU secwa, &c We have here the poet's reply. 
M Art thou going to unite things that are plainly repugnant." Literally : 
u things that contend together with opposing fronts. " A metaphor taken 
from the combats of animals, particularly of rams. — 103. 'Aim ego, tea- 
rum, Ate. M When I bid thee cease to be a miser, I do not order thee to 
become a spendthrift and a prodigal." ftypa properly denotes palled 
or insipid wine : it is thence figuratively applied to one whose extrava- 
gance and debaucheries have rendered him good for nothing. The 
origin of the term ntbulo is disputed. — 105. E$t infer Tmutm qvidden, 
etc " There is some difference certainly between Tanais and the father- 
in-law of Visellus." " The poet offers the example of two men, ai 
much unlike as the miser is to the prodigal. Compare the remark of 
Doring. " Tanais, MaecenatU JsOertue, spado, at socer auUem VUdti 
herniosusjutatedicifuf. Midhm into sediffcrebuntigitwrisU duo kommti" 
—106. EH modus m rebu$ ? &c. " There is a mean in all things, there 
are, in fine, certain fixed limits, on either side of which what ie right 
cannot be found." Rectum is here equivalent to the re *>A*> of the Greek*, 
("Quod od ccrtamnormamrtcHfit.") 

108--120. 10a IUuc wide abU redea The poet now returns to the 
proposition with which he originally set out, that all men are dissatisfied 
with their respective lota. — Neman' ut oterut, Ac " Like the miser, will 
no man think himself happy, and will he rather deem their condition en- 
viable who follow pursuit* in life that are different from his own?" is* 
Is it possible that all resemble the covetous man in this ? to be dissatis- 
fied with what they have, and to envy those around them.— 118. Tsief- 
cat ? " Will he pine with envyf — 11 1. Jfeque *e tnajori pcHperunm, 
Ac "And will he not compare himself with the greater number of 
those who are less supplied than himself with the comforts of life f"— 
1 14. Carceribus. " From the barriers.** Consult note on Ode, 1.1.4. 
—115. Suos vincentibue. "That outstrip bis own." Understand eft*. 
—120. JV« me Crispini, Ac. " Lest thou mayest think that 1 have been 
robbing the portfolio of the blear-eyed Crispinus." The individual here 
alluded to would seem to have been a ridiculous philosopher and poetol 
the day, and notorious for his garrulity. (Compare Serin. 1. 3. 139.) 
According to the scholiast, he wrote some verses on the Stoic philosophy, 
and, on account of his loquacity, received the appellation or lftr4)*m* 
Why Horace should here style him " blear-eyed/when he laboured under 
this defect himself (Serm. 1. 5. 30 and 49.) has given rise to conaidert- 
ble discussion among the commentators. The explanation of D6nog 
is the most reasonable. This critic supposes that Horace, having been 
called by Crispinus, and other of hie adversaries, " the blear-eyed post, 
through contempt, now hurls back this epithet (Jqpus) upon the offend- 

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UFLAHATORT NOTES,— flATIEl 11. 41ft 

era, with the intent, however, that it should refer rather to the o b s curity 
which shrouded their mental vision. 



Satihb 2. "In the previous Satire ? w remarks Watson, u Horace 
had observed that there was a measure in things ; that there were fixed 
and stated bounds, out of which it would be in vain to look for what 
was right Yet so it is with the greater part of mankind, that, instead 
of searching for virtue where reason directs, they always ran from one 
extreme to another, and despise that middle way where alone they can. 
have any chance to find her. The design of the poet, in the present 
Satire, is to expose the folly of this course of conduct, and to show 
men that they thereby plunge themselves into a wider and more unfa- 
thomable sea of misery, increase their wants, and ruin both their repu- 
tation and their fortune : whereas, would men be but prevailed upon to 
live within the bounds prescribed by nature, they might avoid all these 
calamities, and have wherewith to supply their real wants. He takes 
occasion from the death of Tigellius, a well-known singer, to begin 
with observing the various judgments men pass upon actions and cha- 
racters, according to their different humours. Some commend a man 
as liberal and generous, whom others censure as profuse and extrava- 
gant. From this difference of judgment proceeds a difference of beha- 
viour, in which men seldom observe any degree of moderation, but 
always run from one extreme to another. One, disdaining to be thought 
a miser, profusely squanders away his estate ; another, fearing to be 
accounted negligent in his affairs, practises all the unjustifiable methods 
of extortion, and seeks in every way to better his fortune. Thus it 
happens that the middle course is neglected ; for 

Dttm vUant sttdti vUia, in contraria cxtrrunt. 

The poet then proceeds to show that the same observation holds good 
in all the other pursuits of life, as well as in those several passions by 
which men are commonly influenced. Fancy and inclination usually 
determine them, when little or no regard is paid to the voice of reason. 
Hence he takes occasion to attack two of the reigning vices of his 
time.' 9 

1 — 1 1. 1. Jlmlwbaionm collegia, &c. " The colleges of music-girls, 
the quacks, the sharping vagabonds, the female mime-players, the 
tiencner-cousins of the day," &c. The Jimbubeiai were female flute- 
players, from Syria. The morals of this class of females may be ascer- 
tained from Juvenal, 3. 63. They were accustomed to wander about 
the forum and the streets of the capital, and the poet very pleasantly 
applies here to their strolling bands the dignified appellation of collegia. 
— Pharmacopeia}. Not " apothecaries," as some translate the term, but 
rather wandering quacks, armed with panaceas and nostrums. — 2. Men- 
atcL The allusion here is not to actual mendicants, but to the priests 
of Isis and Cybele, and other persons of this stamp, who, while in ap- 
pearance and conduct but little removed from mendicity, practised every 
mode of cheating and imposing upon the lower orders. — Mima. These 
were female-players of the most debauched and dissolute kind. — Balm- 
frsnet. The various explanations given of this term, render it difficult 
to determine what the true meaning is. Our translation accords with 

40 



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«t CXPLAKATOftY VOTES.— «ATOUT A 

the remark of Daring, who makes the word denote the whole dan of 
low and dirty parasites. — 3. TigeUL The reference is to M. Renno- 
genes Tiffellius, ■■ well-known singer and musician of the day, who had 
stood high in favour with Julius Cesar, and after him with Augestoa 
He seems to have been indebted for his elevation to a fine voice, and a 
court! y and insinuating address. His moral character may be inferred 
from those who are said here to deplore his death, and on whom he 
would appear to have squandered much of his wealth.— 4. Qvtppr ee- 
mgnut erst " For he was a kind patron."— Contra hie. The reference 
is now to some other individual of directly opposite character. — 7. Asm 
d peremteris, &c " If thou ask a third, why, lost to every better feel- 
ing, he squanders the noble inheritance of his ancestors in ungrateful 
gluttony." — 8. Stringat. The allusion is properly a figurative one to 
toe stripping off the leaves from a branch. — 9. Omnia conducts coimau, 
&c " Buying up with borrowed money every rare and dainty viand." 
The lender is said loeare pecawssm, the borrower, cmducere ptcmniam. — 
10. AnmiparvL "Ofa mean spirit"— 11. Laudatur ah his, &c "For 
this line of conduct, he is commended by some, he is censured by 
others." 

12—20. 12. FuJUBus. A noted usurer.— Vappmfunam timet acne- 
buionis. Consult note on Satire 1. 1. J 04.— 13. Pottos in/amort. « Laid 
out at interest-" Peeuniam in fenore poture is used for pecuntem fount 
dare. — 14 Quhias hie capiti, &c "He deducts from the principal five 
common interests." Among the Romans, as among the Greeks, mo- 

terest for '" 



ney was lent from month to month, and the interest for the month pre- 
ceding was paid on the Calends of the next The usual rate was one 
or monthly for the use of a hundred, or 12 per cent, per annum; which 
was called usxsra centesima, because in a hundred months the interest 
equalled the principal In the present case, however, Fufidius charges 
5 per cent, monthly, or 60 per cent, per annum; and, not content even 
with this exorbitant usury, actually deducts the interest before the mo* 
ney is lent For instance he lends a hundred pounds, and at the end of 
the month the borrower is to pay him a hundred and five, principal and 
interest feut he gives only ninety-five pounds, deducting his interest 
when he lends the money, and thus in twenty months he doubles his 
principal. — 15. Quanto pcrditicr, &c "The more of a spendthrift he 
perceives one to be, the more he rises in his demands." — 16. Jfamm* 
scctahtr, modo sumta teste rtn'M, &c. " He is at great pains in getting 
young heirs into his debt, who have just taken the manly gown, ana 
who live under the control of close and frugal fathers," i. e. he is anxious 
to get their names on his books. Among the Romans, it was a cus- 
tomary formality, in borrowing money, to write down the sum and sub- 
scribe the person's name in the banker's books. Hence nemen ii iput 
for a debt, for the cause ofa debt, for an article of account, &c — Meda 
sumta vests virilL The togs virtiis, or manly gown, was assumed at the 
completion of the seventeenth year. — 18. At in st ore qveestn, &c " But, 
thou wilt say, his expenses are in proportion to nis gains." — 19. Qssm 
sibi non sit amicus. " How little he is his own friend," i. e. how be 

k miserum, &c " Whom the 
& wretched life, after he had 
The allusion is to Menedemus, in the 
play of " the Self-tormentor," (HeautonUtnorumenos.) who blames him- 
self for having, by his unkind treatment, induced nis only son to for* 
sake him and go abroad into the army, and resolves, by way of self* 
punishment, to load a miserable and penurious life. 



stot non su amicus, -now uiue no is an 
pinches himself.— 20. Terentt fabuta avem s 
play of Terence represents to have led a 
driven his son from nis roof." The allusion 



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EXPLANATORY MOTES.— 8 A TIRE in. 43? 

8ATnti 3. This Satire is directed against the inclination which many 
persons ieel to put a bad construction on the actions of others, and to 
exaggerate the faults which they may perceive in their character or die. 
position. This failing, which perhaps had not been yerj prevalent is 
republican Rome, when the citizens lived openly in each other's view 
had increased under a monarchical government, in which secrecy pro 
duced mistrust and suspicion. The satirist concludes with refuting the 
absurd principle of the portico— that all faults and vices have the same 
degree of enormity. {Uunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 3. p. 248.) 

3 — 10. 3. Sardus habebat, &c " Tigellius of Sardinia, whom every 
body recollects, had this failing. 19 IUt is here strongly emphatic, and in- 
dicative, at the same time, of contempt As regards Tigellius consult 
note on Satire 1. 2. 3. — 4. Cctsar. • Alluding to Augustus. — 5. Patris. 
Alluding to Julius Caesar, whose adopted son Augustus was. — 6. Si eol- 
Hbuissct. "If he himself felt in the humour." — Ab ovo usque ad mala, &c 
"He would sing Io Baeche! over again and again, from the beginning 
to the end of the entertainment" These words Io Baeche! formed the 
(fommencement of the drinking catch which Tigellius incessantly re- 
peated, and hence, in accordance with a custom prevalent also in our 
iwn times, they serve to indicate the song or catch itself. As regards 
the expression ab ovo usque ad mala, it may be observed, that the Romans 
began their entertainments with eggs and ended with fruits. — 7. Modo 
summa voce, &c. " At one time in the highest key, at another time in 
that which corresponds with the base of the tetrachord." Literally, 
"which sounds gravest among the four strings of the tetrachord." The 
order of construction is as follows : " modo summa voce, modo hoc voce 
qua resonat (i. e. est) in quatuor chordie tmo." — 9. JfU aquale homvni fuU 
ML " There was nothing uniform in that man." — Smpe velut qui currc 
bat, &c. The construction is, sozpe eurrebat velut qui hoetem Jugiena 
(scil. curreret). — 10. Persape velut qui Junonis, &c We must not un- 
derstand eurrebat here with persape, but lento gradu incedebat, or some- 
thing equivalent, as is plainly required by the context. From this pas- 
sage, and from a remark of the scholiast, it would appear that, on the 
festivals of Juno, processions were customary, in which Canephori had a 
part to bear. Their gait was always dignified and slow. 

12—21. 12. Tetrarehas. " Tetrarchs." Tetrarcha originally denoted 
one who ruled over the fourth part of a country or kingdom, (from rhrapa 
and tap).) Afterwards, however, the term merely came to signify a minor 
or inferior potentate, without any reference to the extent of territory go 
verned. — 13. Loquens. " Talking of." This term here carries with it 
the idea of a boastful and pompous demeanour. — Mensa tripes. The 
tables of the poorer class among the Romans commonly had but three 
feet. — 14. Concha satis puri. "A shell of clean salt" A shell formed in gene- 
ral the salt-cellar of the poor. — 1 5. Deeies centena dedisses. " Hadst thou 
given a million of sesterces to this frugal being, this man who could live hap- 
pily on so little, in five days there was nothing in his coffers." The use of 
the indicative erat, in place of the subjunctive, serves to give more liveliness 
to the representation. As regards the expression Deeies centena, it must 
be recollected that there is an ellipsis of mitUa sestertinm. — 17. Jf octet vi- 
splabat ad ipsum mane, &c " He would sit up all night until the very morn- 
ing, he would snore away the entire day. Never was there any thing so 
inconsistent with itself."— 20. Imo alia, et fortasse minora. "Yes, 1 
have faults of another kind^ though perhaps less disagreeable." The usage 
of the conjunction tt in this passage is analogous to that of km for r — - 

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486 UFLAV J.TOKI MOTES. — BAT1&B IB. 

in Greek.— 21. M<*nius. Horace, after acknowledging that be was net 
without faults, here resumes the discourse. I am far, says the poet, from 
being like Mcnius, who defames hie friend, and at the same tune winks 
at much greater failings in himself. On the contrary, I consider him 
every way deserving ofthe severest censure. The individual here alluded 
to, is, in all probability, the same with the Menius mentioned in the first 
Satire, There he appears as a worthless and profligate man, here as a 
slanderer. 

22 — 27. 22. Jgnoras tel anut ignotum, &c " Art thou unacqiuited 
with thyself? or dost thou think that thou art going to impose upon us, aa 
one who is a stranger to his own failings?" With ignotum understand 
sibi. — 24. StuUus et improbus hie amor esU "This is a foolish and un- 
just self-love." With amor supply mi.— 25. Qynm tua pervideas ocvHs* 
&c. "When thou lookest on thine own faults as it were with anointed 
eyes, obscure of vision to thine own harm." The man who winks at his 
own defects, is not unaptly compared to one who labours under some dis- 
temper of vision (lippitudo,) and whose eyes, smeared with ointment 
(coUyrium,) are almost closed on external objects. Pervideas, in the text, 
is used for the simple verb as in Greek Kaniclv for liuv. As regards the 
construction of male with lippns, it must be observed, that the meaning of 
this adverb, in passages, when thus construed, varies according to the 
nature of the context : thus, male laxus is for nimis laxus, male sedulus for 
importune sedulus, male raucus for moleste raucus, &c — 26. Scutum. Put 
for acute. — 27. Epidaurius. Either an ornamental epithet, or else alluding 
to the circumstance ofthe serpent being sacred to Aesculapius, who had s 
celebrated temple atEpidaurusin Argotis. The ancients always ascribed 
every piercing sight to serpents, particularly to their fabled dragon. Hence 
the etymology of draco (lfdK*¥) from tycw, (Upaicmr, hpdnw.) 

29—36. 29. Iracundior tut paulo. "A friend of thine is a little too 

J|uick-tempered." The poet here begins to insist on the doty we owe our 
riends, of pardoning their little failings, especially if they be possessed of 
talents and moral worth. — Minus aptus acutis naribus, &c. u He is too 
homely a person for the nice perceptions of gentility which these individu- 
als possess." As regards the phrase acutis naribus, it may be remarked 
that it stands in direct opposition to obtsis naribus. The former, taken in 
a more literal sense than in the present passage, denotes a natural quick- 
ness and sharpness of the senses, the latter the reverse. — 30. Rideri swsstt, 
eo quod, &c " He is liable to be laughed at, because his hair is cut m too 
clownish a manner, his toga drags on the ground, and his loose shoe 
hardly keeps on his foot." — 31. Rusticius tonso. More literally : "to him 
shorn in too clownish a manner." Understand illi. — Male. This adverb 
qualifies hatret, not laxus. — 32. At est bonus, &c. " But he is a wormy 
man : so much so, indeed, that a worthier one does not live." The idea 
intended to be conveyed by the whole passage is as follows : But what of 
all this ? He is a man of worth, he is thy friend, be has distinguished talents, 
and therefore thou shouldst bear with his failings. — 33. Ingemum tajrau 
inculto, &c. " Talents of a high order lie concealed beneath this unpolish- 
ed exterior." — 34. Denique te ipsum concute. * In fine, examine thine 
own breast carefully," i. e. be not a censor towards others, until thou hast 
been one to thyself!—- 36. Nainque neglectis urenda, &c " For the fern, 
fit only to be burned, is produced in neglected fields." The idea intended 
to be conveyed is this : As neglected fields must be cleared by fire ofthe 
fan which has overrun them, so must those vices be eradicated from the 
breast, which either nature or evil habits have produced. 



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XXTLAXATORT MOTES.— «AT»E IO. 4MB 

• 

39—40. 38. IUuc prctvertumur, amatorem, kc. The transition ham n 
abort, and consequently somewhat obscure. Prmvertere signifies, pro* 
perly, to get before another by taking a shorter path ; and hence, when 
the context, as in the present instance, refers to the manner in which a 
subject is to be considered, this verb will denote an abandoning of more 
formal and tedious arguments in order to arrive at our conclusion by a 
nearer and simpler way. The passage under consideration, therefore, 
may be rendered as follows : " But, omitting more formal arguments, 
let ns merely turn our attention to the well-known circumstance, that 
the disagreeable blemishes of a beloved object escape her blinded ad- 
mirer." To desire mankind, as Sanadon well remarks, to examine 
their own hearts, and enquire whether their vices proceed from nature 
or custom, constitution or education, is to engage them in a long and 
thorny road. It is an easier and shorter way, to mark the conduct of 
others ; to turn their mistakes to our own advantage, and endeavour to 
do by virtue, what they do by a vicious excess.— 40. Polypus. The first 
syllable is lengthened by the arsis. By the polypus is here meant a 
swelling in the hollow of the nostrils, which either grows downward and 
dilates the nostrils so as to deform the visage, or else, taking an oppo- 
site direction, extends into the fauces and produces danger of strangu- 
lation. In both cases a very offensive smell is emitted. It receives its 
name from resembling, by its many roots or fibres, the sea-animal termed 
polypus, so remarkable for its numerous feet, or rather feelers, (voMf 
and***.) 

41 — 48. 41. VeUem in omscina, Ice. "I could wish that we might 
err m a similar way, where our friends are concerned, and that virtue 
would give to this kind of weakness some honourable name," L e. would 
that, as the lover is blind to the imperfections of his fair one, so we might 
close our eyes on the petty failings of a friend, and that they who teach 
the precepts of virtue would call this weakness on our part by some en- 
gaging name, so as to tempt more to indulge in it. — 43. At. " For." 
In the sense of enuneero. The construction of the passage is as fol- 
lows : "At, ut pater non fastidit, si quod sit vitium gnaH, sic nee debemus 
nen fiutuUre, si quod sit vitium smiei.— 44. Strabonem appsUat Patum 
pater. "His squint-eyed boy a father calls Pofut," i. e. pink-eyed. 
Pectus is one who has pinking eyes. This was accounted a beauty, and 
Venue's eyes were commonly painted so. — 45. Et putium, mate parvus, 
Jlc " And if any parent has a son of very diminutive size, as the abor- 
tive Sisyphus formerly was, he styles him PuUus," i. e. his chicken. 
The personage here alluded to, under the name of Sisyphus, was a 
dwarf of Mark Antony's. He was of very small stature, under two 
feet, but extremely shrewd and acute, whence he obtained the appella- 
tion of Sisyphus, in allusion to that dexterous and cunning chieftain of 
fabulous times.— 47. Varum. "A Varus."— 48. Seaurum. "One of 
the Scauri." It will be observed that all the names here given by the 
poet, PaUus,' Puttus, Varus, and Seaurus, were surnames of Roman fa- 
milies more or less celebrated. This imparts a peculiar spirit to the ori- 
ginal, especially in the case of the two latter, where the parent seeks to 
cover the deformities of his offspring with names of dignity. Varus, as 
an epithet, denotes one who has the legs bent inwards, or as the scho- 
liast expresses it, " eujus pedes introrsum retorta sunt." The opposite to 
this is Valgus. By the appellation Seaurus, is meant one who has the 
ankles branching out, or is club-footed. 

40—66 49. Purciu* Mc tMt ? Jruai rffcslur. The poet here exem- 

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44m EXPLAKATORT JCOTES.— SATIRE ITJ. 

pl'ifies this rale ma he would wish it to operate in the case of mends. 
" Does this friend of thine live rather too sparingly ? let him be styled 
by thee a man of frugal habits." — Ineptus tt jactantior hie pmda est f 
"Is this one accustomed to forget what time and place and circum- 
stance demand, and is he a little too much given to boasting 7" As re- 
gards the term vneptns. our language appears to be in the same predica- 
ment, in which, according to Cicero, the Greek tongue was, having no 
single word by which to express its meaning. (De Oral. 2. 4.)— 
50. Concinnus amicis postulat, &c " He requires that he appear to bis 
friends an agreeable companion," L e. he requires this by the operation 
of the rule which the poet wishes to Bee established in matters of friend- 
ship.— 51. At est trucuUntior, &c. " But is he too rude, and more free 
in what he says than is consistent with propriety ? let him be regarded 
as one who speaks just what he thinks, and who is a stranger to all 
fear." — 53. Caldior est ? acre* UUer numcretur. " Is he too quick and 
passionate ? let him be reckoned among men of spirit" — 55. A ass 
vhrtutes ipsas invertinwu, &c "We, however, misrepresent virtues 
themselves, and are desirous of smearing over the cleanly vessel." The 
expression smcerum vas vuruttmre means either to solder, or varnish, a 
whole vessel, that has no flaw, and therefore needs no solder, or varnish, 
or else to daub over, to taint with a bad smell a pure vessel. The lat- 
■- • •■ ■ 57. — - - - . 



ter of these two significations prevails here. 67. Muttum est i 
hmno ? " Is he a man of very modest and retiring character?" — BU 
tarda cognomen, &c. " We call him heavy and dull"— 59. Jtutttquernds 
torus obdil apertum. " And exposes an unguarded side to no ill-design- 
ing person," i. e. lays himself open to the arts of no bad man.— €1. 
Crimina. In the sense of crimination**. — Pro bene sane me non mcamU, 
4c. " Instead of a discreet and guarded, we style him a disguised and 
subtle, man." — 63. Simplicior fins, tt est, &c. Is any one of a more 
simple and thoughtless character than ordinary, and is he such a per- 
son," &c. By the term simpHcior is here meant an individual of plain 
and simple manners, who thoughtlessly disregards all those little mat- 
ters, to which others so assiduously attend, who wish to gain the favour 
of the rich and powerful. Horace names himself among these, probably 
to remove a reproach thrown upon him by his enemies of being a refined 
courtier.— 63. Libentcr. " Whenever the humour has seised me."— 64. 
Ut forte Ugentem out taciturn, $c " So as, perhaps, unseasonably intru- 
sive, to interrupt another, when reading or musing, with any trifling 
conversation." — 66. Commvni sensu plane caret. "The creature evidently 
wants common sense." The communis sensus, to which reference m 
here made, is a knowledge of what time, place and circumstance de- 
mand from us in our intercourse with others, and especially with the 
rich and powerful. 

67 — 83. 67. Quern temere in nosmet, &c The idea intended to be 
conveyed is as follows : How foolish is this conduct of ours in severely 
marking the trifling faults of our fiiends. As we judge them, so shall 
we be in turn judged by them.— 69. Amicus dulcis, ut mequum est, &c 
" Let a kind friend, when he weighs my imperfections against my good 
qualities, incline, what is no more than just, to the latter as the more nu- 
merous of the two, if virtues do but preponderate in me.'J The meta- 
phor is taken from weighing in a balance, and the scale is to be turned 
in favour of a friend. Cum, in this passage, is not a preposition as 
some would consider it, but a conjunction ; and the expression sass sen* 
eompenseJ vitiis, is a species of hypallage for vilia mea compenset *sa»*r- 
72. Hoc lege. « On this condition."— In trutma ponehtr ecdssv « He 

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RtLAN ATORY HOTZS. — BOOK I. SATIftl III. 441 

shall be placed in the same balance," L e. his failing* shall be estimated 
in return by me with equal kindness. — 76. Dtnique, quatenut txcidi, Sec. 
"Finally, since the vice of anger cannot be wholly eradicated.*' The 
second part of the Satire begins here. — 77. StulHs. The stoics called 
all persons who did not practise their peculiar rules of wisdom, fools and 
mad. — 78. Ponderibus moduiisqve stds. "Her weights and measures." 
— Res ut quaeque esL " According to the nature of each particular case," 
i. e. as each particular case requires. — 80. Tollere. " To take away," L o. 
from table. — 81. LigurrieriL In the sense of degustaverit. — 82. Labtone. 
It is altogether uncertain what individual the poet heie intends to desig- 
nate. 

83 — 89. 88. Quon/o furiotius, &c " How much more insane, and 
bow much greater than this is the crime of which thou art guilty." Hoe 
is here the ablative, not the nominative, and refers to the cruel conduct 
of the master towards his slave. The crime alluded to in peecatum is 
stated immediately after, " Paulum deKqvit amicus," &c. — 85. Concedas. 
" Overiookest."— Inswnit. "Unkind." — 86. Rvionem. Ruso was a 
well-known usurer, and at the same time prided himself on his literary 
talents. When his debtors were unable to pay the principal or the in- 
terest that was due, their only way to mitigate his anger was to listen 
patiently to him while he read over to them ms wretched historical pro- 
ductions. He was thus, as Francis well observes, a double torment he 
ruined the poor people, who borrowed money, by his extortion, and he 
read them to death with his works.— 87. Tristes KaUnd*. The Calends 
are here called trutes, or gloomy, in allusion to the poor debtor who finds 
himself unable to pay what he owes. Money was lent among the Ro- 
mans from month to month, and the debtor would of course be called 
upon for payment of the principal or interest on the Calends of the 
ensuing month. Another part of the month for laying out money at 
interest or calling it in was the Ides. Consult note on Epode 2. 67.-* 
88. Mereedemaui nummos. "The interest or principal." — Undevnde* 
"In some way or other."—: Jtmarat. Equivalent to intpte scriptas.— 89. 
Porrecto jugvk. Ruso reads his unfortunate hearer to deatn with his 
silly trash, and the poor man, stretching out his ncek to listen, is com- 
pared to one who is about to receive the blow of the executioner. — 
JludiL " Is compelled to listen to." 

91 — 95. 91. Evandri manibus tritum. " Fashioned in relief by tho 
hands of Evander," L e. adorned with work in relief. As regards the 
Evander here mentioned, the scholiast informs us that he was a distin- 
guished artist, carried from Athens to Alexandrea by Mark Antony, and 
thence subsequently to Rome. Some commentators, however, under- 
stand by the expression Evandri manibus tritum a figurative allusion to 
the great antiquity of the article in question, as if it had been worn 
smooth as it were by the very hands of Evander, the old monarch of 
early Roman story. — 95. Commbsajide. " Secrets confided to his ho- 
nour." Fide is here the old form of the dative. Compare Ode 3. 7. 4. 
-Sponsumve negarit. " Or has broken his word." 

96 — 110. 96. Quels paria esse fere placuit, &c. The poet here begins 
an attack on the Stoic sect, who maintained the strange doctrine that all 
offences were equal in enormity. According to them, every virtue being 
a conformity to nature, and every vice a deviation from it, all virtues ana 
vices were equal. One act of beneficence, or justice, is not more truly so 
than another : one fraud is not more a fraud than another ; therefore there 

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Ml 1XTLAWATORT HOTESj— BOOK I. 1A1U1 m. 

it no other d i fference in the essential nature of moral actions, than that 
some are vicious, and others virtuous. — 97. Quum vcntum ad verms est. 
" When they come to the plain realities of life." — Sensus msresoue. "The 
general sense of mankind and the established customs of all nations."— 
99. Quum prorepttrxinty &c Horace here follows the opinion of Enicnros 
respecting the primitive state of man. According to this philosopher, the 
first race of men rose out of the earth, in which they were formed by a 
mixture of heat and moisture. Hence the peculiar propriety of prortptt- 
runt in the text — 100. Jtfutum. By this epithet is meant the absence of 
articulate language, and the possession merely of certain natural cries like 
other animals. According to Epicurus and his followers, articulate lan- 
guage was an improvement upon the natural language of man, produced 
by its general use, and by that general experience which gives improve- 
ment to every thing. — 101. Pugnis. From pugnu*. — 102. C7.ru*. " £i- 
perience." — 103. Qtriottt voce* tensusque notarent. "By which to mark 
articulate sounds, and to express their feelings." A word is an articulate 
or vocal sound, or a combination of articulate and vocal sounds, uttered 
by the human voice, and by custom expressing an idea or ideas. — 104. 
Nomina. « Names for things."— 105. Ponert. "To enact"— 110. Viri- 
btuediiwr. " The stronger." 

119— 183. 112. Fastosaue mundL "And the annals of the world* 
i. e. the earliest accounts that have reached us respecting the primitive 
condition of man. — 113. Aec nature potof, Ice. A denial of the Stoic 
maxim, that justice and injustice have their first principles in nature itsel£ 
—114. DMdiL "Discerns."— 115. Mcvmcet ratio Aoc, &c. "Norwill 
the most subtle reasoning ever convince us of this, that he sins equally 
and the same," &c. By ratio are here meant the refined and subtle dis- 
quisitions of the Stoics on the subject of morals. — 116. Caules. u Cole- 
worts." — FrtgeriL " Has broken off and carried away." Equivalent to 
fractot abstulerit. — 1 17. Noctumus. " In the night-season."— Jldsit rtgtda. 
"Let some sUndard be fixed."— 118. A taw. u Proportioned to them." 
— 119. Scutica, The tctUica was a simple "strap," or thong of leather, 
used for slight offences, particularly by school-masters, in correcting their 
pupils. The JlageUttm, on the other hand, was a "lash," or whip, made 
of leathern thongs, or twisted cords, tied to the end of a stick, sometimes 
sharpened with small bits of iron or lead at the end. This wan used in 
correcting great offenders. — 120. Jto ferula codas, &c. The ferula was a 
" rod," or stick, with which, as with toe scutica, boys at school were accus- 
tomed to be corrected. — 122. Magnis parva. "Small equally with great 
offences." — 123. Si tibi rtgnwn, &c The poet purposely adopts this 
phraseology, that he may pass the more easily, by means of it, to another 
ridiculous~maxim of the Stoic school. Hence the train of reasoning is ss 
follows: Tbou sayest, that thou wilt do this if men will only entrust the 
supreme power into thy hands. But why wait foi this, when, according 
to the very tenets of thy sect, thou already hast what thou wantest ? For 
thy philosophy teaches thee that the wise man is in fact a king. The 
doctrine of the Stoics about their wise man, to which the poet here alludes, 
was strangely marked with extravagance and absurdity. For example, 
they asserted, that he feels neither pain nor pleasure ; that he exercises no 
pity j that he is free from faults : that he is Divine; that he can neither de- 
ceive nor be deceived ; that he does all things well : that he alone is great, 
noble, ingenuous ; that ho is the only friend ; that he alone is free ; that be 
is a prophet, a priest, and a king ; and the like. In order to conceive the 
true notion of the Stoics concerning their wise man, it must be clearly un- 
derstood, that they did not supsxwe such a man actually to exist, but that 

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KX*LA*ATORT VOTES — SOOK L 9ATUM IT. 44§ 

they framed in their imagination an image or perfection towards which 
every man should constantly aspire. All the extravagant things which 
are to be met with in their writings on this subject, may be referred to 
their general principle, of the entire sufficiency of virtue to happiness* 
and the consequent indifference of all external circumstances. ( Enfield* $ 
HisL PtiL sot. 1. p. 346. seqq. 

186— 138. 186. Aon notU onto* pater, &c The stoic is here supposed 
to rejoin, and to attempt an explanation of this peculiar doctrine of his 
sect.— 187. Ckryrivpue. After Zeno, the founder of the school, no phi- 
losopher more truly exhibited the character, or more strongly displayed 
the doctrines of the Stoic sect, than Chryeippus.— 187. Crepidae nee jo* 
feet. " Either sandals or slippers." — 189. Hermogmee. The same with 
the Tigellius mentioned at the beginning of this Satire. — 130. Jllfenui 
*efer. "The subtle Alfenus." Alfenus Varus, a barber of Cremona, 
growing out of conceit with his profession, quitted it, and came to Rome, 
where, attending the lectures or Servius Sulpicius, a celebrated lawyer, 
he made so great proficiency in his studies, as to become eventually the 
ablest lawyer of his time. His name often occurs in the pandects. He 
was advanced to some of the highest offices in the empire, and obtained 
the consulship, A. U. C. 755.— 138. Operit optima* onmie ojrf/ex. " The 
best artist in every kind of work." 

133—140. 133. VdluntUHbarbmn. The poet replies, and draws a 
laughable picture of the philosophic monarch, surrounded by the young 
rabble in the streets of Rome. To pluck a man by the beard, was re- 
garded as such an indignity, that it gave rise to a proverb among both 
the Greeks and Romans. To this species of insult, however, the wan- 
dering philosophers of the day were frequently exposed trora the ooys in 
the streets of Rome, the attention of the young tormentors being at- 
tracted by the very long beards which these pretenders to wisdom were 
fond of displaying. — 136. Rumperit et fafro*. " Thou burstest with race 
and snarlest at them." Wieland thinks that IcUras is here purposely 
used, in allusion to the resemblance which in some respects existed be- 
tween the Stoics and Cynics of the day. — 137. JV*e Jongum/arism. Sup- 
ply eermenem. <• Not to be tediouB.*^QuaeYof»te lawtium. " To bathe 
for a farthing," i. e. to the farthing-bath. As the public baths at Roma 
were built mostly for the common people, they afforded but very indif- 
ferent accommodations. People of fashion had always private baths of 
their own. The strolling philosophers of the day frequented^ of course, 
these public baths, and mingled with the lowest of the people. The 
price of admission was a Quadrant, or the fourth part or an a*.— 138. 
SHpaior. " Life-guardsman." A laughable allusion to the retinue of 
the stoic monarch. His royal body-guard consists of the ridiculous 
Crispinus. Compare, as respects this individual, the note on Satire 1. 
1. 180. — 140. Sivltut. Another thrust at the Stoics. Compare note on 
77. 



Satisx 4 It would appear, that during the life-time of Horace, the 
public were divided in their judgment concerning his Satires — some 
blaming them as too severe, while others thought them weak and trifling. 
Our author, in order to vindicate himself from the charge of indulging 
in too much asperity, shows, in a manner the most prepossessing, that 
he had been less harsh than many other poets, and pleads, as his excuse 
for at all practisi ig this species of composition, the education he had re» 

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444 KPLAXATOMT XOTBId— BOOK L tATBU IT. 

cetvsd from his father, who, when he wished to deter himfrom airy vies, 
showed its bad consequeaces in the example of others. 

1 — 8. 1. Eupclis. An Athenian poet of the Old Comedy. He was 
born about B. C. 446, and was nearly of the same age with Aristopha- 
nes. — Cratimu. Another Athenian poet of the Old Comedy, born B. C. 
519. — JSristophmes. Of Aristophanes antiquity supplies us with few 
notices, and those of doubtful credit The most likely account mskei 
him the son of Philippus, a native of JEgina, {Jicharn. 651-8. SchoL fit. 
Jhistopk. Jbumym. Jttketueus. 6. 227.) The comedian, therefore, wm 
an adopted, not a natural, citizen of Athens. The exact dates of fan 
birth and death are equally unknown. — 2. JStaue oJtt, quorum, &c. u And 
others, whose Comedy is of the Old school," i. e. and other writers of tba 
Old comedy. Ancient comedy was divided into the Old, the Middle, and 
the .Yew. In the first, the subject and the characters were real In the 
second, the subject was still real, but the characters were invented Is 
the third, both the story and the characters were formed by the poet 
The middle comedy arose towards the end of the Peloponnesian war, 
when a few persons had possessed themselves of the sovereignty in Athens, 
contrary to the constitution, and checked the license and freedom of the old 
comedy, by having a decree passed, that whoever was attacked by the 
comic poets might prosecute them : it was forbidden also to bring real 
persons on the stage, to imitate their features with masks, &c. The 
comic drama, after more than half a century of vacillating transition from 
its old to its subsequent form, in the age of Alexander finally settled 
down, through the ill-defined gradations of the Middle, into toe New 
comedy. The Old comedy drew its subjects from public, the New from 
private, life. The Old comedy often took its " dramatis persons," from 
the generals, the orators, the demagogues, or the philosophers of the 
day ; in the New, the characters were always fictitious. The Old com- 
edy was made up of personal satire and . the broadest mirth, exhibited 
under all the forms, and with all the accompaniments, which uncontrol- 
led fancy and frolic could conceive. The New Comedy was of s more 
temperate and regulated nature ; its satire was aimed at the abstract 
vice or defect, not at the individual offender. Its mirth was of a restrain- 
ed kind ; and, as being a faithful picture of life, its descriptions of men 
and manners were accurate portraits, not wild caricatures ; and, for the 
same reason, its gaiety was often interrupted by scenes of a grave and 
affecting character. The principal writers of the Middle Comedy were 
Kubulus, Araros, Antiphanes, Anaxandrides, Alexis and Epicrates ; of 
the New, Philippides, Timocles, Philemon, Menandor, Dipnilus, ApoV 
lodorus, and Posidippus. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d. td.p. 185. stqq.) 

3— 11. 3. Erat dignus deseribi. "Deserved to be marked oat"— 
Mains. "A knave. "—5. Famosus. " Infamous."— Multa cvm Jtserfate 
notabanL "Branded him with great freedom."— 6. Hinc omnisftndd 
Lucilius. Literally, " from this Lucilius entirely hangs," i. e. this free- 
dom of Satire was also the great characteristic of Lucilius. Lucilius 
was a Roman knight, born A. U. C. 505, at Suessa, a town in the Au- 
runcan territory. He was descended of a good family, and was grand 
uncle by the mother's side to Pompey the great. His chief character- 
istic was his vehement and cutting satire. Macrobius (SaL 3. 16.) calls 
him " Jlcer et viotentus poeta ;" — 7. Mutatis tantum pedUms numeruaac, 
&c " Having changed merely the feet and the rhythm of his verse." 
This applies to the greater part, not however to all, of his satires. The 
Greek comic writers, like the tragic, wrote in Iambic yene, (trimeter*) 

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UFULMATORY XO'rU.— 9001 1. SATIBB IT. 440 

Locum*, <m $be other hand, adopted the Hexameter versification in 
twenty books of his satires, from the commencement, while in the rest, 
with the exception of the thirtieth, he employed Iambics or Trochsics. 
—6. Emunetae naris f durus eomponere versus. " Of nice discernment, 
though harsh in the structure of his lines." — 10. Ut magnum. " As if 
it were a great feat." Compare the explanation of the scholiast: 
u Tmnquam rent magnam et laude Mgnam." — Stans pede in uno. " Stand- 
mg on one foot" This, of course, must be taken in a figurative sense, 
and is intended merely to signify " in a very short time." Horace sati- 
rizes Lucilius for his hurried copiousness and facility. — 1 1 . Q,uum flueret 
Jsitifaitus, &c M As he flowed muddily along, there was always some- 
thing that one would feel inclined to throw away," i. e, to take up and 
east aside as worthless. Horace compares the whole poetry of Lucilius 
to a muddy and troubled stream, continually bearing impurities on its 
surface that one would feel inclined to remove. 

12 — 21. 12. Seribendi laborer*. By this is meant in fact the labour of 
correction, as the poet himself immediately after adds. — 13. Seribendi 
reete, &c "I mean of writing correctly, for, as to how much he wrote, 
I do not at all concern myself about that." Lucilius was a very volumi- 
nous writer. — 13. Eeee, Crispin** minimo me provocat. Understand imm- 
mo. " See, Crispinus challenges me in the smallest sum I choose to 
name." The meaning U, that Crispinus offers to bet a large sura, so cer- 
tain is he of victory, against the smallest sum the poet feels inclined to 
stake. Hence the passage may be paraphrased as follows : "Crispinus 
offers to bet with me, a hundred to one." — 16. Custodes. "Inspectors," to 
see that they neither brought with them verses already composed, nor such 
as were the production of others. — 17. Di bene fecerwu\ &c. The idea 
intended to be conveyed is this : I will have nothing to do with thy wager, 
Crispinus. The gods be praised for having made me what I am, a man 
of moderate powers and retiring character. Do thou go on, undisturbed 
by any rivalry on my part, with thy turgid and empty versifying. — Inopis 
me auodque pusilU, &c "In having made me of a poor and humble 
mind." — 19. At lu cundusas, && The order of construction is as follows : 
At tu imitare, ut mams, auras conelusas khrcinis foUibus, laborantes usque 
dum ignis molHat ferrum.»—~2Q. Usque. " Constantly."— 21. 17* mavis. 
u Since thou dost prefer this." 

21 — 32. 21. Beatus Fannius. " A happy man is Fannius, his wri- 
tings and his bust having been carried, without any trouble on his part, 
to the public library.'* In rendering uUro, (which is commonly trans- 
ated " unasked for"), we have followed the authority of the scholiast. 
'* Fannius Quadrat tu, poeta mahis, cum Hberos non haberet, haeredipetae sine 
ejus eura et studio (ultro) tibros ejus et imaginem inpuUicas bibliothtcas re- 
ferebantf nuUo tamen merito scriptoris. n In this way, uliro may have a 
double meaning: the one mentioned by the scholiast in relation to the 
legacy-hunters, and the other slyly alluding to the absence of all men- 
tal exertion, on the part of Fannius himself, towards rendering his pro- 
ductions worthy of so high an honour. At Rome, when a poet had 
gained for himself a distinguished name among his contemporaries, his 
works and his bust were placed in the public libraries. Fannius, how- 
ever, lucky man, secures for himself a niche there, without any trouble 
on his part, either bodily or mental — 22. Capsis. Literally, "his book- 
cases." The capsae were cases or boxes for holding books or writings. 
By the use of the term on the present occasion, the poet would seem to 
aUude to the voluminous nature of the wretched productions of Fannws> 

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■OLAKAVOIY 1TOTBB.— BOOK L 8ATWLE IT. 

_„ ttntmtis. The genitive, as in apposition with the personal pre- 
noun met» which is implied in the possessive men. — 24. Genus hoc- Un- 
derstand •ertomrfi. Alluding to Satire. — 24. Qiuineis media eJire teres, 
•* Take any one at random from the midst of the crowd." — 88. nunc c§- 
pitargenfi splendor, Sec "This one the glitter of silver captivates, Albhw 
is lost in admiration of bronze." By argenti, vessels of silver are meant ; 
and by sere, vessels and statues of " bronze. — Albius. Not the poet, Al- 
bras Tibullus, as Baxter would have us believe, but some individual or 
other, remarkable merely for his passionate attachment to bronze.— W. 
JtinHt merces. " Trades.'' — Ad eum, quo vtspertina, &c An elegant cir- 
cumlocution for " the west" With eum, supply joiem. — 30. Qwm ser 
mala praecsps, &o» " Nay, like dust gathered by the whirlwind, be a 
bome headlong through the midst of dangers." — 33. Summa deperdsL 
For perdat de mmrnc 

34—43. 34. Fenum habet in eornu. "He has hay on his horn." i. e. 
he is a dangerous creature. This, according lo the satirist, is the cry 
with which the poet is greeted, whenever he snows himself to any of the 
characters that nave just been described, and they instantly clear the way 
for him by a rapid retreat The expression in the text is a figurative 
one, and is taken from the Roman custom of tying hay on the horns ot 
'such of their cattle as were mischievous, and given to pushing, in order 
to warn passengers to be on their guard. — Dummodo risum excutut itH. 
" If he can only raise a laugh for his- own amusement" — 36. Et.quod- 
cunqu* sand chartis UUverit. " And whatever he has once scribbled on 
his paper." "With Uleverit supply atramenio. — Omnes gtstict a /unto, &c. 
The idea intended to be conveyed is, that the poet will take delight in 
showing his productions to all, even to the very rabble about town.— 37. 
A furno tedeunUs lacuque. " As they return from the bake-house and 
the basin." By locus is here meant a basin, or receptacle, containing 
water, supplied from the aqueducts, for public use. — 39. Derfertm esf- 
bus esse poetis. "Whom, for my part, I allow to be poets." Pettis is 
put by a Gnscism forpoetos. The perfect of the subjunctive is here used, 
for the purpose of softening the assertion that is made, and removing 
from it every appearance of arrogant authority. So crediderim, M for 
my part I believe :" eonjirmovertm, " J am i